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are too numerous in every large city. Laying his share in whatever dainties he may have, anticipating hands upon the boy's shoulders, the good doctor tried thus the courteous, ungrudging hospitality which, gently to move him a little to one side, so that he later in life, it will be his duty and his privilege to might pass on towards his destination, when the show. urchin, leering knowingly up into the face above him, With regard to the school-boy, the difference said, with an ineffable dignity which would have between English and Russian is more marked than done honour to a prince, “ Do yer know who you're ever; nothing can be greater than the dissimilarity a shovin' of?The roguish humour, serene between the youths belonging to the educational independence, and sublime impudence of the speech establishments of the two countries. In the first could not have blended in the words of any Russian place, the greater part of the higher class schools are boy, because, from his difference of nature, he would Government institutions, and the pupils are day be utterly incapable of such feelings, or too timid to scholars, not boarders. There are, of course, some express, even if he felt them.

private boarding schools, but their number is few But having told you so much that the Russian boy compared with the others, and they are managed on is not, I may as well tell you something of what he a wholly different system from modern schools in is; and as I have lived among Russians for a good England. many years, I can, perhaps, give you a little idea of How would British lads like the system of represhis character and circumstances.

sive discipline which prevails throughout nearly all I wish you could have looked with me out of my schools and colleges in Russia ? window to-day, and seen a sight which often greets In England boys are encouraged to form their own my eyes during the winter months. Bounding past opinions, to meet for discussion and interchange of down the street at racing speed, over the pure snow thought, to be interested in all that is going on about road, was a boy of about thirteen years of age, perhaps. them, politically and socially; to join in the editing He had harnessed himself, in quite a clever, ingenious, of school magazines-in short, they are taught to be and picturesque manner, to a little sledge, and on men in reason, and judgment, and independence of this were seated a wee brother and sister warmly bundled up in furs, with bashliks their heads, and each carrying satchel of books.

The big brother seemed to enjoy playing horse in so useful manner, for he kept looking round in & most unsteed-like way, laughing and shouting; and his eyes sparkled, and his cheeks glowed with the frost and the exercise, while he dragged the little equipage with its happy

load to school. And this illustrates excellent quality in Russian boys— kindheartedness

He can angle without leave or licence." and good - nature. These you see constantly displayed, even when the thought. Whereas in home influence has not been calculated to foster such Russia no lad may express traits of character. Fondness for little children, his opinion upon any subfondness for animals, a simple, child-like delight in ject outside of his own their pleasure and comfort, -these are qualities not studies, or the topics to be despised.

immediately under the And an equally important and attractive element notice of

of the school. in the Russian character is the unselfishness, which Under no pretext whatis the spontaneous outcome of an amiable, genial ever are any number of nature. Greediness is a thing despised by Russian the lads allowed to meet lads, and rare, indeed, is it to see a boy who will not for discussion or debate; willingly and cordially invite his companions to and were such a culpable

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extreme attempted such as the printing of a school Here, however, the boys, in time of recess, play ball, magazine, or chronicle, it would be an affair for the garratki (a sort of mild, spurious cricket), and a police to look into, and there might be fear even of game the name of which, translated,

toucharrests.

and-go." But in a usual way scholars have but little In the public schools both classics and mathe opportunity or encouragement to develop a taste for matics are taught, but more especial attention is paid out-door games while at school, though in winter to the acquiring of modern languages, which is a they sometimes have an ice-bill built in the yard at branch considered almost indispensable.

home, down which they slide on little sledges during But of all the school-boys, perhaps, the village lad holiday time. is happiest in his amusements. When study hours No such things (so far as I have been able to are over, a walk of a few moments takes him right out ascertain) as scholarships or exhibitions are attached into the country, and he may wander at will through to any schools here, but a really talented fellow may, woods abounding with flowers and various kinds of in spite of poverty, obtain a good education for wild fruit; or he can angle without leave or licence nothing in some of the public institutions, as a special in streams teeming with fish; or in the autumn provision is made for such. months he can look for mushrooms, his quick eye

of scientific instruments and books marking their first appearance above the soil

