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Study knows that, which vet it doth not know: That his own hand may strike his honour down, Swear me to this, and I will ne'er say, no. That violates the smallest branch herein :
King. These be the stops that hinder study If you are arm’d to do, as sworn to do,
quite, Subscribe to your deep oaths, and keep them * too. | And train our intellects to vain delight.
Long. I am resolvd : 'tis but a three years' fast; Biron. Why, all delights are vain ; but* that The mind shall banquet, though the body pine:
Dum. My loving lord, Dumain is mortified. To seek the light of truth ; while truth the while
Your light grows dark by losing of your eyes.
By fixing it upon a fairer eye ;
Who dazzling so, that eye shall be his heed, But there are other strict observances :
And give him light that it was blinded by. As, not to see a woman in that term ;
Study is like the heaven's glorious sun, Which, I hope well, is not enrolled there :
That will not be deep-search'd with saucy looks; And, one day in a week to touch no food,
Small have continual plodders ever won, And but one meal on every day beside ;
Save base authority from others' books.
These earthly godfathers of heaven's lights,
Have no more profit of their shining nights, (When I was wont to think no harm all night,
Than those that walk, and wot not what they are. And make a dark night too of half the day ;) - Too much to know, is, to know nought but fame; Which, I hope well, is not enrolled there:
And every godfather can give a name. O, these are barren tasks, too hard to keep;
King. IIow well he's read, to reason against Not to see ladies,—study,--fast,—not sleep.
reading! King. Your oath is pass’d to pass away from Dum. Proceeded well, to stop all good prothese.
ceeding! Brron. Let me say no, my liege, an if you please ; Long. He weeds the corn, and still lets grow I only swore, to study with your grace,
the weeding. And stay here in your court for three years' space. Biron. The spring is near, when green geese Long. You swore to that, Biron, and to the rest.
are a-breeding. Biron. By yea and nay, sir, then I swore in jest. Dum. How follows that ? What is the end of study ? let me know.
Fit in his place and time. King. Why, that to know, which else we should Dum. In reason nothing. not know. .
Something then in rhyme. Biron. Things hid and barr’d, you mean, from King. Biron is like an envious sneaping frost, common sense ?
That bites the first-born infants of the spring. King. Ay, that is study's god-like recompense. Biron. Well, say I am; wliy should proud Biron. Come on then, I will swear to study so,
summer boast, To know the thing I am forbid to know :
Before the birds have any cause to sing ?
At Christmas I no more desire a rose,
When mistresses from common sense are hid: But like of each thing that in season grows.
So you, to study now it is too late,
(*) Old copies, it.
(f) Old copies, fast. a Fat paunches have lean pates, &c.]
“ Pinguis renter nın gignit sensum tenuem." There is a more elegant Greek proverb, mentioned by Hierom, to the same effect; and the whole couplet is given in Clark's
(*) First folio, and.
“Fat paunches make lean pates; and grosser bits
Enrich the ribs, but bankrupt quite the wits,"
KING. Well, sit you out ;a go home, Biron ; ! KING. What say you, lords ? why, this was adieu !
quite forgot. Biron. No, my good lord; I have sworn to Biron. So study evermore is over-shot ; stay with you:
While it doth study to have what it would, And, though I have for barbarism spoke more, It doth forget to do the thing it should :
Than for that angel knowledge you can say; And when it hath the thing it hunteth most, Yet, confident I'll keep what I have swore,* 'T is won, as towns, with fire; so won, so lost.
And bide the penance of each three years' day. | King. We must, of force, dispense with this Give me the paper,- let me read the same;
decree ; And to the strict'st decrees I'll write my name. She must lie c here on mere necessity. King. How well this yielding rescues thee from Brron. Necessity will make us all forsworn shame!
Three thousand times within this three years' Biron. [Reads.]
For every man with his affects is born, Item, That no woman shall come within a mile
Not by might master'd, but by special grace. of my court,
If I break faith, this word shall speak * for me, Hath this been proclaim'd ?
I am forsworn on mere necessity.-Long. Four days ago.
So to the laws at large I write my name: Biron. Let's see the penalty. [Reails.]
And he that breaks them in the least degree, -on pain of losing her tongue.
Stands in attainder of eternal shame :
Suggestions are to others, as to me; Who devis'd this penalty ?
But, I believe, although I seem so loth, Long. Marry, that did I.
