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(4) SCENE II.-- To your manor of Pickt-hatch, go. This notorious haunt of profligacy, so called from the spiked half-door, or hatch, the usual denotement of houses of illfame formerly, was a collection of tenements situated near the end of Old Street and the garden of the Charterhouse in Goswell Street. The allusions to it and to similar colonies of depraved characters, in Whitefriars, Lambeth Marsh, and Turnmill Street, are innumerable in our old out-spoken writers; but two or three examples will be sufficier
ct and the references are alike unsavoury :
ON LIEUTENANT SHIFT.
That haunt Pickt-hatch, Mersb-Lambeth and White-fryer's
BEN Junson's Epigrams, No. XII “Sometimes shining in Lady-like resplendent brightnesse with admiration, and suddenly againe eclipsed with the pitchy and tenebrous clouds of contempt and deserved defamation. Sometimes at the Full at Pickt-hatch, and sometimes in the Wane at Bridevell."--TAYLOR, the Water Poet, fol., 1630, p. 95.
(1) Scene I.-The tune of Green sleeves.] “ Green Sleeves, or Which nobody can deny,” we gather from Mr. Chappell's learned and entertaining account of our early National Music, “has been a favourite tune from the time of Elizabeth to the present day; and is still frequently to be heard in the streets of London to songs with the wellknown burden, Which nobody can deny.'” Mr. Chappell, indeed, carries its antiquity still higher, and thinks it was sung in the reign of Henry VIII. The earliest words to the air known to us, however, do not date farther back than 1580; in which year “A new northen dittye of the Lady greene sleeves" was licensed to Richard Jones by the Stationers' Company. This song, which evidently attained an uncommon share of popular favour even in that age of universal ballatry, was reprinted, four years after, by the same printer in the poetical miscellany entitled, “A Handefull of Pleasant Delites : containing sun. drie neu Sonets and delectable Histories in divers kindes of meeter. Newly devised to the newest tunes, that are now in use to be sung: everie sonet orderlie pointed to his proper tune. With nero additions of certain songs, to verie late devised notes, not commonly knowen, nor used heretofore. By Clement Robinson: and divers others. At London, printed by Richard Ihones : dwelling at the signe of the Rose and Crowne, near Holborne Bridge. 1584,"
(2) SCENE I.-The humour of it, quoth 'a! here's a fellow frights humour out of his uits. Ben Jonson, the best delineator of that species of affectation, so fashionable in his time, called humours, has pointed out, with his usual force and discrimination, the difference between the real and pseudo-humourist. Between those who by a natural bias of mind were led into singularity of thought and action, and those who, with no pretensions to originality, endeavoured to establish a reputation for it by ridiculous eccentricities in manners or apparel :
« As when some one peculiar quality
Doth so possess a man, that it doth draw
“Erery man out of his lumour."-GIFFORD's Ben Jonson, v. II. p. 16.
(3) SCENE 1.-The priest oth' town.] The following hexameters may be seen in black letter over an ancient doorway in Northgate-street, Gloucester :
"En ruinosa domus quondam quam tunc renovavit,
(5) SCENE II.-One master Brook belor rould fain speak with you, and be acquainted with you ; and hath sent your worship a morning's draught of sack.] The custom of
taking a “morning draught” of ale, beer, wine, or spirits, | prevailed long before our author's time: and that of
making acquaintance, in the manner indicated by the text, was nearly coeval. Speaking of the former habit, Dr. Venner, Via Recta ad Vitam Longam, 1637, says :“ The custome of drinking in the mornings fasting, a large
aught of white wine, or of beere, hath almost with all men so farre prevailed, as that they judge it a principall means for the preservation of their health; where as in very deed, it is, being without respect had of the state or constitution of the body, inconsiderably used, the occasion of much hurt and discommoding.” Of the latter practice there is a pleasant illustration in an anecdote told of Be Jonson and Dr. Corbet :-“Ben Jonson was at a tavern, and in comes Bishop Corbet (but not so then) into the next room. Ben Jonson calls for a quart of raw wine and gives it to the tapster. "Sirrah,' says he, 'carry this to the gentleman in the next chamber, and tell him, I sacrifice my service to him.' The fellow did, and in these words, Friend,' says Dr. Corbet, “I thank him for his love : but prythee tell him from me that he is mistaken; for sacrifices are always burnt.'”-Merry Passages and Jeasts, Harl. MSS. 6395.
(1) SCENE I.-
Isaac Walton in his “Complete Angler," is attributed to l'o shallow rivers, to whose falls
Marlowe. In both these works, it is accompanied by “ The Melodious pirds sing madrigals.]
