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must be introduced, and both are to be expressed and treated according to their nature and dignity.

The sublime style has the property of expressing lofty 'ideas in a lofty language; that is to say, with words that are sonorous and majestic, and suitable to the grandeur of the subject.

He on the wings of cherub rode sublime
On the crystalline sky, in fapphire thron'd,
Illustrious far and wide.
Before him pow'r divine his way prepar'd;
At his command th’uprooted hills retir'd,
Each to his place; they heard his voice, and went
Obsequious ; heav'n his wonted face renew'd,
And with fresh flowrets hill and valley smild.

-Up he rode,
Follow'd with acclamation and the sound
Symphonious of ten thousand harps that tun'd
Angelic harmonies : the earth, the air
Resounding ; (thou remember'it, for thou heard'st)
The heav'ns and all the constellations rung,

The planets in their station lif’ning food,
While the bright pomp ascended jubilant.
Open ye everlasting gates, they sung,
Open, ye heav'ns, your living doors, let in

Creator from his work return'd
Magnificent, his fix days work, a world.

MILTON. This description of the Messiah is to be admired for the sublimity of the thoughts, as well as for that of the style ; as indeed is the following description of a tempest by Mr. Thomson.

"Tis dumb amaze, and lift’ning terror all ;
When to the quicker eye the livid glance
Appears far fouth, emissive thro' the cloud ;
And by the powerful breath of God inflate,
The thunder raises his tremendous voice :
At first low muttering ; but at each approach,
The lightnings falh a larger curve, and more
The noise astounds : till over head a sheet
Of various flame discloses wide, then shuts

And opens wider, shuts and opens ftill
Expansive, wrapping Æther in a blaze.
Follows the loosen'd aggravated roar,
Enlarging, deep’ning, mingling peal on peal

Crush'd horrible, convulling heav'n and earth.
More examples may be seen under the article of Sublime

The sublime style is ever bold and figurative, and abounds more especially with metaphors and hyperboles, the free use of which requires great care and judgment; fince without it there is danger of running into bombast, that is generally made up of empty sounding words, or unnatural sentences ; absurd methaphors, or extravagant and rash hyperboles.

This caution is necessary, and should be ever in the poet's mind; yet, where the thought is great and noble, a bold and judicious incorre&tness, as Longinus has observed, may be dispensed with, and will often seem rather a beauty than a blemish. The sublime poet, fired with his subject, and borne away on the wings of fancy, disdains accuracy, and looks down with contempt on little rules---Laws are, as it were, insufficient to restrain his boundless mind, which, having expatiated and ransacked the whole universe, soars into other worlds, and is only loft in infinity.

Great wits sometimes may gloriously offend,
And rise to faults true critics dare not mend;
From vulgar bounds with brave disorder part,
And snatch a grace beyond the rules of art ;
Which, without palling thro' the judgment, gains

The heart, and all its end at once attains. Pope. We are to observe likewise, that though the sublime style is bold and figurative, fublime thoughts may fometimes require only a plain and fimple style, and may even by such contrast appear the more obvious and extraordinary. Many passages of this kind we have in the facrcd writings; and one which is particularly applauded as a true instance of sublimity by the great Longinus. And God said, Let there be light, and ibere was light. This, as that great critic observes, expresses the power of the Almighty more forcibly and fully than could have been done with a parade of pompous expressions.


And God said, -What?- Let there be light, and there was light." Such is the amazing power of the great Creator, that (as the Psalmist in the same plain yet sublime manner observes) He spake, and it was done ; he commanded, and it food

fast. Thus we see that sublime thoughts may sometimes appear to advantage in a common style. But the reverse: will by no means hold; for words can have neither beauty nor sublimity, unless the thoughts have both. The fublime style therefore will no more suit common thoughts, than an embroider'd coat would a clown ; for here ornaments are unnatural, nor indeed are mean and trivial thoughts ever thus dressed by good authors, unless it be in works of the burlesque and doggrel kind, to heighten the ridicule.

Sublime and beautiful thoughts, however, require in ge. neral words of the same nature, and would often seem mean and contemptible without them. For ornaments properly placed add a beauty to the most beautiful : And kings, however nature may have formed them for majefty, appear to most advantage when arrayed with the imperial robes.