, and common enough, also diplomas to those students who knowing at a glance whether they are Bieloi-Gribbui, have successfully gone through a certain course of or Biriosoviks, or Massliniks, or the many other sorts study. Occasionally, too, in the middle-class schools, eaten so largely by the Russians, whether fresh, a gold or silver medal is the reward of merit or salted, pickled, or dried for winter use.

special proficiency. Then, too, in some parts of Russia the keeping of But, I am sorry to say, the stimulus to ambition bees is a pastime to the children, as well as a real is not of the strongest or highest kind, and the branch of industry to their elders, and the boys find scholar of ten passes lazily and superficially through pleasure in making friends with the little creatures, the respective classes of his school, crams at the last as well as in sharing the spoils of the flower-sweets. just enough to avoid being plucked at the final Quite early in life the children learn how to manage examinations, and emerges from his course of study, the bees, and thus succeed naturally to their parents

' knowing really little more in some ways than when duties, inheriting alike the labour and the profits he went in, while, in only too many others, he has that belong to the hives.

learned what he will never, never unlearn all his life For the willing, ambitious, capable, and studious through. boy (a rare phenomenon in Russia) there is the The boys' health, however, is not neglected. Sanipossibility of a fair education; for the masters are, tary conditions are generally carefully looked to in for the most part, well qualified to impart instruction, the boarding schools. Personal cleanliness and order only they do not care to be troubled with the idle or are insisted upon, and good food is given. stupid lads, nor is the influence in the schools such, As to religious teaching, the Russian boys have as a rule, that these ever become stimulated to real direct instruction in their own faith from an apeffort, and praiseworthy attempts to conquer laziness pointed priest, who comes at certain times to cateor stupidity. The mind of the young Russian is chise and teach them. Portions of the New Testabetter adapted for the study of mathematics than ment form a part of the instruction imparted, but classics, but oftener still it shows a preference for a the Bible, I believe, is never put into a lad's hands; plain, practical, commercial education. And, indeed, and, furthermore, the teaching from the New Testasome of the sharpest and most successful merchants ment is so mixed up with “ traditions of men," and and traders in the country are to be found among the superstitions, rites, and customs that have grown the Russians, though the Germans and Poles far up around the Greek Church, that the power of excel them in the learned professions, the mechani. Christ's life in its beautiful simplicity is lost. cal arts, and in scientific pursuits.

The punishments of the evil-doers (when found On the whole, as you may have gathered from out) of the schools do not include either flogging or what has been said, the education given to most boys fining, but solitary confinement in a cell, deprivation here is not thorough. A smattering of many things of all food but bread and water, the being kept in is taught, and a certain grace and polish of manner during recess and holiday time, and forbidden to visit they certainly acquire, which English lads might do friends—these are the usual penalties paid by Russian well to imitate. But in a general way the knowledge boys for their faults and misdeeds at schools. gained does not go deep. It is laid on like veneer, As may be supposed, their pleasures are few. and like veneer, too, it wears off. The boy is not Altogether our English lads may be thankful for taught to think, reason, act, judge for himself, to will our privileges, and bless God who has made them to the thing that is right, and do it because it is right; differ from the boys of this distant land, where civilito control self, and deny self. Of all this the Russian sation is still, in some ways, in its infancy, and boy hears and knows nothing.

where religion has not yet shaken off the trammels Then, as to the moral tone of the schools, I have of superstition and error, and become a real power been informed by Russian boys then selves that it for good throughout the nation. is not only low, but in many cases positively vicious. There is much in the Russian youth that is And what, indeed, can be expected, when so little of attractive. A loving heart, capable of absolute good is inculcated to keep out the evil to which every devotion and unswerving allegiance; a kindly, human heart is prone ?

unselfish nature, ever ready to impart and to forgive; There are no playgrounds connected with day courteous, gentle manners; a quick and ready tact : schools, but only with the private boarding schools. surely, these are qualities to be admired, and we Our Prize Competition Papers.

