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Your oaths are pass’d, and now subscribe your If study's gain be thus, and this be so, names ;

Study knows that, which vet it doth not know: That his own hand


strike his honour down, Swear me to this, and I will ne'er say, no. That violates the smallest branch herein:

King. These be the stops that hinder study If you are arm’d to do, as sworn to do,

quite, Subscribe to your deep oaths, and keep them * too. And train our intellects to vain delight.

Long. I am resolv’d: 'tis but a three years' fast; Biron. Why, all delights are vain ; but* that The mind shall banquet, though the body pine:

most vain, Fat paunches have lean pates, and dainty bits Which, with pain purchas'd, doth inherit pain : Make rich the ribs, but bankrupt t quite the wits. As, painfully to pore upon a book,

Dum. My loving lord, Dumain is mortified. To seek the light of truth ; while truth the while The grosser manner of these world's delights Doth falsely blind the eye. sight of his look : He throws



world's baser slaves : Light, seeking light, doth light of light beguile: To love, to wealth, to pomp, I pine and die ; So, ere you find where light in darkness lies, With all these living in philosophy.

Your light grows dark by losing of your eyes.
Biron. I can but say their protestation over ; Study me how to please the eye indeed,
So much, dear liege, I have already sworn,

By fixing it upon a fairer eye ;
That is, to live and study here three years. Who dazzling so, that eye shall be his heed,
But there are other strict observances :

And give him light that it was blinded by. As, not to see a woman in that term ;

Study is like the heaven's glorious sun, Which, I hope well, is not enrolled there :

That will not be deep-search'd with saucy looks; And, one day in a week to touch no food,

Small have continual plodders ever won, And but one meal on every day beside ;

Save base authority from others' books. The which, I hope, is not enrolled there :

These earthly godfathers of heaven's lights, And then to sleep but three hours in the night, That give a name to every fixed star, And not be seen to wink of all the day;

Have no more profit of their shining nights, (When I was wont to think no harm all night, Than those that walk, and wot not what they are. And make a dark night too of half the day ;) Too much to know, is, to know nought but fame; Which, I hope well, is not enrolled there: And every godfather can give a name. 0, these are barren tasks, too hard to keep ;

King. IIow well he's read, to reason against Not to see ladies,—study,-fast,—not sleep.

reading! King. Your oath is pass'd to pass away from

Dum. Proceeded well, to stop all good prothese.

ceeding! Brron. Let me say no, my liege, an if you please ; Long. He weeds the corn, and still lets grow I only swore, to study with your grace,

the weeding And stay here in your court for three years' space. Biron. The spring is near, when green geese Long. You swore to that, Biron, and to the rest.

are a-breeding Biron. By yea and nay, sir, then I swore in jest. Dum. How follows that? What is the end of study ? let me know.


Fit in his place and time. King. Why, that to know, which else we should Dum. In reason nothing. not know.


Something then in rhyme. Biron. Things hid and barr’d, you mean, from King. Biron is like an envious sneaping frost, common sense ?

That bites the first-born infants of the spring. KING. Ay, that is study's god-like recompense. Biron. Well, say I am; why should proud Biron. Come on then, I will swear to study so,

summer boast, To know the thing I am forbid to know :

Before the birds have any cause to sing ? As thus,—To study where I well may dine, Why should I joy in any abortive birth ? When I to feast I expressly am forbid ;

At Christmas I no more desire a rose, Or, study where to meet some mistress fine, Than wish a snow in May's new-fangled shows;

When mistresses from common sense are hid: But like of each thing that in season grows. Or, having sworn too hard-a-keeping oath,

So you, to study now it is too late, Study to break it, and not break

Climb o'er the house to unlock the little gate.!



(*) Old copies, it.
(+) The folio, 1623, bankerout, omitting quite.

(1) Old copies, fast. a Fat paunches have lean pates, &c.]

Pinyuis renter nn gignit sensum tenuem." There is a more elegant Greek proverb, mentioned by Hierom, to the same effect; and the whole couplet is given in Clark's

(*) First folio, and.
“Paremiologia Anglo-Latina; or, Proverbs English and Latine,"

8vo. 1630-
" Fat paunches make lean pates; and grosser bits

Enrich the ribs, but bankrupt quite the wits."
b Climb o'er the house to unlock the little gate.] This is the
reading of the quarto. The folio has-

“That were to climb o'er the house to unlock the gate."

stay with


King. Well, sit you out;" go home,

Biron ;

KING. What say you, lords ? why, this was adieu !

quite forgot. Biron. No, my good lord; I have sworn to Biron. So study evermore is over-shot ; you:

While it doth study to have what it would, And, though I have for barbarism spoke more, It doth forget to do the thing it should :

Than for that angel knowledge you can say ; And when it hath the thing it hunteth most, Yet, confident I'll keep what I have swore, 'T is won, as towns, with fire; so won, so lost.