I am the last that will last keep his oath. Biron. Sweet lord, and why?
But is there no quicko recreation granted ? Long. To fright them hence with that dread
King. Ay, that there is : our court, you know, penalty,
is haunted A dangerous law against gentility.”
With a refined traveller of Spain ; Biron. [Reads.]
A man in all the world's new fashion planted, Item, If any man be seen to talk with a woman
That hath a mint of phrases in his brain : within the term of three years, he shall endure such
One who the music of his own vain tongue public shame as the rest of the court cant possibly
Doth ravish, like enchanting harmony ; devise.
A man of complements,f whom right and wrong
Have chose as umpire of their mutiny: This article, my liege, yourself must break; This child of fancy, that Armado hight, .
For, well you know, here comes in embassy For interim to our studies, shall relate, The French king's daughter, with yourself to In high-born words, the worth of many a knight speak,
From tawny Spain, lost in the world's debate, A maid of grace, and complete majesty, How you delight, my lords, I know not, I; About surrender-up of Aquitain
But, I protest, I love to hear him lie, To her decrepit, sick, and bed-rid father: And I will use him for my minstrelsy. Therefore this article is made in vain,
BIRON. Armado is a most illustrious wight, Or vainly comes th' admired princess hither. A man of fire-new words, fashion's own knight.
(*) Old copies, suorne.
(1) First folio, shall. & Well, sit you out ;] The folio reads, fit you out, which is a palpable misprint. To sit out, a phrase borrowed from the card table, was a common expression in Shakespeare's age. Steevens quotes the following illustration from Bishop Sanderson :
" They are glad, rather than sit out, to play very small game."
To this may be added another given by Mr. Dyce, from The Tryall of Cheualry, 1605, sig. G. 3:
* Leuis. . . . . . . . . . King of Nauar, will onely you sit out!
** Nau. No, king of Praunce, my bloud's as hot as thine: And this my weapon shall confirme my words." Long. To fright them hence with that dread penalty,
A dangerous law against gentility. ] So the old copies, but Theobald first, and all the modern editors since, have deprived Longaville of the second line, and given it to Biron. I have no hesitation in restoring it to the proper speaker. The only difficulty in the passage is the word gentility, (in the quarto, gentletie,) which could never have been the expression of the poet. Mr. Collier's old annotator proposes garrulity; that, or scurrility, certainly comes nearer to the sense, but neither
(*) First folio, break. is satisfactory. By a dangerous law, we are to understand a biling law. In Act I. Sc. 2, there is a similar use of the word :
“A dangerous rhyme, master, against the reason of white and red.”
c She must lie here-li.e. reside here.
" the quick comedians
'Antony and Cleopatra, Act V. Sc. 2.
“He walks most commonly with a clove or pick-tooth in his mouth; he is the very mint of compliment; all his behaviours are printed ; his face is another volume of essays; and his beard is an Aristarchus."-BEN JONson's Cynthia's Revels, (Gifford's Ed.) vol. ii. p. 264. & Fire-new words,-) Words freshly coined; brand-new. “ Your fire-new stamp of honour scarce is current."
Richard the Third, Act I. Sc. 3. Again, in “Twelfth Night," Act III. Sc. 2:-“And with some excellent jest, fire-new from the mint," &c.
Long. Costard the swain, and he, shall be our Cost. Sir, the contempts thereof are as touchsport ;
| ing me. And, so to study, three years is but short.
King. A letter from the magnificent Armado.
Biron. How low soever the matter, I hope in God for high words.
Long. A high hope for a low heaven :-(2) God Enter Dull,* with a letter, and CostaRD.
grant us patience !
Biron. To hear? or forbear laughing ?c DULL. Which is the duke's own person ?
Long. To hear meekly, sir, and to laugh modeBIRON. This, fellow; what wouldst ?
rately; or to forbear both. Dull. I myself reprehend his own person, for BIRON. Well, sir, be it as the style shall give I am his grace's tharborough ;a but I would see us cause to climb in the merriness. his own person in flesh and blood.
Cost. The matter is to me, sir, as concerning Biron. This is he.
Jaquenetta. The manner of it is, I was taken Dull. Signior Arme-Arme—commends you. with the manner. d There's villainy abroad ; this letter will tell you Biron. In what manner ? more.
Cost. In manner and form following, sir; all
c Or forbear laughing?] The old copies have, “forbear hearing." The emendation is due to Capell.