459

trust that this brief account of Russian boys may could not get other food in the wilderness; but now that excite the sympathy of our English lads, and teach they had reached Canaan, which was “a land of wheat and them, too, to value more highly and improve more

barley," there was plenty of corn to make bread of, so the diligently all the blessings that are theirs.

manna did not appear any more. Many things we need here

on earth will not be required in beaven, where all things are M. E. R. perfect. For instance, in Rev. xxii. 5, we read, “They need

no candle, neither light of the sun." Why?

Brend sustains life. Christ called Himself the “ Bread of Life," because He came down to earth to give eternal life to all who trust in Him as their Saviour.

OUR PRIZE COMPETITION PAPERS.

manna ceanes,

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III. AY ANGEL APPEARS TO JOSHUA.

This was not an ordinary angel, but the Lord Jesus Christ OUTLINE SUNDAY-SCHOOL LESSON FOR A Himself, who is often spoken of in the Old Testament as the JUNIOR CLASS.

Angel of the Lord (Gen, xvi. 7-13; Exodus iii. ; Judges xiii., &c.). He appeared to Joshua as the Captain of the Lord's Host, to tell him how the city of Jericho was to be taken,

and tu encourage him for the coming strife. Jesus is the SUBJECT FOR JULY 15.

Captain of our Salvation (Heb. ii. 10); it is only trusting in Tue FALL OF JERICHO.Joshua v. 10-15; and vi. 1-5. Him and following Him that we can overcome sin.

Shall we pot always look to Him as our Leader, Teacher, and Helper? Joshua was commanded to take off his shoes. Why? Can

you remember another instance in which the same command HE Passover is kept. II. The was given? It is still an Eastern custom. (Describe how

III. An angel Moslems take off their shoes before entering their mosques to appears to Joshua.

IV. And worship.)
instructs him how to besiege
Jericho.

IV. DESCRIPTION OF THE SIEGE OF JERICHO.
PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS.

Jericho was a great city, about fifteen miles from Jerusa

lem; it stood in a very fertile and beautiful plain, where 1. What river had the Israel- there were a great many palm-trees, so that Jericho was ites just crossed ?

called “the city of palm-trees." It was here that the two 2. How long was it since they spies sent by Joshua had been lodged and hidden by Rahab. had left Egypt?

When the King of Jericho heard of the arrival of the children 3. How many of the men who of Israel, he had the city shut up, and no one was allowed had eaten the first Passover were to go out or to come in. When a general wants to take a alive?

city, he usually surrounds it with an army till, for lack of 4. Who was now their leader? food, it surrenders, or bis soldiers attack the walls until a 5. Where were they encamped ? breach is made, and the army can go in and take possession ; but Jericho was to be taken in a very different way.

How? INTRODUCTION.

(Describe the manner in which it was to be besieged and Although the children of Israel were no longer in the captured.) Wilderness, but had at last entered the Promised Land, their

Seven is a number often mentioned in Scripture; give dangers and difficulties were by no means at an end. Å time instancee. Joshua faithfully obeyed the Lord's commands. of fierce warfare was before them; they had still a great must have been ! that great multitude, with the golden ark

What was the result? Victory. What a strange sight it before they could lay down their arms and dwell safely. In and the white-robed priests with their

trumpets in the midst, the beautiful land of Canaan there dwelt many wicked, un

going round the city day after day. How surprised and awed godly nations, and these, according to the Lord's command, the people in the city must have been! Perhaps some only must be slain and rooted out of the country. Does not this scoffed at the procession, thinking themselves quite secure; remind us of our own hearts ? Even after we have come to and others may have been terrified, but all the time Rahab Christ and received forgiveness of sins and new hearts, the old felt safe. Why? because the spies had promised to save her nature is still within us, fighting against the new, and trying and her family if she bound a scarlet thread to her window, to overthrow it. What must we do? We should always and she had not forgotten to do so. This reminds us of the seek God's help and grace to fight against our sins. What Israelites safe in Egypt on the Passover night, because the is meant by “besetting sin ”Where are we told to lay it blood was sprinkled on the lintels and side-posts of their aside ? Do you know any texts which speak of Christians doors. Both blood and thread are types of what? What fighting against sin? (Eph. vi. 10-13, &c. ; 2 Cor. x. 3, 4; can shelter us from the wrath to come”? 1 Tim. vi. 12.)

