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dismissal of the catechumens and hearers, and before, the solemn prayers or canon. In the year 589, the churches of Spain appointed it to be said with a loud voice before communion, that the true faith might receive the testimony of acceptance from the communicants”. In after-times the Constantinopolitan creed was received into the liturgy of the French, Irish, English, and Roman churches. The Roman church was probably the last which adopted the use of this creed in the liturgy. Berno says, that the creed only began to be sung at Rome about the year 1012”; but Martene shows with some degree of probability that it had been read for some time before". It has been observed of the eastern, and it is equally true of the western churches, that the creed was not recited while the catechumens or infidels were present. After their dismissal, the creed was recited as a further test of the orthodoxy of those that remained and professed to be faithful. In the course of ages, however, the ancient exclusion of catechumens and infidels became obsolete, because the Christian religion was universally prevalent. Thus it was in England, as in most other countries. The distinction between the missa catechumenorum, or that part of the liturgy which catechumens might attend : and the missa fidelium, or that part when the faithful or Christians only were present, gra

reoc atops30Åov, ka0 tráarmy Sanguinem praelibandum pecatvačiv Āéyeobal trapeakewagev, tora populorum fide purificata Theodor. Lect. ibid. p. 563. accedant.” * Concil. 3 Tolet. anno 589. y Berno Abbas de Reb. ad eanon 2. “Quo et fides vera Missam pertinentibus, c. 2. manifestum testimonium ha- * Martene de Ant. Eccl. Rit. beat, et ad Christi Corpus et lib. i. c. 4, art. 5, p. 376, 377.

dually became extinct. Hence we find that in the middle ages the sermon, or instruction to the people, was sometimes delivered after the creed and offertory “; thus excluding the creed from that part of the office which was originally intended for the faithful only. This custom of the church of England is still visible in our liturgy, where the sermon follows the creed, instead of preceding it, according to the primitive rule. In the next section some proofs and further remarks will be offered on this subject. How long the Constantinopolitan creed has been used by the English church on this occasion it would be hard to determine, but we find it in the ancient liturgies of the churches of Salisbury, York, and Hereford", in the same position which it still occupies in ours. The creed was not said on week days when there was no feast or other solemn occasion *. The same rule also was adopted in the Roman church, where it has continued to the present day.

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* Durantus says that the sermon followed the creed in his time, that is, in the sixteenth century. “Post symboli pronunciationem sequitur praedicatio.” De Rit. Eccl. Ca

tholicae, lib. ii. c. 25.
* Miss. Sarisb. fol. 11. 73.

Miss. Ebor. Ordo Missae infra

Fest. Pentecost. Miss. Here

fordens. Dom. 1. Adventus. c Ibid.

of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made: Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man, And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried, And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, And ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead: Whose kingdom shall have no end. And I believe in the holy Ghost, The Lord and Giver of life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets. And I believe one Catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins, And I

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* Labbe Concilia, tom. ii. col. 951. 954. Bull, Defensio Fidei Nicaenae, vol. v. p. 14, of his works, edited by the Rev. Edward Burton. Bingham, Antiquities, book x. ch. 6, § 14, &c. Our text of the Constantinopolitan creed is the same as that which has long been received by the western churches, and is translated from the ancient English litur

gies. “Credo in unum Deum Patrem omnipotentem, factorem coeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum filium Dei unigenitum, et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula, Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero, genitum non factum, consubstantialem Patri, per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui

look for the Resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

SECTION VII.

THE SERMON OR INSTRUCTION.

From the earliest ages of the Christian church, the exhortations and instructions of God's ministers have followed the lessons of holy scripture. During the apostolic age, when the Spirit was poured out abundantly upon all flesh, those who were inspired with the gifts of interpretation and prophecy, as well as they who ruled the church, taught and expounded the will of God at this part of the liturgy. When miraculous gifts ceased, they that bare rule in the church by divine commission continued the same practice. The bishops, or successors of the apostles, taught and exhorted their people in every public assembly or liturgy". By their permission the presbyters of the church also preached in churches where the bishop was not

propter nos homines et propter cutus est per Prophetas. Et

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present; but in the event of his presence, the presbyter generally made some respectful allusion to the subject, and the bishop himself preached afterwards". It was not indeed unfrequent in the primitive church for several presbyters and bishops to deliver their exhortation in succession; and in this case, the greatest of the bishops, or the bishop of the church, generally terminated the instruction". According to Sozomen, there were no sermons or exhortations delivered in the Roman church in the fifth century, which he remarks as a singular custom of that church". Leo, bishop of Rome in the fifth century, appears to have been the only bishop who preached in the Roman church for many centuries; and it is said, that none of his successors, until the time of Pius the Fifth, five hundred years afterwards, imitated his example". The instructions of the preacher may be divided into four parts, according to the ancient practice of the church of England: first, the announcement of feasts or holydays, and of the administration of the communion; secondly, the publication of excommunications and other ecclesiastical acts; thirdly, the prayer preparatory to the sermon; and, fourthly, the sermon or homily. First, the church has long been accustomed to proclaim the feast or holydays for the ensuing week, and give notice of feasts, at this part of the liturgy.

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