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offenders were punished'; and canons, constitutions, statutes, or injunctions, were published by authority of the Synod, or of the bishop alone.

The modern forms of Visitation in the AngloCatholic Churches seem to be derived both from those of the ancient Visitation and of the Diocesan Synod. The diocesan clergy and churchwardens are cited ; and after divine service and a sermon', the names of the clergy and churchwardens of each parish are called over, and excuses received for those who are absent for some reasonable cause. Articles of Enquiry having been previously sent to the clergy and answered, the bishop administers such injunctions and corrections as he may judge necessary. Presentments of notorious offenders are to be received according to the canons"; and the bishop delivers an admonition or charge to the clergy; and may publish injunctions or constitutions', enforcing the observance of the canons and other laws of the church.

from ancient MSS. a copy of
this Admonition or Charge,
which appears to be as old as
the eighth century. Wide Re-
ginonis Prum. de Eccl. Disci-
plina, à Baluzio, p. 534. 602.
This admonition was sometimes
read by a deacon, though evi-
dently intended to be delivered
by the bishop. It doubtless
represents the general substance
of episcopal charges long be-
fore the eighth century.
* Van Espen, Jus Eccl.
Univ. pars i. tit. xviii. cap.
2. 4.
* The sermon probably is
derived from the similar cus-

tom at the assembling of Con-
vocation. See the preceding
chapter.
* This was, in the intention
of the church, to be followed
by censure of offenders.
! We find many instances
of injunctions published by
bishops in their visitations,
Wilkins, Concilia, tom. iv. p.
143. 269. 275. 436. 517, &c.;
and constitutions made in a
Diocesan Synod by Thomas,
bishop of St. Asaph, A.D. 1561,
Wilkins, tom. iv. p. 228; W.
Bedel, bishop of Kilmore, A.D.
1638, p. 537; William, bishop
of St. Asaph, A.D. 1683, p. 608.

CHAPTER XVII.

BENEDICTION AND CORONATION OF KINGS.

IT is not quite certain when the inauguration of Christian sovereigns first became associated with religious offices. The custom, however, may be traced back to the fifth century, when the emperor Leo was crowned by Anatolius, patriarch of Constantinople (A. D. 457)". It is said that his predecessor Marcian had also been crowned by Anatolius": it is certain, however, that his successors, especially from the accession of the emperor Justin, A. D. 565, were anointed and crowned by the patriarchs of Constantinople". From the eastern this rite passed to the western Church, where we read of the Spanish kings being crowned in the sixth and seventh centuries". In England it was introduced during the time of the Saxon Heptarchy. Egferth, king of

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forms used at the coronation of the sovereigns of England in those ages before the union of the seven English crowns under Egbert'. In France the rite appears to have been first practised in the time of Pepin, who was crowned by Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, and afterwards by pope Stephen *. The western emperors from the time of Charlemagne, A. D. 800, were always crowned by the popes at Rome; and all the sovereigns of Europe were in after-ages inaugurated with rites and ceremonies, which were substantially the same in all countries. The ceremonies of coronation in the Eastern empire were as follows. The emperor, having previously given a written confession of faith, and a promise to reign justly, was elevated on a shield amidst the acclamations of the people; after which he was conducted to the church of St. Sophia, where the Liturgy was celebrated. Immediately before the hymn “Trisagios,” which occurs early in the office, the patriarch and bishops ascended the ambon and offered prayers for the emperor; after which he was anointed in the form of a cross by the patriarch, who said with a loud voice, àytoc, Holy, which was thrice repeated by the clergy, and afterwards by the people. Then the patriarch and clergy brought the crown from the sanctuary, and placed it on the emperor's head, saying, ačioc, WoRTHY, which was also repeated by the clergy and people. The patriarch then repeated prayers of benediction; and the empress was afterwards crowned by the emperor, the

* See the form extracted from old, and published by Martene, a Pontifical of Egbert, arch- tom. iii. p. 185. bishop of York, 1000 years * Martene, p. 183.

patriarch reciting prayers. After this the liturgy proceeded, during which the emperor took part in several of the ceremonies, in his imperial robes". The coronation of the emperors of the West was rather a short form. The unction was performed by the bishop of Ostia in the Basilica of St. Peter, after which the Roman patriarch placed the crown on the emperor's head'. The ceremonial of the coronation of kings comprised in the ancient Ordo Romanus, from which the rites of coronation in France", England', and other parts of the West were derived, was very long; and received an accession of various rites in the middle ages. It has remained substantially the same for nearly a thousand years past in England. I proceed to compare the existing rites and forms with the originals from whence they are derived, taking as the basis of the latter the text of the Liber Regalis, which is preserved at Westminster Abbey, and is the chief authority of the Church for the coronation rites. This MS., which is of the date of Richard II., will also be compared with more ancient monuments of the English rites, and with

h Wide Haberti Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Graecae, p.

tom. iii. p. 192. The later ceremonial of the French coro

604, &c.; Martene, p. 152,
153.
i The form is comprised in
the ancient Ordo Romanus,
published by Hittorp. De Eccl.
Cath. Officiis, p. 153.
* The form of coronation of
the kings of France has been
printed by Selden in his Titles
of Honour; and by Martene,
De Antiquis Ecclesiae Ritibus,

nations, also preserved by Mar-
tene, is almost exactly the
same as the English.
! See the form in the Pon-
tifical of Egbert, archbishop of
York, Martene, tom. iii.; and
the Ordo Coronationis AEthel-
redi II. Regis, A.D. 978, ex
MS. Cotton. Claud. A. iii. in
Dr. Silver's “Coronation Ser-
vice,” &c. p. 1.

the Ordo Romanus. The office for the coronation of the kings of France, as exhibited in a MS. of the British Museum (of the fourteenth century), was nearly identical with our own. The office of coronation of the English kings in the Liber Regalis commences with the order of the procession from the palace to the Abbey of St. Peter's, Westminster. On this part of the office it seems needless to dwell, as it has been discontinued for some time; and is not so ancient as the remainder. The form as prescribed in the Liber Regalis was observed in all the coronations previous

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* The ceremonial of the coromation in this and the following pages, is taken from the “Form and Order of the Service, &c. in the Coronation of King William IV. and Queen Adelaide in 1831.” London,

1837. I have selected this, as being the most recent coronation of both king and queen. Some portions of the office having been omitted in the recent coronations, I have supplied them from the coronation of George III., which is preserved in “The Coronation Service, or Consecration of the Anglo-Saxon kings,” by the Rev. Dr. Silver. Oxford, 1831.

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