"And the wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the

people shall ascend up every man straight before him." I. THE PASSOVER IS KEPT.

Picture the terror of the citizens when the strong walls they What was the Passover? When was it first kept? How had been trusting in to protect them fell to pieces, though many days did it last? What is unleavened bread ?

unassailed by any visible power. Nothing can resist God's This is the third time that we read of the Israelites obsery- might. This capture of Jericho is a fine example of the ing this feast. The first time it had been beld in Egypt, obedience and the power of faith. Strange as the Lord's the second time in the wilderness of Sinai (Num. ix. 5). commands may have appeared to the Israelites, they simply It was a memorial feast, that is, it was to remind them of obeyed. Why? because they believed that what God had their great deliverance from Egypt, where they had been in said would come to pass. slavery for so many years, and of God's great power and

What is faith? Just taking God at His word, believing might. Now, especially, such a remembrance would en. everything He says. Probably some of the Hebrew warriors courage them for the coming battle; the God who had saved would have preferred to have rushed on the city the first day, them from the “house of bondage” would still help them and taken it by main force. Here is a lesson for us; only against their foes. So when we meet with troubles, or are by faith (God's appointed way) can we be saved ; only by empted to do wrong, and begin to feel afraid, let us remem- faith can we overcome sin and Satan. What chapter in the ber how good and loving our God has already been in giving Bible tells of the wonderful things that have been done by His dear son to die for us, and let us trust Him to take care faith? (Heb. xi.) Faith is the Christian's shield (Eph. of us, and to help us through whatever lies before us. What vi. 16). What is a shield ? nemorial feast do Christians keep? (Luke xxii, 19).

The Ark of the Covenant was a type of Christ. Christ in

our midst, the secret of victory. With Him the centre of our II. THE MANNA CEASES.

hearts and lives, how many of Satan's strongholds would be

overthrown! how many foes would be conquered! (1 John What was manna like? When had it first been sent ?

v. 4.) God sent manna as long as the people needed it, when they

MARIE A. MACINTOSH (21).

SEA STORIES OF PERIL AND ADVENTURE, BATTLE AND SHIPWRECK.

By W. DAVENPORT ADAMS,

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IN PERSIAN AND MEDITERRANEAN The fleets then parted, and dropped anchor for the WATERS.

night.

The following day was occupied in refitting and EAR the close of January, repairing damages ; but on the 3rd, the merchant1625, & squadron of four men, as they still retained the weather-gage, ran English and five Dutch down to attack the Portuguese, with the Royal James merchantmen lay at an- leading the van. As he sailed along their line chor in the roadstead of Captain Weddell received a succession of broadsides, Gombroon, in the Persian but he reserved his own fire until he reached the Gulf. News came that admiral; then, passing between him and another the Portuguese, who then vessel, he crashed his shot into each, so that they claimed a monopoly of reeled from stem to stern. Afterwards he engaged the Indian trade, had the admiral yard-arm to yard-arm, and a desperate fitted out a fleet with a contention arose between the two fleets, and was view to its destruction; hotly maintained until dusk. and the merchantmen, The Portuguese ships were so much injured, and being strongly built and had lost so many men, that on the 4th they retired

heavily armed, resolved into shallow water, where, under the fire of the shore to oppose a strenuous resistance. The batteries, they busily refitted. Ten days later they hostile armada, which included eight again showed themselves at sea, but were instantly ships of war and numerous frigates, attacked by the English and Dutch fleets, and or armed galleys, hove in sight on the received such a mauling that towards evening they

31st of January. With prompt gal. hastily retreated. The victors were not able to conlantry, Captain John Weddell, who commanded the tinue the pursuit to any distance, for not only had English, signalled to prepare for action, and the they expended almost all their powder and shot, but Dutch commodore having followed his example, the it was necessary for them to proceed to Surat two squadrons weighed and boldly stood towards the and complete their cargoes, so that they might enemy.