(*) Old copies, constable. a Tharborough ;) A corruption of thirdborough; a constable.
b A high hope for a low heaven:) This passage has occasioned a great deal of controversy. Theobald proposed to read a low having ; Mr. Collier's manuscript-corrector reads, a low hearing; and some critics will have, a low haven. The allusion may be to the representations of Heaven, and the attendant personifications of Faith, Hope, &c. in the ancient Pageants.
d I was taken with the manner.] Costard quibbles on manner, written mainour in the old law-books; i.e. the thing stolen, and manor house, where he was arrested. With the manner, meant in the fact.
"-- and being taken with the manner, had nothing to say for himself."-HEYwood's Rape of Lucrece, 1630.
those three: I was seen with her in the manor
King, the manner,-it is the manner of a man to speak
—which, as I remember, hight Costard, to a woman : for the form,-in some form.
Cost. O me! Biron. For the following, sir ?
· KING. Cost. As it shall follow in my correction : and
-sorted, and consorted, contrary to thy established God defend the right!
proclaimed edict and continent canon, wtih * King. Will you hear this letter with attention?
with,-0 with—but with this I passion to say BIRON. As we would hear an oracle.
wherewith, Cost. Such is the simplicity of man to hearken
Cost. With a wench. after the flesh.
KING. King. [Reads.]
—with a child of our grandmother Eve, a female; Great deputy, the welkin's vicegerent, and sole
or, for thy more sweet understanding, a woman. dominator of Navarre, my soul's earth's God, and
Him I (as my ever-esteemed duty pricks me on) boulej's fostering patron, -
have sent to thee, to receive the meed of punish
ment, by thy sweet grace's officer, Antony Dull; Cost. Not a word of Costard yet.
a man of good repute, carriage, bearing, and Kixg.
estimation. So it is,
Dull. Me, an 't shall please you; I am
Antony Dull. Cost. It may be so: but if he say it is so, he
King. is, in telling true, but so.
For Jaquenetta, (so is the weaker vessel called, King. Peace!
which I apprehended with the aforesaid swain,) Cost. —be to me, and every man that dares
I keep her as a vessel of thy law's fury; and not fight!
shall, at the least of thy sweet notice, bring her to Kixg. No words ! Cost. —of other men's secrets, I beseech you.
trial. Thine in all complements of devoted and
heart-burning heat of duty, King.
Don ADRIANO DE ARMADO. So it is, besieged with sable-coloured melancholy, I did commend the black-oppressing humour Biron. This is not so well as I looked for, but to the most wholesome physic of thy health-giving the best that ever I heard. air; and, as I am a gentleman, betook myself to King. Ay, the best for the worst. But, sirrah, walk. The time when ?
le when? About the sixth hour; | what say you to this ?
About the sixth hour; when beasts most graze, birds best peck, and men sit Cost. Sir, I confess the wench. down to that nourishment which is called supper. KING. Did you hear the proclamation ? So much for the time when : Now for the ground Cost. I do confess much of the hearing it, but which; which, I mean, I walked upon : it is little of the marking of it. yeleped, thy park. Then for the place where ; | King. It was proclaimed a year's imprisonment, where, I mean, I did encounter that obscene to be taken with a wench. and most preposterous event, that draweth from Cost. I was taken with none, sir ; I was taken my snow-white pen the ebon-coloured ink, which with a damosel. here thou viewest, beholdest, surveyest, or seest : KING. Well, it was proclaimed damosel. But to the place where,—it standeth north-north | Cost. This was no damosel, neither, sir ; she east and by east from the west corner of thy | was a virgin. curious-knotted garden : there did I see that King. It is so varied too; for it was proclaimed low-spirited swain, that base minnow of thy virgin. mirth,
Cost. If it were, I deny her virginity ; I was Cost. Me.
taken with a maid. KING.
King. This maid will not serve your turn, sir.
Cost. This maid will serve my turn, sir. -that unletter'd small-knowing soul,
King. Sir, I will pronounce your sentence : you Cost. Me.
shall fast a week with bran and water.
a Thy curious-knotted garden : Ancient gardens, Steevens observes, abounded with figures, of which the lines intersected each other in many directions. Thus in “Richard II.” Act III. Sc. 4:
(*) Old copies, which with. “Her fruit-trees all unprun'd, her hedges ruin'd,
Her knots disorder'd, &c.
