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cially of the greater sort) do commit, for want of a friend to tell them of them, to the great damage both of their fame and fortune: for, as St. James saith, they are as men “ that look sometimes into a glass, and presently forget their own shape and favour.” As for business, a man may think, if he will, that two eyes see no more than one; or that a gamester seeth always more than a looker-on; or that a man in anger is as wise as he, that hath said over the four-and-twenty letters; or that a musket may be shot off as well upon the arm, as upon a rest; and such other fond and high imaginations, to think himself all in all. But when all is done, the help of good counsel is that which setteth business straight; and if any man think that he will take counsel, but it shall be by pieces, asking counsel in one business of one man, and in another business of another man, it is well, (that is to say, better perhaps than if he asked none at all): but he runneth two dangers; one, that he shall not faithfully be counselled; for it is a rare thing, except it be from a perfect and entire friend, to have counsel given, but such as shall be bowed and crooked to some ends, which he hath that giveth it. The other, that he shall have counsel given, hurtful and unsafe, (though with good meaning) and mixed; partly of mischief, and partly of remedy: even as if you would call a physician, that is thought good, for the cure of the disease you complain of, but is unacquainted with your body; and therefore may put you in a way for present cure, but overthroweth your health in some other kind, and so cure the disease, and kill the patient. But a friend that is wholly acquainted with a man's estate, will beware, by furthering any present business, how he dasheth . upon other inconvenience; and therefore rest not upon scattered counsels, for they will rather distract and mislead, than settle and direct.
After these two noble fruits of Friendship, (peace in the affections, and support of the judgment) followeth the last fruit, which is like the pomegranate, full of many kernels; I mean aid, and bearing a part in all actions and occasions. Here the best way to represent to the life the manifold use of Friendship, is to cast and see how many things there are, which a man cannot do himself; and then it will appear, that it was a sparing speech of the an
“ that a friend is far more than himself.” Men have their time, and die many times in desire of some things, which they principally take to heart; the bestowing of a child, the finishing of a work, or the like. If a man have a true friend, he may rest almost secure, that the care of those things will continue after him: so that a man hath as it were two lives in his desires. A man hath a body, and that body is confined to a place; but
tients to say:
where Friendship is, all offices of life are as it were granted to him and his deputy: for he may exercise them by his friend. How many things are there, which a man cannot, with any face or comeliness, say or do himself? A man can scarce alledge bis own merits with modesty, much less extol them; a man cannot sometimes brook to supplicate or beg; and a number of the like. But all these things are graceful in a friend's mouth, which are blushing in a man's own. So again, a man's person
many proper relations, which he cannot put off. A man cannot speak to his son, but as a father ; to his wife, but as a husband; to his enemy but upon terms: whereas a friend may speak as the case requires, and not as it sorteth with the person. But to enumerate these things were endless; I have given the rule-Where a man cannot fitly play his own part; if he have not a friend, he may quit the stage.
Of Expense. Riches are for spending, and spending for honour and good actious; therefore extraordinary expense must be limited by the worth of the occasion. For voluntary undoing may be as well for a man's country, as for the kingdom of Heaven; but ordinary Expense ought to be limited by a man's estate, and governed with such regard, as it be within his compass, and not subject to deceit and abuse of servants, and ordered to the best show, that the bills may be less than the estimation abroad. Certainly, if a man will keep but of even hand, his ordinary Expences ought to be but to the half of his receipts; and, if he think to wax rich, but to the third part. It is no baseness for the greatest to descend and look into their own estate. Some forbear it; not upon negligence alone, but doubting to bring themselves into melancholy, in respect they shall find it broken : but wounds cannot be cured without searching. He that cannot look into his own estate at all, had need both choose well those whom he employeth, and change them often; for new are more timorous, and less subtile. He that can look into his estate but seldom, it behoveth him to turn all to certainties. A man had need, if he be plentiful in some kind of expense, to be as saving again in some other : as, if he be plentiful in diet, to be saving in apparel ; .if he be plentiful in the hall, to be saving in the stable, and the like. For he that is plentiful in Expences of all kinds, will hardly be preserved from decay. In clearing of a man's estate, he may as well hurt himself in being too sudden, as in letting it run on too long. For hasty selling is commonly as disadvantageous as interest. Besides, he that clears at once, will re
lapse ; for finding himself out of straits, he will revert to his customs : but he that cleareth by degrees, induceth a habit of frugality, and gaineth as well upon his mind as upon bis estate. Certainly, who hath a state to repair, may not despise small things : and commonly it is less dishonourable to abridge petty charges, than to stoop to petty gettings. A man ought warily to begin charges, which once begun will continue; but in matters that return not, he may be more magnificent.
Of the true Greatness of Kingdoms
and Estates. THE speech of Themistocles the Athenian, which was haughty and arrogant, in taking so much to himself, had been a grave and wise observation and censure, applied at large to others : desired at a feast to touch a lute, he said, “He could not fiddle, but yet he could make a small town a great city.” These words (holpen a little with a metaphor) may express two differing abilities in those that deal in business of estate. For if a true survey be taken of counselors and statesmen, there may be found (though rarely) those which can make a small state great, and yet cannot fiddle : as, on the other side, therc will be found a great many that can fiddle very cunningly, but yet are so far from being able