Nymph's Reply," asserted to be by Sir Walter Raleigh.
Though repeatedly quoted, and familiar to every one This couplet, slightly varied by Sir Hugh's trepidation, acquainted with our early poesy, we should be held inis from a charming little pastoral once thought to be excusable for omitting Kit Marlowe's "smooth song;” Shakespeare's, and as such inserted in his “ Passionate į "old-fashioned poetry,” indeed, as Walton calls it, “but Pilgrim,” but which, in “ England's Helicon," and by choicely good :"
“ THE PASSIONATE SHEPHEARD TO HIS LOVE.
Come live with me, and be my love,
Both were, no doubt, of “Venetian admittance," or fashion, as the coiffures of that nation were all the mode at the end of the sixteenth, and beginning of the seventeenth century :-“Let her have the Spanish gait, the Venetian tire, Italian complements and endowments." BURTox's Anatomy of Melancholy, 1624.
(3) SCENE III.- Fortune thy foe. It is not, perhaps, quite certain that the ballad, of which the first and second stanzas are subjoined, is the original Fortune my Foe that Falstaff had in mind, though there is strong reason, from the fact of the opening verse being quoted in Lilly's “Maydes Metamorphosis," 1600, for believing it to be the authentic version. Of the tune, which will be found, with much interesting matter connected with it, in Mr. Chappell's “Popular Music of the Olden Time," vol. i. p. 162, there can be no doubt. It had the good or evil fortune to be selected as an appropriate chaunt for the dismal effusions attributed to condemned criminals, and for the relation of murders, fires, judgments, and calamities of all kinds; and hence, for more than two hundred years, it maintained a popularity almost unexampled. Fortune my Foe is alluded to again by Shakespeare, in “ Henry V.” Act III. Sc. 6, and is mentioned by Lodge, Chettle, Ben Jonson, Beaumont and Fletcher, Shirley, and a host of other writers. “A sweet Sonnet, wherein the Lover erclaimeth against Por.
tune for the loss of his Ladies Favour, almost past hope
Fortune my Foe why dost thou froun on me?
(2) SCENE III.-The ship-tire, the tire-valiant, or any tire of Venetian admittance. By the ship-tire was, perhaps, understood some fanciful head-dress, with ornaments of glass or jewellery fashioned to resemble a ship :“ The attyre of her head was in forme of two little ships, made of emeraulds, with all the shrouds and tackling of cleere sapphyres.”—“ Diana," of George of Montemeyor, 1598. Or it may have been an open kind of head-dress with ribbons streaming from it like the pennons of a ship. The tire-valiant was another of the innumerable "newfangled tires," as Burton calls them, which an overweening love of dress had imported from abroad, and of which the form is lost, and not worth seeking.
(1) SCENE I.--I pray you, ask him some questions in his | Night," Act II. Sc. 3, Sir Toby Belch refers familiarly, as accidence.) The particular work here referred to is the having learned it in his own youth, to the example given old English introduction to Latin Grammar called “Lily's in the First Concord, of the infinitive mood being the Accidence.” One of the efforts of Henry VIII. and nominative case to a verb,—" Diluculo surgere — thou Edward VI. for the advancement of learning, was an en know'st," The clown in the same comedy, Act V. Sc. 1, deavour to establish an uniformity of books for teaching misquotes, or perverts, the nouns of number requiring a Latin. In 1541, in the proheme to “The Castel of genitive case, “Primo, secundo, tertio, is a good play :" Helthe,” Sir Thomas Elyot says that the king had and Benedick, in “Much Ado about Nothing," Act IV. “not himselfe disdained to be the chiefe authour and Sc. 1, takes an illustration from another part of the Accisetter forthe of an Introduction into Grammar, for the dence, when he says, “ How now! interjections? why, childerne of his loving subjectes." This was the famous then, some be of laughing, as, ha ! ha! he!” In the “Introduction of the Eyght Partes of Speche, and the examination of William Page, Sir Hugh inquires, “ What Construction of the same," usually known as “Lily's is he, William, that does lend Articles ?" And to this Accidence,” but really composed by Dean Colet for his the child replies in the very words of the Accidence, school at St. Paul's, in the years 1510 and 1513. The “ Articles are borrowed of the pronoun; and be thus dewhole collection of tracts forming this Grammar,—written clined.” Even in the difference between the teacher and by Colet, Erasmus, Lily, Robertson, and Ritwise,-had the pupil, the rules of the Introduction are to be traced; appeared either in London or abroad, before they received for when young Page says, “ O, vocativo 0," he repeats the Royal sanction ; but in 1542 they were printed entire the sense of the detinition, “the vocative case is known as having been “compiled and set forth by the commande by calling or speaking to, as ( magister ;” whilst Sir ment of our most gracious soverayne lorde the King." Hugh follows the declension of the article, and rightly After the death of Henry VIII. his son continued the says, “vocativo caret." royal patronage to “Lily's Grammar,” which then became known as “King Edward's Grammar;" “ Edoardus" being (2) SCENE II.