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ever and ever, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen P.” Proper preface. ... “Everlasting God: who hast at this time given us thy servant our Sovereign king N. to be the defender of thy faith and the Protector of thy people, and together with him hast raised up our gracious Queen N. to be a great example and encourager of true religion and piety among us".” The Archbishop shall administer the bread, and the dean of Westminster the cup, to the king and queen".

An anthem is sung by the choir.

“O hearken unto the voice of my calling, my King and my God! My voice shalt thou hear in the morning, O Lord; in the morning will I direct my prayer unto Thee. For thou Lord wilt bless the righteous; with thy favour wilt thou compass him as with a shield ".”

Praefatio.

“AEterne Deus, qui es fons immarcessibilis lucis . . . cujus ineffabilem clementiam votis omnibus exoramus ut famulum tuum N. quem Regalis dignitatis fastigio voluistisublimari, sapientiae caeterarumque virtutum ornamentis facias decorarit.”

Perceptis tam a rege quam à regina corpore et sanguine Christi, ad dicta solia redibunt immediate. Quibus in sedibus suis residentibus incipiatur à Cantoribus communio:

“Intellige clamorem meum. Intende voci orationis meae, Rex meus et Deus meus, quoniam ad te orabo, Domine".”

The concluding ceremonies in St. Edward's chapel, and on leaving the church, are described in the Liber Regalis, and are observed in most parts

to the present day.

P Coron. Geo. III. q Coron. Will. IV. * Coron. Will. IV. * Coron. Geo. III.

* Liber Regalis, p. 58, al. 48; Coron. AEthelredi, p. 14.

" Liber Regalis, p. 60, al. 50.

CHAPTER XVIII.

ELECTION AND INSTALLATION OF KNIGHTS OF THE GARTER.

THE election and installation of “Companions” or “ Fellows” (as they are called in the statutes of Henry VIII.) of the military Order of the Garter, being accompanied by religious rites and ceremonies of some antiquity, may, without impropriety, be considered in this place. The military orders of knighthood derive their origin indirectly from the monastic orders. In the twelfth and thirteenth century several monastic orders, of a description previously unknown to the Church, were instituted. These orders, the principal of which were the Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, the Templars, the Teutonic knights, the knights of Calatrava and Alcantara in Spain, were at once military and monastic. Their members took the monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience ; adopted, to a certain extent, the monastic rules of Benedict or Augustine, and were bound to make war on the infidels". In general,

* See Ashmole's Institution, of the Garter, chap. ii.; Heliot, &c., of the Most Noble Order Histoire des Ordres Religieuses.

each of these orders was governed by its master or superior. Its members wore a peculiar monastic habit, on which the figure of the cross was usually placed ; and it comprised clergy who celebrated offices in its churches, and inferior brethren". In imitation of the regular military orders, several of which became illustrious for their valour, and for the nobility of their members, the sovereigns of Europe instituted secular military orders or confraternities, the members of which were not bound by monastic rules, but by peculiar statutes, including however various religious observances; and they also were distinguished by a certain “habit,” which seems to have been derived from that of the religious orders of knighthood ‘. The Order of the Garter, or of St. George, was founded about the middle of the fourteenth century by king Edward III., who constituted himself its “superior” or sovereign, and enacted a body of statutes for its future government". The order

* The orders of Hospitallers and Templars included knights, clergy, and serving brethren. Fleury, Hist. Eccl. l. lxx. § 12; Heliot, Hist, des Ordres, tom. iii, ch. xiii.; Maillard de Chambure, Règle et Statuts secrets des Templiers, Paris, 1840. It may be remarked, that several customs of the Inns of court appear to have been derived from the orders of St. John and of the Temple, whom they succeeded in the possession of “the Temple” in London. Thus the houses where the knights of the order of St. John ordinarily

