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he said,

Another Indian stood listening to the missionary Another, who was travelling, happened to hear a preaching of “ Christ, and Him crucified," in the stranger reading the Bible while on a journey, and depths of the lonely forest. He heard the story was so struck by the truths to which he listened, that until tears rolled down his face, and coming forward, he sought further instruction, and became a Chris

Did Jesus die for me?—die for poor tian. When he returned home, he told his tribe of Indian ?” “Me have no lands to give Jesus ; the his adoption of Christianity, and a most violent white man take them all away; me give him my dog persecution began in consequence. He was imprisoned and my rifle." The missionary told him that God in the wigwam of the chief, and tortured frightfully; could not accept such gifts. He replied, “Me give but, by the unexpected kindness of a woman of the Jesus my dog, my rifle, my blanket: poor Indian, he tribe, he was shown a way of escape, and fled. He got no more to give ; he give Jesus all.” Again he succeeded in reaching a place of safety, and found was told that Jesus did not want these. The Red both friendship and protection. man bowed his head in tearful thoughtfulness; then, To-day, there are Churches, having over 5,000 as a new idea struck him, he looked up, crying, members, among the Red Indians, and from some of “Here is poor Indian: will Jesus have him ?” And these Churches, native missionaries have been sent he gave himself to Jesus, then and there.

forth to preach Christ to their countrymen.


By Rev. Thomas KEYWORTH,
Autlor of The Match of the Season,” “ Cricket Curiosities,” Jc.


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F invention fifty years ago, everything connected with the game needs an inventor, has been altered except the distance between the cricket was never wickets. Twenty-two yards were appointed at first, invented, it grew. the length of a chain, and that remains the distance Much of the un- to this day. We have here an element of permacertainty about its nency which we can readily understand. Chains origin arises from would be at hand, as convenient measures of length, the fact that it and as twenty-two yards have not proved too much was slowly deve- or too little for either bowlers or batsmen, the oriloped out of seve- ginal space has been continued. But all the impleral games which ments of the game have been altered. Bats, balls, were played in and stumps are different now from what they were when various parts of Love wrote his poem, or when the artist depicted the the country; and cricket of 1740.

it is impossible to The picture makes the changes more apparent than say what stage had been reached in the earliest the poem does, for a writer simply mentions the imes when the word cricket is found in literature.

names of things, and as many of the terms used in Cricket had been played for centuries before the first the game are the same now as they were when Love rules were drawn up. It was like many boys' games wrote, there seems to have been less alteration than at the present time, in which certain customs are ob- has really taken place. We are familiar with wickets served, or ought to be observed, but of which there consisting of three stumps and two bails, but in the is no official code which can be referred to, should picture there are only two stumps and one bail. Oridisputes arise. Among some boys a rough and ready ginally, in some parts of England, if not throughout method is in vogue, by which might is often the the country, only one stump was used, and this was tyrant of right; and it is possible that before the pitched in a round hole; then when two stumps middle of the eighteenth century an equally unsatis- were adopted, with another stump laid across them, factory plan was adopted for overcoming small the hole was retained between the stumps, and a difficulties even when men were the contenders.

batsman was put out by the ball being placed in the Roughly speaking, the middle of the eighteenth hole. century is the period at which cricket began to make

Stumped out was not enumerated then among for itself a place in the art and literature of England. the various ways in which a player could lose his There is a picture in existence which represents the wicket. He was said to be “put out.” And long game being played at about 1740, and the most afterwards, when stumping was recognised, the old famous cricket poem ever composed was that of term was sometimes used, and men were said to be James Love ; it was written in 1746, and describes "put out.” This is only an example of the manner a great match between Kent and All England, on the in which words live in our language when changes Artillery Ground, Finsbury. Kent and

All England take place which render them no longer appropriate. had been opponents as far back as 1711, but no We not only speak about the popping crease, but details about the match played then have come down about the block

hole, though popping is discontinued, to us.

and the block hole is no more. Many changes have It has often been pointed out that since the first taken place with respect to the stumps. In several laws of cricket were published, nearly a hundred and books on cricket there are diagrams which present

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Cricket Bats, Ancient and Modern. these changes at a glance, and show the dates when came up before batsmen began to protect either their the alterations were made. But none of them show hands or legs. There was an outcry against leg. the single stump. The evidence for this was con- guards at first, as they were said to increase the tained in an old manuscript, and the best authori- number of byes. Like many good inventions they ties on the history of the game insert it in their were withdrawn for a time, only to be introduced books.