-A muffler.) The muffler, a contrivance inserted as the example of proper names in the English, adopted by women to conceal a portion of their face, conas those of “Henricus” and “Anglia” were in the Latin sisted usually of a linen bandage which covered the mouth Institution. This was the book taught by authority at and chin. Douce states that “it was enacted by a Scottish the public schools down even to the first half of the statute in 1547, that ó na woman cum to kirk, nor mercat, seventeenth century, the Accidence mentioned in the with her face mussuled or covered that scho may not be text, and the identical source whence Shakespeare him
kend.'" self acquired the elements of Latin. In “Twelfth |
(3) SCENE II.--The witch of Brentford.) The “wise. Į the Queen, the Prince (Henry), the Duke of York (afterwoman of Brentford” was an actual personage, the fame wards Charles I.), the Princess (Madame Arabella Stuart), of whose vaticinations must have been traditionally and the young Prince of Brunswick, at that time also on well known to an audience of the time, although a visit to James. Several days were afterwards spent in the records we possess of her are scant enough. The receiving and paying visits, and on the 23rd the Feast of chief of them is a black letter tract, printed by Wil. St. George was kept with the usual ceremonies. On the liam Copland in the middle of the sixteenth century, 30th we have an entry of some interest to Shakspearean entitled, “ Jyl of Braintford's Testament," from which it readers—'S. E. alla au Globe, lieu ordinaire ou l'on joue appears she was hostess of a taver at Brentford. She is les Commedies; y fut representé l'histoire du More de mentioned also in “ Westward Hoe!”—“I doubt that old Venise.' hag, Gillian of Brentford, has bewitched me."
We know from the evidence produced by Mr. Collier
that 'Othello' appeared as early as 1602; and this entry (4) SCENE V. There is three couzin Germans, that has
proves that it retained its popularity in 1610. On the cozened all the hosts of Readings, of Maidenhead, of Cole following day, Ist May, is another entry, of scientific inprook, of horses and money.] In the preliminary notice of terest:this play we mentioned an ingenious hypothesis of Mr. 'S. E. alla au parc d'Elthon (Eltham) pour veoir la perKnight in his “ Pictorial Shakspere," that the deception petuum mobile. L'inventeur s'appelle Cornelius Trebel, practised upon mine Host de Jarterre pointed to some inci natif d'Alkmar, homme fort blond et beau, et d'une très dents connected with a visit made to Windsor, in 1592, by the douce façon, tout au contraire des espricts de la sorte. Nous Duke of Würtemberg. The Duke, it appears, was known y vismes aussy des Espinettes, qui jouent d'elle mesmes.' here as “Count Mombeliard,” (query, “Mumpelgard") of I have not met with any mention of this philosopher in which title both Mr. Knight and Mr. Halliwell conceive other papers of the period; but it is certain that in 1621 the expression “cosen garmombles" in the quarto, to be he published a work in Latin, entitled • De quintessentia, a jocular corruption. “This nobleman visited Windsor, et Epistola ad Jacobum Regem de perpetui mobili invenwas shown the splendidly beautiful and royal Castle,' he tione.'
hunted a stag for a long time over a broad and pleasant The King had previously left London (on the 24th) to go plain, with a pack of remarkably good hounds ;' and, to his hunting-box in Northamptonshire; and on the 4th after staying some days, departed for Hampton Court.”” of May the Duke followed him and slept at Ware, at the From these and other circumstances, not omitting that he inn called the Stag, where, says the author of the Diary, was provided with a passport from Lord Howard, contain: "Je fus couché dans ung liet de plume de cigne, qui avoit ing instructions to the authorities of towns through which huiet pieds de largeur. This is, perhaps, the earliest he passed to furnish him with post horses, &c.; and at the precise notice yet found of this famous bed, and it serves sea-side with shipping, for which he was to pay nothing. to illustrate the passage in Shakspeare's "Twelfth Night,' Mr. Knight infers this to have been “one of those local Act III. Sc. 2, in which he alludes to the "Bed of Ware.' and temporary allusions which Shakespeare seized upon to This bed still exists, and is engraved in Shaw's 'Ancient arrest the attention of his audience."