And bide the penance of each three years' day. King. We must, of force, dispense with this Give me the paper,—let me read the same;

decree; And to the strict'st decrees I'll write my name. She must lie e here on mere necessity. King. How well this yielding rescues thee from Brron. Necessity will make us all forsworn shame!

Three thousand times within this three years' Biron. [Reads.]

space ;

For every man with his affects is born, Item, That no woman shall come within a mile

Not by might master’d, but by special grace. of my court

If I break faith, this word shall speak* for me, Hath this been proclaim? I'd ?

I am forsworn on mere necessity.Long. Four days ago.

So to the laws at large I write

my name: Biron. Let's see the penalty. [Reails.]


And he that breaks them in the least degree, -on pain of losing her tongue.

Stands in attainder of eternal shame :

Suggestions d are to others, as to me; Who devis'd this penalty?

But, I believe, although I seem so loth, Long. Marry, that did I.

I am the last that will last keep his oath. Biron. Sweet lord, and why ?

But is there no quick recreation granted ? Long. To fright them hence with that dread

King. Ay, thật there is : our court, you know, penalty,

is haunted A dangerous law against gentility.”

With a refined traveller of Spain ; Biron. [Reads.]

A man in all the world's new fashion planted, Item, If any man be seen to talk with a woman That hath a mint of phrases in his brain : within the term of three years, he shall endure such

One who the music of his own vain tongue public shame as the rest of the court cant possibly

Doth ravish, like enchanting harmony; devise.

A man of complements," whom right and wrong

Have chose as umpire of their mutiny: This article, my liege, yourself must break; This child of fancy, that Armado hight,

For, well you know, here comes in embassy For interim to our studies, shall relate, The French king's daughter, with yourself to In high-born words, the worth of many a knight speak,

From tawny Spain, lost in the world's debate, A maid of grace, and complete majesty, — How you delight, my lords, I know not, I ; About surrender-up of Aquitain

But, I protest, I love to hear him lie, To her decrepit, sick, and bed-rid father : And I will use him for my minstrełsy. Therefore this article is made in vain,

BIRON. Armado is a most illustrious wight, Or vainly comes th' admired princess hither. A man of fire-new words, fashion's own knight. (*) Old copies, suorne. (1) First folio, shall.

(*) First folio, break. å Well, sit you out;] The folio reads, fit you out, which is is satisfactory: By a dangerous law, we are to understand a biling a palpable misprint. To sit out, a phr borrowed from the card

law. In Act I. Sc. 2, there is a similar use of the word:table, was a common expression in Shakespeare's age. Steevens

" A dangerous rhyme, master, against the reason of white and quotes the following illustration from Bishop Sanderson :


c She must lie here-] i.e. reside here. “ They are glad, rather than sit vut, to play very small


d Suggestions-] Temptations, seducements. To this may be added another given by Mr. Dyce, from The * No quick recreation- ) i.e. lively pastime, brisk diversion. Tryall of Cheualry, 1605, sig. G. 3:

"the quick comedians " Lewis..

Extemporally will stage us." King of Nauar, will onely you sit out?

Antony and Cleopatra, Act V. Sc. 2. * Nau. No, king of Praunce, my bloud's as hot as thine :

f A man of complements,-] One versed in punctilios, of point. And this my weapon shall confirme my words."

de-vice manners,-a formalist. b Long. To fright them hence with that dread penalty,

“He walks most commonly with a clove or pick-tooth in his A dangerous law against gentility.)

mouth; he is the very mint of compliment; all his behaviours are

printed; his face is another volume of essays; and his beard is an So the old copies, but Theobald first, and all the modern editors Aristarchus."-Ben Jonson's Cynthia's Revels, (Gifford's Ed.) since, have deprived Longaville of the second line, and given it vol. ii. p. 264. to Biron. I have no hesitation in restoring it to the proper & Fire-new words,-) Words freshly coined; brand-new. speaker. only difficulty in the passage is the word gentility,

“ Your fire-new stamp of honour scarce current." (in the quarto, gentletie,) which could never have been the expres

Richard the Third, Act I, Sc. 3.. sion of the poet. Mr. Collier's old annotator proposes garrulity; Again, in “Twelfth Night," Act III. Sc. 2:that, or scurrility, certainly comes nearer to the sense, but neither " And with some excellent jest, fire-new from the mint," &



Long. Costard the swain, and he, shall be our

sport; And, so to study, three years is but short.

Enter Dull,* with a letter, and CostaRD.

DULL. Which is the duke's own person ?
BIRON. This, fellow; what wouldst ?

DULL. I myself reprehend his own person, for I am his grace's tharborough ;, but I would see his own person in fesh and blood.

BIRON. This is he.

