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eminences of their places : for by that means there be so many screens between him and Envy.

Above all, those are most subject to Envy which carry the greatness of their fortunes in an insolent and proud manner, being never well but while they are showing how great they are, either by outward pomp, or by triumphing over all opposition and competition; whereas wise men will rather do sacrifice to Envy, in suffering themselves sometimes of purpose to be crossed and overborne in things that do not much concern them. Notwithstanding so much is true, that the carriage of greatness in a plain and open manner (so it be without arrogancy and vain-glory) doth draw less Envy, than if it be in a more crafty and cunning fashion, For in that course a man doth but disavow fortune, and seemeth to be conscious of his own want in worth, and doth but teach others to envy him.

Lastly, To conclude this part; as we said in the beginning, that the act of Envy had somewhat in it of witchcraft, so there is no other cure of Envy but the cure of witchcraft; and that is, to remove the lot (as they call it) and to lay it upon another. For which purpose, the wiser sort of great persons bring in ever upon the stage somebody upon whom to drive the Envy that would come upon themselves; sometimes upon ministers and servants, sometimes upon colleagues and associates, and the

like;'and for that turn there are never wanting some persons of violent and undertaking natures, who, so they may have power and business, will take it at any cost.

Now to speak of public Envy. There is yet some good in public Envy; whereas in private there is none. For public Envy is an ostracism that eclipseth men when they grow too great. And therefore it is a bridle also to great ones, to keep them within bounds.

This Envy, being in the Latin word invidia, goeth in the modern languages by the name of Discontentment, of which we shall speak in handling Sedition. It is a disease in a state like to infection : for as infection spreadeth upon that which is sound, and tainteth it; so when Envy is gotten once in a State, it traduceth even the best actions thereof, and turneth them into an ill odour. And, therefore, there is little won by intermingling of plausible actions. For that doth argue but a weakness and fear of Envy, which hurteth so much the more, as it is likewise usual in infections; which if you fear them, you call them upon you.

This public Envy seemeth to bear chiefly upon principal officers or ministers, rather than upon kings and estates themselves. But this is a sure rule, that if the Envy upon the minister be great, when the cause of it in him is small; or if the Envy

be general, in a manner, upon all the ministers of an estate, then the Envy (though hidden) is truly upon the state itself. And so much of public Envy or Discontentment, and the difference thereof from private Envy, which was handled in the first place.

We will add this in general, touching the affection of Envy; that, of all other affections, it is the most importune and continual. For of other affections there is occasion given but now and then. And therefore it was well said, Envy never keeps holiday,” i. e. is never at rest. For it is ever working upon some or other. And it is also noted, that Love and Envy do make a man pine, which other affections do not; because they are not so continual. It is also the vilest affection, and the most depraved: for which cause it is the proper attribute of the Devil, who is called, “ The envious man, that soweth tares amongst the wheat by night:" as it always cometh to pass, that Envy worketh subtilly, and in the dark, and to the prejudice of good things, such as is the wheat.

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Of Love.

The stage is more beholding to Love than the life of man. For, as to the stage, Love is ever matter of comedies, and now and then of tragedies : but in life it doth much mischief; sometimes like a syren, sometimes like a fury. You may observe, that amongst all the great and worthy persons (whereof the memory remaineth, either ancient or recent) there is not one that hath been transported to the mad degree of Love: wbich shows, that great spirits, and great business, do keep out this weak passion. You must except, nevertheless, Marcus Antonius, the half partner of the Empire of Rome; and Appius Claudius the Decemvir, the lawgiver; whereof the former was indeed a voluptuous man, and inordinate ; but the latter was an austere and wise man. And therefore it seems, (though rarely) that Love can find entrance, not only into an open heart, but also into a heart well fortified, if watch be not well kept. It is a poor saying of Epicurus : “We are to one another a sufficiently large theatre;” i. e. “ we need not attempt to look beyond this world.” As if man, made for the contemplation of Heaven, and all noble objects, should do nothing but kneel before a little idol, and make himself a subject, though not of the mouth, (as beasts are) yet of the eye, which was given him for higher purposes. It is a strange thing to note the excess of this passion; and how it braves the nature and value of things by this, that the speaking in a perpetual hyperbole is comely in nothing but in Love. Neither is it merely in the phrase : for, whereas it hath been well said, that the Archflatterer, with whom all the petty flatterers have intelligence, is a man's self; certainly, the Love is


For there was never a proud man thought so absurdly well of himself, as the Lover doth of the person loved : and therefore it was well said, that “ it is impossible to love, and to be wise.” Neither doth this weakness appear to others only, and not to the party loved: but to the loved most of all; except the Love be reciproque: for it is a true rule, that Love is ever rewarded, either with the reciproque, or with an inward and secret contempt. By how much the more ought men to be aware of this passion, which loseth not only other things, but itself. As for the other losses, the poet's relation doth well figure them ; that he that preferretb Helena, quitteth the gifts of Juno and Pallas. For whosoever esteemeth too much of amorous affection, quitteth both riches and wisdom. This passion hath his floods in the very times of weakness; which are great prosperity, and great adversity; though this latter hath been less observed. Both which times kindle Love, and make it more frequent, and therefore show it to be the child of Folly. They do best, who, if they cannot but admit Love, yet make it keep quarter, and sever it wholly from their serious affairs and actions of life: for if it check once with business, it troubleth men's fortunes, and maketh men that they

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