Furniture,' where it is stated to be 10 ft. 9 in, in length, Our objections to this theory, inasmuch as the visit in by 10 ft. 9 in. in width, and to have been made in the 1592 is concerned, have already been mentioned in the reign of Elizabeth. Introduction ; but it is far from improbable that an On leaving Ware the Duke proceeded to Royston, allusion was covertly intended to some other visit of the Cambridge, Newmarket, and Thetford, where he rejoined same nobleman. From the following interesting article the King on the 7th; and the next morning the Duke by Sir Frederic Madden, we learn that the Duke of went to church with his Majesty, as it was the day “que Würtemberg--Mümplegard was in England in 1610; and sa Majesté observe infalliblement pour estre celuy de sa it is not unreasonable to suppose he might have visited dellivrance de l'assasinat des Contes de Gaury (Gowry).' us more than twice in the long interval of eighteen years. This is a remarkable passage, since other authorities give
the 5th of August as the anniversary of this conspiracy. “ Among the Additional Manuscripts in the British | On the same day James took his guests with him to hunt Museum is a small thir n quarto, containing the autograph the hare (his favourite amusement), and they saw a hawk diary, written in French, of Hans Jacob Wurmsser von seize some doterels, 'oiseau qui se laisse prendre par une Vendenheym, who accompanied Louis Frederic, Duke of estrange manière;' and also the trained cormorants, which, Wurtemberg-Mumpelgard, in his diplomatic mission to at the word of command, plunged into the water and England in 1610, on the part of the united Protestant brought up eels and other fish, which they, on a sign given, German Princes. This diary extends from 16th March vomited up alive- chose bien merveilleuse à voir ! On to 24th July of that year, and affords brief but interesting the same day, also, arrived the news of the assassination notices of the places visited by the Duke, both in coming of Henry IV. of France, which took place on the 4th and returning. He embarked from Flushing (where an May. The news, however, did not prevent the King from English garrison was stationed) on Tuesday, 12th April, hunting the hare the next day; and after dinner the whole
party returned towards London, which they reached on was waited on by Sir Lewis Lewkenor, Master of the the 10th. On the 25th the Duke of Wurtenberg left Ceremonies, and the next day conveyed in the Royal London and travelled by Rochester and Canterbury to barges to London, 'au logis de l'Aigle noir. On the 16th Dover ; whence, on the 29th, he embarked with his suite, the Duke had his audience of the King, who received him and arrived safely at the port of Veer, in Zealand, on the sitting under a 'des’ of cloth of gold, accompanied by following day."
(1) SCENE I.--Herne's ook.) One of the many pleasing | brewage. The first of these is taken from a fork pubfeatures in this sprightly comedy is the amount of local lished near the end of the seventeenth century, entitled colouring with which it is imbued. Within the last few “ A True Gentlewoman's Delight:" the other is from the years the researches of various writers have shown, to use | pen of Sir Fleetwood Shepherd. the words of Mr. Halliwell, “that “The Merry Wives of Windsor' is to be regarded, in all essential particulars, as
“ TO MAKE A SACK-Posset.-Take Two Quarts of pure good
Cream, and a Quarter of a Pound of the best Almonds. Stamp a purely English local drama, in which the actors and i them in the Cream and boyl, with Amber and Musk therein. incidents, though spiritually belonging to all time, are Then take a Pint of Sack in a basin, and set it on a Chafing dish, really founded and engrafted upon living characters, till it be blood-warm; then take the Yolks of Twelve Ergs, with amidst scenes existing, in a provincial town of England Four of their Whites, and beat them well together; and so put and its neighbourhood, in the lifetime of the poet." With the Eggs into the Sack. Then stir all together over the coals. regard to Herne's oak, the fact is now established, that a
till it is all as thick as you would have it. If you now take some
Amber and Musk, and grind the same quite small, with sugar, family of the name of Herne was living at Windsor in the
and strew this on the top of your Possit, I promise you that it sixteenth century, one Gylles Herne being married there shall have a most delicate and pleasant taste." in 1569. The old tradition was that Herne, one of the keepers in the park, having committed an offence for He must be the veriest Pythagorean who could doubt which he feared to be disgraced, hung himself upon an it; and the marvel is how such a “night-cap" erer went oak, which was ever after haunted by his ghost.
out of fashion. The Knight's preparation seems hardly The earliest notice of this oak, since immortalized by so ambrosial, but that too must have been a palatable Shakespeare, is in a “Plan of the Town and Castle of Wind. "comforter :"sor and little Park," published at Eton, in 1742. In the
“ From fam'd Barbadoes in the Western Main, map, a tree, marked “Sir John Falstaffs oak,” is repre
Fitch Sugar, ounces four; fetch Sack from Spain sented as being on the edge of a pit, (Shakespeare's fairy
A Pint; and from the Eastern Indian coast, pit!) just on the outside of an avenue which was formed in
Nutmeg, the glory of our Northern teast: the seventeenth century, and known as Queen Elizabeth's
O'er flaming coals let them together heat. Walk. The oak, a pollard, was described in 1780 as being
Till the all-conquering Sack dissolve the Sweet. twenty-seven feet in circumference, hollow, and the only
O'er such another fire, put Eggs just Ten,
New-born from tread of cock and rump of hen; tree in the neighbourhood into which boys could get.