again and to become universal. The wicket-keepers Catching out and running out must have been far were still more dilatory to protect themselves, and more common than bowling out in the early days of some of them faced as fast bowling as was ever cricket. Bowling at two stumps, when they were known, and took the ball with the naked hands. In only one foot high and two feet apart, was all in reports of cricket matches a generation or two ago, favour of the batsmen. Advantages to the bowlers it is sometimes said, rather disparagingly, that the came slowly. The stumps were made higher and wicket-keeper had gloves on. brought more closely together, then a third stump This absence of pads is one marked difference was added, and the wickets were enlarged. They between the old cricket and the new. The players have been enlarged more than once. The present wore knee-breeches and silk stockings, when they size, which has never been regularly exceeded, dates could afford the latter luxuries, and sometimes a only from 1817. Experiments have been tried with severe blow was followed by a blood-stain on the larger wicke's, but they have not been favourably silk, or a lump would be seen rising underneath the received. In the old pictures we see the wicket- stocking. keeper represented as standing further away from Such pictures as the one which represents the the stumps than he does now. In fact, the early great match at Brighton, between Kent and Sussex, copies of rules state that the wicket-keeper must bring to our minds the old custom of wearing that stand a reasonable distance behind the wicket. style of hat which for want of a proper name is called What was considered a reasonable distance we cannot “stove-pipe.” We should be surprised if cricketers tell. It is considered sufficient in these days to appeared in that kind of headgear now. It has gone stipulate that he shall not take the ball in front of | out of fashion, and a good thing too. Caps are the the stumps, and shall not by any noise incommode favourite coverings of cricketers at present, except the striker.

with a few bold players who dare the hottest sun No pads or gloves were worn by either wicket- bareheaded. In the old pictures the men are seen keeper or batsmen. But it is probable that the to be wearing caps, and a favourite style resembles bowling was rather slow at first. The pictures a jockey's cap. But the umpires wore the threewhich we have representing cricket in the eighteenth cornered hats which were such favourites with John century, in which the kind of bowling can be judged Wesley that he would not allow any of his preachers from the posture of the bowlers, lead us to suppose to wear any other sort. The umpires and scorers that no run was taken, and that the bowling there are the only antique-looking figures among the fore was not very fast." But swift bowling certainly players in the old pictures. They are really imong


them. We see the scorers calmly seated, dangerously kept, and it was found to damage the turf. Then, near the wicket, and the umpire at the batsman's in olden times, most hits were run out; boundaries wicket is almost between the wicket-keeper and the were not common, and therefore boundary hits were longstop. This is said to be an engraver's mistake, not generally possible. The reason why there were but it occurs in se ral pictures which represent not so many large scores in former times is mainly cricket during the eighteenth century.

owing to the roughness of the ground. The great The umpires stand, bat in hand, after the manner scores of the last thirty years are not all in conwhich continued till the present generation, and sequence of improved playing; a great deal must be which is still generally practised in some matches. credited to the perfect grounds. What is the man's name who was bold enough to go We have already said that a perusal of Love's to his post as umpire, without bat, for the first poem would not lead us to suppose that many time? Doubtless his decisions would be looked upon changes had taken place in the game since he wrote suspiciously. There were men who thought that it, if we had nothing else to guide us in the estimate umpires without bats were not fit to interpret the we formed. The simple fact is, that the outline of rules of the game, or decide difficult points as they the game was the same then as now, and a poem can arose. The scoring was done on a stick, or rather be expected to deal with outlines only. Technical on two sticks; for a couple of laths were bound points will appear only casually. together, and a notch was made for every run. In Love speaks of the bowling as being fast, and that the old rules the runs are always called notches, as is not what the pictures would lead us to expect. they are still among some old-fashioned players. The strain of the poem is heroic, and the com

It would not be right to judge the size of the ball parisons are exaggerated, like those of the classical by the representation of it in pictures. But we may authors whom he imitated. The first bowler was safely assume that it was larger a hundred and forty Hodswell, and we reador fifty years ago than it is now. At the present

“Four times from Hodswell's aim it skims the grass." time both the size and weight are fixed within very narrow limits; but the old rules say nothing about

This refers to the ball. Hodswell bowled what the size, they simply stipulate that it must be between are now called daisy-cutters ; but it must be refive and six ounces in weight. Unless the balls were membered that the stumps were low, and it was

Four balls an put together very tightly, they would be a good size necessary to keep the balls down. they were only a trifle under six ounces.

