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The election was followed in the religious orders of knighthood by the ceremonial of taking the three monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, in presence of the chapter; which were preceded by various exhortations and questions addressed to the postulant by the Superior, with a view to ascertain his fitness for the order. In the Order of the Garter, being a purely military order, this part of the ceremonial was not applicable. The elect knight, however, in a chapter of the order receives investiture with the Garter and George; and afterwards, previously to the reception of the mantle, makes an oath to observe the statutes of the order". The Templars also made an oath, after their election, and previously to their investiture with the habit of the order, to observe its laws".


You being chosen to be one of this most noble Order of the Garter, shall promise and swear by the holy evangelists, by you here touched, that wittingly or willingly you shall not break any statute of the said order, or any article in them contained; the same being agreeable and not repugnant to the laws of Almighty God, and the laws of this realm, as far forth as to you belongeth and appertaineth. So God help you, and his holy word 9.


Encore prometes vos a Dieu et a madame Sainte Marie, que vos tous les jors mes de votre vie les bons us et les bones costumes denotre maison, celes qui i sont, et celes que li maistreet li proudomes (prudhommes) de la maison imetront tendrez 2 Et il doit dire: Oil se Dieu plaist sire.

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This oath, which is administered in the Church, is immediately succeeded by investiture with the habit or mantle of the order, with an exhortation, as was also the custom in the Orders of St. John and

the Temple.


Whilst the ceremony of investiture with the mantle is performing, the words of admonition proper thereunto are pronounced, and are these that follow : “Take this mantle of heavenly colour, in sign and token of the most honourable order you have received, and to the increase of your honour, signed and marked as you see with a red scutcheon of our Lord's cross, to the intent that you being always defended by the virtue and strength thereof, may pass through your enemies, and them also overcome and vanquish, so that at the last, for your worthy and approved acts, you may after this temporal chivalry come to eternal triumphs and joys in heaven P.”

ORDER of ST. John of

Venire debet coram illo qui eum debet facere fratrem ; et ille debet ipsum librum ab eo recipere, et sibidare mantellum, et pariter ei dicere : “Ecce signum crucis, quod vos portabitis in hoc mantello, in commemorationem illius, qui pro salvatione nostra subiit in patibulo crucis mortem, ut Deus propter crucem et propter obedientiam, quam vos fecistis, vos protegat et defendat nunc et semper a diabolica potestate. Amen q.”

This part of the ceremonial was succeeded by long

exhortations and instructions in the Orders of St. John and the Temple, in reference to the duties of the brethren'; instead of which the book of statutes is delivered to the knights of the Garter"; and the rite concludes with their installation.

P Ashmole, p. 357. * Dugdale, Monast. Angl. t. vi. p. 796.

* Régle des Templiers, p. 494; Heliot, t. iii. p. 112. * Ashmole, p. 359.



As the Anglo-Catholic Church declares that “it is lawful for Christian men, at the commandment of the magistrate, to wear weapons and serve in the wars,” (Art. xxxvii.) and as she prays for the “victory” of the temporal sovereign “over all his enemies,” it is fitting that the sanction of religion should be given in a more especial manner to the military profession, by the benediction and consecration of the ensigns under which armies and their component divisions are marshalled. Hence it has been long customary in England, to consecrate standards and colours previously to their presentation to their respective regiments. This custom may be traced to a considerable antiquity in the western Church (we find no trace of it in the Oriental rituals). A standard was sent by pope Leo III. to the emperor Charlemagne A. D. 796. The Oriflamme or banner of the abbey of St. Denis was taken by the kings of France, on occasions of great emergency, from the altar of that abbey, and on such occasions it was always consecrated and blessed. Louis VI. received the Oriflamme A. D.

1119 and 1125, and a writer of that period speaks of this as an ancient custom of the French kings. In the Ordo Romanus, taken from manuscripts of about the tenth century, we find the form of consecrating the banner of a knight, and the same form is comprised in a manuscript Pontifical of Durandus, written about the thirteenth century, and in the Roman Pontifical of later times. The consecration of a knight's pennon or gonfanon was indeed an essential feature in the solemn religious ceremonial by which he was elevated to the rank of knighthood in those ages. The consecration of standards for an army or a regiment is merely a different form of the same general idea. The office for the “consecration of regimental standards and colours “” commences with the Lord's Prayer, after which two collects are repeated, which I shall compare with the form of consecrating a knight's banner in the ancient Ordo Romanus.

Almighty and most merciful Father, our shield and buckler, our protector and preserver, the strength of all that put their trust in thee; with profound reverence and humility, and under a deep sense of our unworthiness, but in an entire dependence upon thy compassion and loving kindness, we prostrate ourselves at thy footstool. Justice and judg

* For a correct copy of this office, as at present used, I am indebted to the kindness of the

Inprimis benedicat episcopus
vecillum ejus hoc modo. Ore-
Omnipotens sempiterne De-
us, qui es cunctorum benedic-
tio et triumphantium fortitudo,
respice propitius ad preces hu-
militatis nostrae, et hoc vexil-
lum, quod bellico usui est prae-

Chaplain-general of her Majesty's forces.

ment are the habitation of thy seat, and mercy and truth go before thy face. We approach thee, O Father, and pray unto thee for the light of thy countenance upon us; and we beseech thee to incline thine earunto our petition, and to hearken to the voice of our humble supplications. We implore thy blessing upon the standard to be presented this day by — to —, and with all lowliness of mind and humility of spirit we now consecrate it in thy holy name, to the cause of peace and happiness, truth and justice, religion and piety. We pray that it may be always borne by this regiment as a token and pledge of their duty, fidelity, and honour ; of their loyalty and zeal, their fortitude and valour in the service of our most gracious queen ; and in the maintenance of our holy religion, our constitution and laws; and we beseech thee, O Father, that it may be as the ensign and banner of their Christian profession; and that they may put their hope, and trust, and confidence in thee the Lord of hosts, without whose aid vain is the help of Finally, we pray that thy servants now before thee, and that all the forces of our queen, throughout her dominions, for whom we are also


paratum, coelesti benedictione sanctifica ; ut contra adversarios et rebelles nationes sit validum, tuoque numine circumseptum, sitdue inimicis Christiani populi terribile, atque in te confidentibus solidamentum et certa fiducia victoriae. Tu es namque Deus qui conteris bella, et coelestis praesidii sperantibus in te praestas auxilium, per unicum Filium tuum Dominum nostrum, qui tecum vivit et regnat. Post benedicat lanceam. Domine Deus omnipotens, lux et vita fabricae mundi, qui per manus Tubalcain ad usus hominum fabrilia opera instituisti, respice propitius nostri deprecationem officii ad benedicendam hanc lanceam militaris instrumenti, qui a milite latus Filii tui Domini nostri Jesu Christi, pro nostra salute in cruce pendentis, permisisti lancea perforari; et per nomen ejusdem Filii tui eam sic consecrare et benedicere digneris, ut is qui eam tulerit, des ei prosperum signum tua defensionis, sicut dedisti Gedeoni, Sauli, David quoque regi; ut tuis semper fultus auxiliis, congaudeat et lactetur in te in omnibus prosperitatibus suis. Per eundem Dominum. Deinde alligetur verillum lanceae, et tenente eum milite aspergat eam episcopus aqua

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