Stir them, with steady hand, and conscience pricking, Although in a rapid state of decay, acorns were obtained
To see the untimely end of ten fine chicken. from it as late as 1783, and it would in all probability
From shining shelf take down the brazen skillet, have stood the scath of time and shocks of weather, but
A quart of Milk from gentle cow will fill it. that unfortunately it was marked down inadvertently in a
When boil'd and cold, put Milk and Sack to Ezg.
Unite them firmly, like the Triple League; list of decayed and unsightly trees which had been ordered
And on the fire let them together dwell, to be destroyed by George III., and fell a victim to the
Till Miss sing twice - You must not kiss and tell.' woodman's axe in 1796.
Then lad and lass take up a Silver Spoon:
And fall on 't fiercely, like a starved Dragoon." (2) SCENE V.-Yet be cheerful, knight : thou shalt eat
(3) SCENE V.-I am glad, though you have ta'en a special a posset to-night at my house.) To posset, whatever its
stand to strike at me, that your arrow hath glanced.) Deer derivation, meant to coagulate, or curd :
shooting was a favourite sport of both sexes in the time of " And with a sudden vigour it doth posset,
Shakespeare, and to enable ladies to enjoy it in safety and And curd, like aigre droppings into milk,
without fatigue, stands, or standings, with fiat roofs, ornaThe thin and wholesome blood" :
Hamlet, Act I, Sc. 8.
mented and concealed by boughs and bushes, were erected
in many parks. Here, armed with the cross-bow or bow and the posset originally was, perhaps, no more than
and arrow, the fair huntresses were wont to take aim at curdled milk, taken to promote perspiration. Hence, the
the animal which the keepers compelled to pass before hour of projection, the appropriate time for the admini
them. To this practice the poet alludes again in “Love's stration of the posset proper, such as we are now con
Labour's Lost," Act IV. Sc. 1 :sidering, was at night, shortly before retiring to rest ; Mrs. Quickly, in the present play, promises John Rugby
where is the bush
That we must stand and play the murderer in? “A posset soon at night,-at the end of a sea-coal fire :"
For. Hereby, upon the edge of yond r coppice ; Lady Macbeth, at night, speaks of having “ drugged the
A stand where you may make the fairest shoot." possets" of Duncan's “grooms." Martha, in Beaumont and Fletcher's “Scornful Lady,” Act II. Sc. 1, remarks
And in “Cymbeline," Act III. Sc. 4:to Welford, “Sir, 'tis so late, and our entertainment
-- u When thou hast ta'en thy stand, (meaning our posset) by this time is grown so cold, that
The elected deer before thee!" 'twere an unmannerly part longer to hold you from your rest." And in Sir John Suckling's ballad on the wedding of Lord Broghill, the last ceremony described in the bridal
(4) SCENE V. - Well, what remedy?] In the quarto, chamber is :
after Falstaff's speech, the dialogue proceeds as follows:“ Income the bride's-maids with the posset,
“MR5. Ford. Come, mistris Page, Ile be bold with you, The bridegroom ate in spite :
'Tis pity to part love that is so true. For, had he left the women to't,
MRS. PAGE. Altho' that I have missed in my intent,
Yet I am glad my husband's match was crossed ;
Here, M. Fenton, take her, and God give thee joy.
Sır Hu, Corne, Master Page, you must needs agree. On the nature and qualities of Sack, “Simple of
FORD. I yfaith, sir, come, you see your wife is wel pleased. itself,” the commentators are profuse in information.
PAGE. I cannot tel, and yet my hart's well eased.
And yet it doth me good the Docior missed. On this, its crowning luxury,--the famous and universally
Come hither, Fenton, and come hither, daughter; popular sack-posset,--they afford us none at all. Luckily,
Go too. you might have stai'd for my gooi will, we are enabled to supply this grave omission, having at But since your choise is made of one you love, hand two recipes, infallibly authentic, for the precious Here take her, Fenton, and both happie prove."