over was the custom then as now. There are many But we see most difference in the bats. The demands made for five balls or six balls ; but some modern cricket bat is too well known to need de- of the best bowlers, including Southerton, have scription. It is limited both as to length and width. declared that four balls are quite sufficient. The Convenience of playing the modern game has caused next bowler was Mills, and the description of his the present form to be adopted. Very different is style brings to our mind certain underhand bowlers the bat in the old pictures. It is long and curved. whom we have seenSome writers have called it spoon-shaped. We have

“Then poised, and rising as he tbrew, seen bone egg-spoons which for shape looked very

Swift from his hand the fatal missive flew !" much like the bats of the first part of the eighteenth The reference to bats at the beginning of the century. Defensive play was not practised then. The

poem calls them “ well turned bats.” The turning batsman's endeavour was to hit the ball away, and was probably the shape which has been already the bat was convenient for the purpose. The bat mentioned. Though something is said about dewas a variation of the crooked stick which had been fending the wickets, yet the chief use of the bat was used in some of the games from which cricket was to strike great swinging blows. “ He waved his bat developed. Some of the old bats are still in exist with fearful swing," is said of Bryan. It is difficult ence, and there are enthusiastic collectors of cricket to understand what is meant by, · With double bats who preserve specimens which enable us to see skill each dangerous ball they shun," unless it refers the gradual changes by which the long and curved to balls which were likely to be caught. bats became the straight and convenient instruments There was a line or fence around the ground, but n use to-day. Some of the alterations were brought balls which passed it were not boundary hits, they had about by changes which took place in the character to be run out. Bryan sent the " battered pellet o'er of bowling, and some were compelled by laws which the ring," then five times crossed the shining were passed to prevent players using bats which hid plain.” We learn incidentally that the players were the wicket too much.

in white, though nothing is said about the material Many differences between cricket past and present which they wore. can be learnt from an examination of the old pictures; but there is much to be learnt from other

“In decent white most gracefully arrayed." We cannot tell from the pictures whethus They wore shoes and buckles, as was the custom the grounds were good or not, but we know that the then. The poet does not tell us so; it was too comlevel grounds of the present time are a wonderful monplace for him to mention that. improvement on the fields in which the old players The gambling element which was connected with followed the game. Very little care was given to cricket in carly times is mentioned, and without the preparation of wickets, and the outfielding in reprobation. In the days when matches were played the best matches was like that which is sometimes for money there was a good deal of gambling, and it seen in village contests now. The creases were is well known that players were sometimes bribed to creases cut in the turf; and this was not dis- do badly that they might help their side to lose. continued until cricket-grounds became carefully Mr. Pycroft, in the Cricket Field, has given some



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particulars about the “dark age” of cricket, when Professional cricketing is very different now from gambling and bribery were prevalent.

what it was a century ago. A professional then was We have been told of late years that gambling is paid for a match, and then went back to his work until common in Australia when a great match is played, he was wanted again ; but now some hundreds of but Mr. Murdoch has denied it. No greater curse men devote themselves entirely to cricket during can befall cricket than for it to be made the subject four or five months of the year. The more sucof betting. It is a pity that the Rules of Cricket, cessful of them contrive to live during the winter published by the Marylebone Club, provide for the upon their summer fees. settlement of disputed bets. But there is not much But perhaps the chief difference between cricket gambling in connection with cricket now, and this past and present is the respectability of the game in is one of the things in which it has changed with comparison with the doubtful reputation under advantage. Love says

which it suffered at one time. There are clubs now “ The busy bettor calculates the odds,

connected with schools, colleges, churches, and all Swift round the plain in busy murmurs run

kinds of institutions. A change has taken place "I'll hold you ten to four, Kent,'—*Done, Sir, done.'” since a writer in the Gentleman's Magazine wrote in

Notches are mentioned ; and bail, where we have 1743: " The diversion of cricket may be proper in bails ; but besides these there are not many changes when men ought to be busy, and in the neigh

holyday-time and in the country; but upon days to be noted in the phraseology of the game. There bourhood of a great city, it is not only improper were eleven players on each side as now. One of them made a catch, though he fell in doing so, and of people from their employment, to the ruin of

but mischievous in a high degree. It draws numbers another missed an easy chance. Most of the poem their families. It brings together crowds of apwould be appropriate to a match of the present time, prentices and servants whose time is not their own ; and it is almost difficult to believe that it refers to it propagates a spirit of idleness; and it is a cricket in 1746. But there is one point of difference wbich may be mentioned.

most notorious breach of the laws, as it gives the

We have often noticed how quickly the ground is cleared when the bell tisements most impudently reciting that great sums

most open encouragement to gaming; the adverrings. Love refers to a far rougher method:

are laid, so that some people are so little ashamed of “Smith plies with strenuous arm the smacking whip.” breaking the laws that they had hand in making,

Smith was the master of the ground, and that that they give public notice of it." was the manner in which he kept the playing space free from intruders. We have known times when Smith with his whip would have been useful.