leave the coast before the summer monsoon began But in the evening a dead calm prevailed, and to blow. the ships came to an anchor. The Dutchman then sent an officer to Captain Weddell, on board the England first sent a fleet to the Mediterranean Royal James, to ask what he thought of the strangers. —that sea which is now one of the chief channels of Weddell replied that he had no doubt they were the her commerce, and the principal theatre for the disPortuguese fleet which had been fitted out at Goa, play of her naval power—in 1652. with the view of compassing their destruction, and In the September of that year, Captain Richard preventing England and Holland from sharing in the Bodley (or Badiley), with four small men-of-war and spoils of India. He added that his resolution was as many armed merchantmen, was making his way that, to the glory of God, the honour of the nation, between the islands of Elba and Monte Christo, when, the profit of the worthy employers, and the safeguard on the 6th, he came in sight of a powerful Dutch of their lives, ships, and goods, he would fight it out squadron, under Admiral van Galen, consisting of as long as a man was living in his ship to bear a eleven or twelve war-ships. The latter immediately sword, and that he doubted not but the other three ordered an attack, but as a calm prevailed, the ships under his command were all of the same mind battle did not begin until the day following. Bodley and courage. This notable message roused a similar was then engaged with four of the enemy's ships, spirit of intrepidity in the Dutchman, and he replied which he opposed with so much resolution and skill that they were of the like resolution, and would stick that they at length retired; his consorts fought with as close to the English as their shirts to their no less courage and tenacity, and the battle lasted backs.

until evening. The merchantmen, having rich Before dawn on the day following, the combined cargoes on board, escaped during the night, Bodley squadron weighed, and set out to encounter the Por- keeping his station with his little squadron to prevent tuguese; but as soon as they had exchanged broad- the Dutch from pursuing them. sides the light breeze died away, and the ships for Morning showed some of the Dutch ships a long awhile lay becalmed.

way to leeward, and for want of wind unable to join After the fight had thus continued in a desultory their companions; but with eight vessels Van Galen way for four or five hours, a breeze sprang up; again encountered his enemy, and a bloody méléc Captain Weddell, by superior skill in manæuvring, began. A desperate attempt to board Bodley's ship got the weather-gage, and then, slipping under the was bravely repulsed, and Van Galen, after having admiral's stern, swept bis decks with a storm of shot. been thrice on fire and severely handled, sheered off His cor sorts as they came up joined in the fight, and in hot haste. Young Cornelis Tromp, in a large a hot engagement ensued, lasting until sunset. man-of-war, then took up the contest; but in his In Persian and Mediterranean Waters.

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turn was beaten away, partially dismasted, and his brave men exchanged a cordial greeting. Bodley deck strewn with dead and dying. The English entertained his visitor at dinner in his cabin, drank ship Phænix attacked him while he was in this con- to the health of the Dutch admiral with a “one, two, dition and compelled him to succumb, but the Dutch and three !” and on Tromp's taking leave, honoured fleet poured in so heavy a fire that she in her turn him with a salute from the very guns which the day was forced to haul down her colours, and the Dutch before had rained deadly shot upon him. took possession of her and of her prize. In the The Maid of Eckhuysen was so torn with the evening the hostile squadrons separated, and Bodley largest balls that it was found necessary to leave

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made for Porto Longone, a harbour in the island her at Ajaccio to be repaired, and Cornelis Tromp of Elba,

shifted his flag to the captured Phoenix, with which, In Porto Longono Van Galen kept him shut up still under Van Galen's orders, he cruised between for five months, the neutrality laws preventing him Leghorn and Porto Longone, to the intense morfrom breaking into the harbour. Tromp's vessel tification of the English. To see the red cross had suffered so severely in the fierce encounter that flying underneath the flag of Holland was gall and he was compelled to run towards Corsica, but the wormwood to our brave mariners, and plans were day after the fight, having been ordered to land at concocted for the recapture of the English ship. Elba with a message for the Spanish Governor, he These, however, were not favoured by Commodore obtained permission to call on Bodley, and the two Sir Henry Appleton, who was chief in command,

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