Cost. I had rather pray a month with mutton Arm. In thy condign praise. and porridge.
Moth. I will praise an eel with the same. King. And don Armado shall be your keeper. - | praise. My lord Biron, see him deliver'd o'er.
Arm. What? that an eel is ingenious ? * And go we, lords, to put in practice that
Moth. That an eel is quick. Which each to other hath so strongly sworn. Arm. I do say, thou art quick in answers :
[Exeunt King, LONGAVILLE, and DUMAIN. | Thou heat'st my blood. Biron. I'll lay my head to any good man's hat, | Moth. I am answered, sir.
These oaths and laws will prove an idle scorn.-- Arm. I love not to be crossed. Sirrah, come on.
Moth. He speaks the mere contrary, crosses Cost. I suffer for the truth, sir : for true it is, love not him.
[Aside. I was taken with Jaquenetta, and Jaquenetta is Arm. I have promised to study three years a true girl ; and therefore, Welcome the sour cup with the duke. of prosperity! Affliction may one day smile again, Moth. You may do it in an hour, sir. and till then, Sit thee down, sorrow !*
ARM. I am ill at reckoning; it fitteth † the spirit of a tapster.
Mots. You are a gentleman, and a gamester, SCENE II.-Another part of the same. sir.(3) Armado's House..
Arm. I confess both; they are both the varnish
of a complete man. Enter ARMADO and Motu.
Moth. Then, I am sure, you know how much ARM. Boy, what sign is it, when a man of the gross sum of deuce-ace amounts to. great spirit grows melancholy?
ARM. It doth amount to one more than two. Moth. A great sign, sir, that he will look sad. Moth. Which the base vulgar do $ call, three. ARM." Why, sadness is one and the self-same
ARM. True. thing, dear imp.
Moth. Why, sir, is this such a piece of study ? Moth. No, no; O lord, sir, no.
Now here's three studied, ere you ’ll thrice wink: ARM. How canst thou part sadness and melan- , and how easy it is to put years to the word three, choly, my tender juvenal ?
and study three years in two words, the dancing Moth. By a familiar demonstration of the horse (1) will tell you. working, my tough senior.
ARM. A most fine figure ! ARM. Why tough senior ? + why tough senior?+ Moth. To prove you a cipher. [Aside. Moth. Why tender juvenal ? why tender
Arm. I will hereupon confess, I am in love :
and, as it is base for a soldier to love, so am I in Arm. I spoke it, tender juvenal, as a congruent
love with a base wench. If drawing my sword epitheton, appertaining to thy young days, which
against the humour of affection would deliver me we may nominate, tender.
from the reprobate thought of it, I would take Moth. And I, tough senior,t as an appertinent
Desire prisoner, and ransom him to any French title to your old time, which we may name, tough.
courtier for a new devised courtesy. I think ARM. Pretty, and apt.
scorn to sigh ; methinks, I should outswear Cupid. Moth. How mean you, sir; I pretty, and my
Comfort me, boy : What great men have been saying apt ? or I apt, and my saying pretty?
in love? ARM. Thou pretty, because little.”
Moth. Hercules, master. Moth. Little pretty, because little : Where
Arm. Most sweet Hercules !—More authority, fore apt?
dear boy, name more ; and, sweet my child, leto ARM. And therefore apt, because quick.
them be men of good repute and carriage. Moth. Speak you this in my praise, master? | Moth. Sampson, master; he was a man of
(*) First folio, until then sit down, &c.
(*) First folio, ingenuous. (+) First folio, fits. (t) First folio, signeur.
(1) First folio, vulgar call.
Shakespeare's day, probably to the ancient penny, which Stowe a Armado.] Here and throughout the scene in the old copies we
describes as having a double cross, with a crest stamped on it, so have Braggart, instead of Armado.
that it might easily be broken in half or into quarters. In • Thou pretty, because little :) So in Ben Jonson's play of “The “ Henry IV. Part II.” Act I, Sc. 2, we meet with the same Fox," (Gifford's edition,) vol. iii. p. 236:
quibble:“ First for your dwarf, he's little and witty,
“Not a penny, not a penny; you are too impatient to bear And every thing, as it is litlle is pretty.'
crosses." And again, in "As You Like It," Act II. Sc. 4:
“For my part, I had rather bear with you than bear you; yet c Crosses love not him.] A punning allusion, very frequent in | I should bear no cross if I did bear you."