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CHAPTER XIII.

INTHRONIZATION OF BISHOPS.

INTHRONIZATION, in ancient times, immediately succeeded the rite of consecration; the new bishop being honourably placed in his episcopal chair by the prelates assembled for his consecration. This rite existed in the third or fourth century in the eastern church, as we find it prescribed in the Apostolical Constitutions". It was customary for bishops to preach sermons at their inthronization, and Bingham has cited several instances of this practice in the fourth and fifth centuries". Symeon of Thessalonica states, that the rite of inthronization was formerly celebrated with great solemnity by all the comprovincial bishops *. In France it was customary, in the seventh century, and probably in the sixth “. It is also comprised in the Pontifical of Egbert, Archbishop of York, 1000 years old ".

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For many ages inthronization was performed by bishops only, who assembled according to the ancient canons, to take part in the elections and consecrations of bishops; but in later ages, when it had become customary for bishops to be ordained, not in their own churches, but in the church of the metropolitan, the rite of inthronization was deputed, sometimes to particular bishops', and sometimes to the archdeacons of metropolitan sees. Thus, in France, the archdeacon of Rheims appears to have inthroned the bishops of that province *; and, in the province of Canterbury, the archdeacon of that see has, for several ages, possessed the right of inthroning all the provincial bishops. A mandate for installing a bishop by archbishop Reynolds, A. D. 1325, recognizes this as an ancient privilege enjoyed by the archdeacon of Canterbury".

With reference to the rites used at inthronization, they appear to have consisted most anciently in placing the bishop in his throne, and saluting him with a kiss of peace. In after-ages prayer was added, as in the Pontifical of Egbert. In later times Te Deum was sung, of which we have instances in the ordination of Gerald, Bishop of Limoges, in the eleventh century', and in other cases about the same time". In Pontificals of

* Gerald, bishop of Limoges in the eleventh century, was inthroned by two of the comprovincial bishops. Wide Chronicon Ademari Monachi S. Eparchii, apud Labbe, Bibliotheca MSS. Librorum, t. ii. p. 176. In the Roman Pontifical the bishop is inthroned by the consecrator and prin

cipal assistant bishop.
8 Martene, de Antiq. Eccl.
Rit. lib. i. c. viii. art. x. § 19.
* Gibson, Codex, Appendix,
sect. i. art. xii.
i Chronicon Ademari Mo-
machi, ut suprā.
* Wide Pontificale Romanum
cum notis Catalani, tom. i. p.
221.

about the fourteenth century we find an anthem, versicles, and a collect, which also occur in the Roman Pontifical'.

The forms of inthroning bishops vary in the different dioceses of England, according to the particular statutes of each cathedral church. In those which I have seen, the hymn Te Deum is prescribed to be sung, and it is followed by versicles and collects proper to the occasion. In Canterbury, the office is included in the ordinary daily service of the Church. At Salisbury it constitutes a distinct office.

| Catalani, Pontificale Romanum, p. 222.

CHAPTER XIV.

INSTALLATION OF DEANS.

THE title of Dean is derived from the monastic institute. According to the rule of St. Benedict, (cap. xxi.) Decani were elected in the larger monasteries, and each was intrusted with authority over ten of the brethren. In the ninth and tenth centuries, when chapters of canons were founded, they also adopted the institution of Deans, in imitation of the monasteries; and the office of Praepositus, which was originally the highest dignity in chapters, was gradually replaced by that of Dean, the number in each chapter being at length reduced to one". This seems to have occurred about the thirteenth century, from which time we have records of Deans of cathedral churches in England". The installation of Deans is performed with different rites according to the statutes of each cathedral. The form of installing a Dean at St. Paul's, London, is to be found at the end of Dugdale's history of that Cathedral". In this office, as well as in others which I have seen in MS., Te Deum is

* Van Espen, Jus Canoni- b Wide Le Neve, Fasti Ancum Universum, pars i. tit.xvi. glicani, &c. cap. ii.; Thomassinus, de We- * Dugdale's History of St. teri et Nova Ecclesiae Disci- Paul's, edited by Ellis, p. 343. plina, pars i, l. iii. c. 66.70.

chanted at the installation of the Dean, and special prayers are added. Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, in his Constitutions, also ordered Te Deum to be sung at the election of abbots "; and, probably, the rite was derived from hence to the installation of Deans. The form of installing a Dean of the collegiate church of St. Peter, Westminster, is as follows: An oath prescribed by the statutes is administered to the Dean in the choir of the church ; after which the Subdean places him in the principal stall of the choir, saying: Cape hanc primam sedem, ut Dei gloriam tuâ authoritate et exemplo illustres ; et corpus Christi in hâc ecclesiâ ædificandum

diligenter cures : quod ut efficaciter præstes, Spiritus Sancti gratiam tibi largiatur Dominus. Amen.

The Dean is then placed in the first seat in the Chapter-house, the Subdean saying:

Cape hanc item primam sedem in Domo Capitulari, ut fideliter tractes negotia hujus ecclesiæ collegiatæ cum fratribus tuis præbendariis, ad Dei gloriam et totius collegii omniumque ejus partium salutarem conservationem ; quod ut efficaciter præstes, Spiritus Sancti gratiam tibi semper largiatur Dominus. Amen.

They return into the choir, and * Te Deum * is sung, after which these prayers follow in English: Domine, salvum fac humc servum tuum N. Decanum nostrum.

O Deus noster, da ut semper speret in te.
IEsto ei turris fortitudinis,

d Wilkins, Concilia Magnæ Britanniæ, &c. tom. i. p. 346. It may be remarked, that the rites of electing and installing a Dean at St. Paul's, according to the statutes, as cited in Dugdale, p. 343, bear a consider

able resemblance to those at the election of the abbot of St. Alban's, A.D. 1235. See Spelman, Concilia,tom. ii., cited by Martene, De Antiquis Monachorum Ritibus, p. 655.

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