Dull. Signior Arme-Arme—commends you. There's villainy abroad ; this letter will tell you more.

Cost. Sir, the contempts thereof are as touching me. King. A letter from the magnificent Armado.

Biron. How low soever the matter, I hope in God for high words.

Long. A high hope for a low heaven : b (2) God grant us patience!

Biron. To hear ? or forbear laughing ?

Long. To hear meekly, sir, and to laugh moderately; or to forbear both.

Biron. Well, sir, be it as the style shall give us cause to climb in the merriness.

Cost. The matter is to me, sir, as concerning Jaquenetta. The manner of it is, I was taken with the manner.d

BIRON. In what manner ?
Cost. In manner and form following, sir; all

(*) Old copies, constable. a Tharborough ;] 'A corruption of thirdborough; a constable.

b A high hope for a low heaven :) This passage has occasioned a great deal of controversy. Theobald proposed to read a low having; Mr. Collier's manuscript-corrector reads, a low hearing; and some critics will have, a low haven. The allusion may be to the representations of Heaven, and the attendant personifications of Faith, Hope, &c. in the ancient Pageants.

c Or forbear laughing?] The old copies have, “forbear hearing." The emendation is due to Capell.

d I was taken with the manner.] Costard quibbles on manner, written mainour in the old law-books; i.e. the thing stolen, and manor house, where he was arrested. With the manner, meant in the fact.

-- and being taken with the manner, had nothing to say for himself."-HEYwood's Rape of Lucrece, 1630.


those three: I was seen with her in the manor Kixg.
house, sitting with her upon the form, and taken —that shallow vassal,
following her into the park; which, put together, Cost. Still me.
is in manner and form following. Now, sir, for King,
the manner,—it is the manner of a man to speak which, as I remember, hight Costard,
to a woman : for the form,-in some form.

Cost. O me!
Biron. For the following, sir ?

KING. Cost. As it shall follow in my correction : and - sortel, and consorted, contrary to thy established God defend the right!

proclaimed edict and continent canon, wtih * King. Will you hear this letter with attention?

with,-0 withbut with this I passion to say Biron. As we would hear an oracle.

wherewith, Cost. Such is the simplicity of man to hearken Cost. With a wench, after the flesh.

KING. King. [Reads.]

—with a child of our grandmother Eve, a female; Great deputy, the welkin's vicegerent, and sole

or, for thy more sweet understanding, a woman. dominator of Navarre, my soul's earth’s God, and

Him I (as my ever-esteemed duty pricks me on) bolly's fostering patron,

have sent to thee, to receive the meed of punish

ment, by thy sweet grace's officer, Antony Dull; Cost. Not a word of Costard yet.

a man of good repute, carriage, bearing, and KING,

estimation. So it is,

Dull. Me, an 't shall please you ;

I Cost. It may be so: but if he it is


Antony Dull.

KING. is, in telling true, but so.

For Jaquenetta, (so is the weaker vessel called, Kixg. Peace!

which I apprehended with the aforesaid swain,) Cost. —be to me, and every man that dares

I keep her as a vessel of thy law's fury; and not fight!

shall, at the least of thy sweet notice, bring her to Kixg. No words ! Cost. —of other men's secrets, I beseech you.

trial. Thine in all complements of devoted and

heart-burning heat of duty, King,

Don ADRIANO DE ARMADO, So it is, besieged with sable-coloured melancholy, I did commend the black-oppressing humour BIRON. This is not so well as I looked for, but to the most wholesome physic of thy health-giving the best that ever I heard.

to walk. The time when ? About the sixth hour; what say you to this ? when beasts most graze, birds best peck, and men sit Cost. Sir, I confess the wench. down to that nourishment which is called supper. King. Did you hear the proclamation ? So much for the time when : Now for the ground Cost. I do confess much of the hearing it, but which ; which, I mean, I walked upon : it is little of the marking of it. ycleped, thy park. Then for the place where ; King. It was proclaimed a year's imprisonment, where, I mean, I did encounter that obscene to be taken with a wench. and most preposterous event, that draweth from Cost. I was taken with none, sir ; I was taken my snow-white pen the ebon-coloured ink, which with a damosel. here thou viewest, beholdest, surveyest, or seest : King. Well, it was proclaimed damosel. But to the place where, -it standeth north-north- Cost. This was no damosel, neither, sir; she east and by east from the west corner of thy was a virgin. curious-knotted garden : there did I see that King. It is so varied too; for it was proclaimed low-spirited swain, that base minnow of thy virgin. mirth,

Cost. If it were, I deny her virginity ; I was Cost. Me.

taken with a maid. King.

King. This maid will not serve your turn, sir.