Among the changes which have taken place in cricket, we must mention the new districts in which it has been adopted. Love speaks of the rivalry which existed between various places, and he enumerates Fierce Kent, Gay Surrey, Fruitful Sussex, and London, Queen of Cities. He says nothing about Nottinghamshire or Yorkshire. These counties were not known then as places where cricket was played. But the north was not without cricketers even at that time. The full score of the match between Kent and England, which Love describes, is in existence, and it is the oldest full score which has been preserved. The

How's that, Umpire ? next is dated 1771, and relates to a match at Nottingham between Nottingham and Sheffield. It gives the names and the totals of the innings, but does not say which players made the runs. But it shows that cricket was played further north than

A TRUE ROMANCE. many Londoners thought. There is a singular entry in the accounts of the Sheffield Church Bur. A AMBER boli tears ago some miners in Wales in exploring gesses, may be quoted as showing that cricket young man dressed in a fashion long out of date. The was played at Sheffield about the time to which peculiar action of the air of the mine was such as preserved Love's poem refers : “Paid cricket players on the body so perfectly that it appeared asleep rather than dead. Shrove Tuesday, to entertain the populace, and to The miners were puzzled at the circumstance. No one in the

district had been missed within their remembrance, and at last prevent the infamous practice of throwing at cocks, it was resolved to bring in the oldest inhabitant-an old lady 14/6.” The date of that is 1757.

long past her 80th year, who had lived single in the village But cricket in the north remained a rough the whole of her life. On being taken into the presence of the “swiping ”game long after it had become scientific body a very strange scene occurred. The old lady fell on the

and kissed it, and addressed it by every term of endearin the south. The visit of southern players to ment spoken in a bygone generation. He was her only love, Nottingham and Sheffield soon taught the natives and she had waited for him during her long life. She knew the nicer points of the game, and helped to produce he had not forsaken her. The old lady and young man had that wonderful flock of professional cricketers which been betrothed sixty years before. The lover had disappeared

mysteriously, and she had kept her faith during the long intergo forth every year from those districts to all parts of val. The miners removed the old lady to her house, and that the British Isles, and even across the Atlantic. night her faithful spirit rejoined that of her long-lost lover.




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Russian boy, it is only fair to say that it will not do to judge him by our rules, or to expect him to conform to our ideas of perfection. Naturally, he is not truthful, nor honest, nor straightforward in any way.

So much for his morals!

Nor is he, as a rule, intellectual, or ambitious as a student or a thinker. So much for his mind!

Neither is he a cricketer, nor oarsman, nor athlete, nor & sportsman, nora swimmer. So much for his physical powers !

“But," I hear you say,

• there cannot be anything but bad in such a boy as this; no

thing good to work Bee-keeping, too, is a farourite pastime."

upon, not a thing

to take hold of.” A! but there are boys I beg your pardon; there is still room for a few and boys !” said a friend virtues and noble points which would soon become of mine to me the other further developed and a real power for good, were it day, when we were com- not

for the shocking training which most boys receive paring notes as to our in Russia, and the utter absence of those kind of respective nephews, and influences which tend, under God's blessing, to form young cousins, and boy the character aright. acquaintances. “And," But if the Russian boy is deficient in moral tone, he continued, “though and independence of thought, and vigour of physique, a boy-lover, I cannot say he is also pleasantly wanting in the quality which it I like all boys.”

takes a slang word to express, and which is thus

“Well, I can!” I commonly called “ cheek!” replied; “I like them - even the worst, in I remember, some years ago, hearing the late Dr. sort of a kind of a way (as my little niece would Samuel Manning relate a little incident in his own

experience, an incident which would have been And, perhaps, it is because I like even the worst simply impossible in Russia, from the difference in of them, that I cannot help loving even Russian boys, the character of English and Russian boys. who, by nature, and by practice, too," are very far Dr. Manning found himself on one occasion in a from our standard of what a boy should be, and what London crowd, through which it was necessary that he frequently is, too, both in England and America, he should pass. He was trying to make his way and possibly in other countries about which I know among the people, but just before him stood a dirty, nothing.

ragged lad, a regular city Arab, one of the family of But, first, before I give you particulars about the the great unwashed and uncared for, which, alas!

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