This style is mostly employed in the epic poem, tragedy, and the ode. Though, as we have already observed, the elegy, satire, pastoral, and other poems, may partake of it occasionally. For no particular rule can be laid down for its use, but a strict observance of nature.

In direct opposition to this is the plain or humble style, the elegance of which depends on the propriety of its application ; and it is properly applied in describing in a familiar and easy manner the common concerns of life.

Whence is it, Sir, that none contented lives
With the fair lot, which prudent reason gives,
Or chance presents, yet all with envy view
The schemes that others variously pursue ?

Broken with toils, with pond'rous arms opprest,
The soldier thinks the merchant solely blest.
In opposite extreme, when tempefts rise,
War is a better choice, the merchant cries
The battle joins, and in a moment's fight,
Death, or a joyful conquest, ends the fight,

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When early clients thunder at the gate,
The barrister applauds the ruftic's fate.
While, by subpenas dragg'd from home, the clown
Thinks the supremely happy dwell in town.

Francis's HORACE, This ftyle, though intended to express common things in a common manner, may sometimes be more courtly, and admit of compliment.

If virtue's felf were lost, we might
From your fair mind new copies write ;
All things, but one, you can restore ;
The heart you get returns no more.

WALLER, This style agrees with comedy, fatires, pastorals and epifles, and occasionally fills up the narration and under parts of other poems.

But the young student is here to be cautioned against descending too low; elegance is to be preserved in every part of composition, and where propriety of character does not demand vulgar expressions, they are always to be avoided.

Between these, as a partition which serves to separate and yet at the same time unite the other two, is the mediate or middle style; which is suitable to every species of poetry, as it admits of ornament fufficient to diftinguish it from the plain and humble, and yet is not animated enough to approach the fublime. Take an example from Otway.

Wifh'd morning's come ! and now upon the plains
And distant mountains, where they feed their flocks,
The happy shepherds leave their homely huts,
And with their pipes proclaim the new-born day.
The lusty swain comes with his well-fill'd scrip
Of healthful viands, which, when hunger calls,
With much content and appetite he eats,
To follow in the fields his daily toil,
And dress the grateful glebe that yields him fruits.
The beasts that under the warm hedges Nept,
And weather'd out the cold bleak night, are up,
And, looking tow'rds the neighb'ring pastures, raise
Their voice, and bid their fellow brutes good-morrow.

The chearful birds too, on the tops of trees,
Assemble all in choirs, and with their notes
Salute, and welcome up the rising fun.

There is also a species of style called the sarcastical or invective, which is peculiar to the fatire and the epigram ; and when style abounds with figurative expressions, as the epic poem and sublimer ode more particularly do, we call it the florid style.

A style is also said to be concise or diffuse, easy or strong, clear or obscure, brik or slow, sweet, soft and fluent, or rough and unpleasant ; all which are too obvious to need any explication. Abundant instances of these are to be found in our poets, and they are all (except the obscure) proper or improper, according to the nature and subject of the poem in which they appear; but obscurity is never to be admitted ; for as the style that is clear is feldom faulty, the obscure and uncouth will always be so, and, after perplexing the mind of the reader, leave him dissatisfied.

The rough style, however disagreeable it may be when improperly applied, enters with grace into several of the species of poetry, but especially into the epic poem and the tragedy : for where things rude and horrible are to be exprefled, such words must be used as will represent all their disagreeable and dreadful circumstances. The rough Style therefore appears often with majesty and grandeur in the epic and tragedy; where we find it frequently heightened by our best poets with a few antiquated words, which they apprehend adds a dignity and solemnity to the style s but great judgment is here required ; none but a masterly hand should make these bold attempts; for if too many obsolete terms are admitted, or improperly placed, instead of dignity and solemnity, dulness and obscurity will succeed.

But here we are to observe, that the passions have a style in a manner peculiar to themselves ; for sometimes the pathetic, and even the sublime (especially when united with pity and terror) is more emphatically expressed by a seafonable silence, or a few plain words, than by a number of pompous periods. We shall give one instance out of a mul. titude in Shakespear. After a quarrel between Brutus and Caffius, in which the justice and generous resentment of

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