held their meetings were termed
“Auberges” inns, the origin
probably of our “inns of court.”
Heliot, Hist. des Ordres, t. iii.
p. 98. The term “serjeant”
is derived from the “fratres
servientes,” or “fréres ser-
jans” of the Temple, and of
the order of St. John. See
Heliot, iii. c. xiii. Maillard de
Chambure, ubi supra.
* Ashmole, Order of the
Garter, chap. iii.
" The Appendix to Ash-
mole's History contains the
statutes of the order. Mills,
in his History of Chivalry, vol.
i. p. 361, remarks the religious

included, besides the “superior,” twenty-six knights (who were called “Socii,” Companions or Fellows); the same number of canons and clergy, who celebrated divine offices and rites for the order in its chapel of St. George in Windsor Castle; and an equal number of veteran and superannuated knights, who were supported by the royal bounty, and were bound to attend continually on divine offices. All the members of the order, both laity and clergy, were enjoined by its statutes to wear a peculiar “habit,” i. e. a mantle which bore for distinction a red cross on a white shield. The mantles of the Companions were of blue cloth; those of the canons and veteran knights, of purple and red respectively". The habit of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem was a black mantle with a white cross. The Templars, who received their rule from the celebrated Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, adopted, probably in imitation of the Cistercian order, white garments, their mantles bearing a red cross; while the Teutonic knights wore a black cross on their white mantle'. The form of election and investiture of knights of the Garter includes various ceremonies peculiar to the order, which may be seen in the work of Ashmole. But there are certain portions of the rite which may be compared with those of the orders of St. John and of the Temple. The ceremonial of knighting does not properly

character of the order of the * Heliot, t. iii. p. 114; AshGarter, according to its insti- mole, c. iii.; Dugdale's Motution, and its points of resem- nasticon Anglicanum, by Caley, blance to the religious orders Ellis, and Bandinel, t. vi. p. of knighthood. 786. 814; Natalis Alexander,

* Statuta Ord. apud Ash- Hist. Eccl. t. vi. p. 533. mole, n. 1–7.

form any part of the rites of the Order of the Garter, inasmuch as the Fellows of the order must, by its statutes, be already knights previously to their election *. This rank in chivalry was, during the middle ages, generally conferred with religious rites; and it appears from the old Pontificals and the Ordo Romanus, that such rites may be traced to the ninth or tenth century". The form of admission to the Order of the Garter begins with the election of the knight in a chapter of the order; and we shall here compare the rites with those of the order of

St. John, and of the Temple.

ORDER oF ST. GEoRGE.

Si quis decesserit de præfata comitiva, Superior, seu ejus deputatus . . . cunctis sociis . . facti veritatem significare tenetur. . . . Qui quidem omnes et singuli sic uniti . . novem militaris ordinis personas nominabunt. . . . Ac denominationis prædictæ et vota per omnes . . ostendere tenetur (prælatus) Superiori ordinis, qui ipsum eligere debet militem seu denunciare pro electo, quem pluribus viderit eligentium vocibusabundare, &c.'

ORDER oF ST. JoHN of
JERUSALEM.
Cum aliquis Hospitalitatis ef-

fici voluit, ipse venire debet
dominico ante capitulum, et
requirere a Magistro, aut ab
alio qui tenebit capitulum, so-
cietatem domus. Postea vero
Magister, aut ille qui tenebit
capitulum, quærere debet a
fratribus si recipietur ille. Et si
major pars in concordia fuerit,
recipiatur *.

The same form appears in the Rule of the Knights Templars'.

8 Statuta, art. ii. xviii.

h Vide Pontificale Romanum, commentariis illustratum a Josepho Catalano, t. i. p. 418, &c. (De Benedictione Novi Militis.) Hittorp. De Divinis Eccl. Cath. Officiis, p. 178.

i Statuta, art. xviii.

* Modus recipiendi fratres ad Ordinem, apud Dugdale, Mon. Angl. t. vi. p. 795.

' Règle des Templiers per Maillard de Chambure, p. 488.

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