Cost. This maid will serve my turn, sir. —that unletter'd small-knowing soul,

King. Sir, I will pronounce your sentence : you Cost. Me.

shall fast a week with bran and water.

a Thy curious-knotted garden :] Ancient gardens, Steevens observes, abounded with figures, of which the lines intersected each other in many directions. Thus in “Richard II." Act III. Sc. 4:

(*) Old copies, which with. " Her fruit-trees all unprun'd, her hedges ruin'd, Her knots disorder'd," &c.


Cost. I had rather pray a month with mutton Arm. In thy condign praise. and porridge.

Moth. I will praise an eel with the same King. And don Armado shall be your keeper.- praise. My lord Biron, see him deliver'd o'er.

Arm. What? that an eel is ingenious ? * And go we, lords, to put in practice that

Moth. That an eel is quick. Which each to other hath so strongly sworn.- Arm. I do say, thou art quick in answers :

[Exeunt King, LONGAVILLE, and DUMAIN. Thou heat'st my blood. Biron. I'll lay my head to any good man's hat, Moth. I am answered, sir.

These oaths and laws will prove an idle scorn.-- ARM. I love not to be crossed. Sirrah, come on.

Moth. He speaks the mere contrary, crosses Cost. I suffer for the truth, sir: for true it is, love not him.

[Aside. I was taken with Jaquenetta, and Jaquenetta is Arm. I have promised to study three years a true girl ; and therefore, Welcome the sour cup with the duke. of prosperity! Affliction may one day smile again, Мотн. You


do it in an hour, sir. and till then, Sit thee down, sorrow ! *

ARM. Impossible.
[Exeunt. Moth. How many is one thrice told ?

ARM. I am ill at reckoning; it fitteth + the spirit of a tapster.

Moth. You are a gentleman, and a gamester, SCENE II.-Another part of the same. sir.(3) Armado's House,

ARM. I confess both; they are both the varnish

of a complete man. Enter ARMADO and Moth.

Moth. Then, I am sure, you know how much

the Arm. Boy, what sign is it, when a man of gross sum of deuce-ace amounts to.

ARM. It doth amount to one more than two. great spirit grows melancholy?

Moth. A great sign, sir, that he will look sad. Moth. Which the base vulgar do $ call, three. ARM.“ Why, sadness is one and the self-same

ARM. True. thing, dear imp.

Moth. Why, sir, is this such a piece of study ? Moty. No, no; O lord, sir, no.

Now here's three studied, ere you ’ll thrice wink: ARM, How canst thou part sadness and melan- and how easy it is to put years to the word three, choly, my tender juvenal ?

and study three years in two words, the dancing Moth. By a familiar demonstration of the

horse (4) will tell you. working, my tough senior.t

ARM. A most fine figure ! ARM. Why tough senior ?+ why tough senior? +

Moth. To prove you a cipher.

[Aside. Moth. Why tender juvenal ? why tender

Arm. I will hereupon confess, I am in love : juvenal ?

and, as it is base for a soldier to love, so am I in ARM. I spoke it, tender juvenal, as a congruent

love with a base wench. If drawing my sword epitheton, appertaining to thy young days, which against the humour of affection would deliver me we may nominate, tender.

from the reprobate thought of it, I would take Moth. And I, tough senior,t as an appertinent Desire prisoner, and ransom him to any French title to your old time, which we may name, tough.

courtier for a new devised courtesy. I think Arm. Pretty, and apt.

scorn to sigh ; methinks, I should outswear Cupid. Moth. How mean you, sir; I pretty, and my

Comfort me, boy : What great men have been saying apt? or I apt, and my saying pretty ?

in love? ARM. Thou pretty, because little.

Moth. Hercules, master. Moth. Little pretty, because little: Where

Arm. Most sweet Hercules !—More authority, fore apt?

dear boy, name more ; and, sweet my child, let ARM. And therefore apt, because quick.

them be men of good repute and carriage. Moth. Speak you this in my praise, master ?

Moth. Sampson, master; he was a man of

(*) First folio, until then sit down, &c.

(t) First folio, signeur. a Armado.] Here and throughout the scene in the old copies we have Braggart, instead of Armado.

b Thou pretty, because little:) So in Ben Jonson's play of “The Fox," (Gifford's edition,) vol. iii. p. 236:

“ First for your dwarf, he's little and witty,

And every thing, as it is lillle is pretty." e Crosses love not him.) A punning allusion, very frequent in


(*) First folio, ingenuous.

(1) First folio, fits. (1) First folio, vulgar call. Shakespeare's day, probably to the ancient penny, which Stowe describes as having a double cross, with a crest stamped on it, so that it might easily be broken in half or into quarters. In Henry IV. Part II." Act I. Sc. 2, we meet with the same quibble:

Not a penny, not a penny; you are too impatient to bear crosses." And again, in " As You Like It," Act II. Sc. 4:

“For my part, I had rather bear with you than bear you; yet I should bear no cross if I did bear you."

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