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sen good reason why we are not to expect,) the blessings : “ Pray for the peace of Jerusalem.” light of nature leaves us to controverted proba" Ask ye of the Lord rain, in the time of the latter bilities, drawn from the impulse by which man- rain; so the Lord shall make bright clouds, and kind have been almost universally prompted to give them showers of rain, to every one grass in devotion, and from some beneficial purposes, the field.”—“I exhort, therefore, that first of all, which, it is conceived, may be better answered by supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of the audience of prayer than by any other mole of thanks, be made for all men; for kings, and for communicating the same blessings. The revela- all that are in authority, that we may lead a quiet tions which we deem authentic, completely supply and peaceable life, in all godliness and honesty; this defect of natural religion. They require for this is good and acceptable in the sight of God prayer to God as a duty; and they contain posi- our Saviour.” Psalm cxxii. 6; Zech. x. 1; 1 Tim. tive assurance of its efficacy and acceptance. We ii. 1, 2, 3. could have no reasonable motive for the exercise 4. Examples of intercession, and exhortations of prayer, without believing that it may avail to to intercede for others :—" And Moses besought the relief of our wants. This belief can only be the Lord his God, and said, Lord, why doth thy founded, either in a sensible experience of the ef-wrath wax hot against thy people? Remember fect of prayer, or in promises of acceptance sig. Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, thy servants. And nified by Divine authority. Our knowledge would the Lord repented of the evil which he thought have come to us in the former way, Jess capable to do unto his people."
."-"Peter, therefore, was indeed of doubt, but subjected to the abuses and kept in prison, but prayer was made without ceas inconveniences briefly described above; in the ing of the church unto God for him.”—“For God latter way, that is, by authorized significations of is my witness, that without ceasing I make men. God's general disposition to hear and answer the tion of you always in my prayers.”—“Now I devout supplications of his creatures, we are en- beseech you, bretheren, for the Lord Jesus Christ's couraged to pray, but not place such a dependence sake, and for the love of the Spirit, that ye strive upon prayer as might relax other obligations, or together with me, in your prayers for me.”confound the order of events and of human ex “Confess your faults one to another, and pray pectations.
one for another, that ye may be healed : the efThe Scriptures not only affirm the propriety fectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth of prayer in general, but furnish precepts or ex- much.” Exod. xxxii. 11; Acts xii. 5; Rom. i. 9. amples which justify some topics and some modes xv. 30; James v. 16. of prayer that have been thought exceptionable. 5. Declarations and examples authorising the And as the whole subject rests so much upon the repetition of unsuccessful prayer: “ And he spake foundation of Scripture, I shall put down at length a parable unto them, to this end, that men ought texts applicable to the five following heads : to the always to pray, and not to faint.”—“ And he left duty and efficacy of prayer in general ; of prayer them, and went away again, and prayed the third for particular favours by name ; for public national time, saying the same words.”_
For this thing blessings; of intercession for others; of the repe- I besought the Lord thrice, that it might depart tition of unsuccessful prayers.
from me.” Luke xvii. 1; Matt. xxvi. 44; 2 Cor. 1. Texts enjoying prayer in general :“Ask, and xü. 8.* it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find :-If ye, being evil
, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your Father, which is in heaven, give good things to them that
CHAPTER IV. ask him ?"_“Watch ye, therefore, and pray alvays, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape
Of Private Prayer, Family Prayer, and
Public Worship. all those things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.”—“Serving the CONCERNING these three descriptions of deLord, rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, votion, it is first of all to be observed, that each continuing instant in prayer.”—“Be careful for has its separate and peculiar use; and therefore, nothing, but in every thing, by prayer and sup- that the exercise of one species of worship, howplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be ever regular it be, does not supersede, or dispense made known unto God.”—“I will
, therefore, that with, the obligation of either of the other two. men pray every where, lifting up holy hands
1. Private Prayer is recommended for the sake without wrath and doubting." _“Pray without of the following advantages : asing.” Matt. vii. 7. 11; Luke xxi. 36; Rom. Private wants cannot always be made the subxii. 12; Phil. iv. 6; 1 Thess. v. 17; 1 Tim. ii. 8. ject of public prayer: but whatever reason there Add to these, that Christ's reproof of the ostenta- is for praying at all
, there is the same for making tion and prolixity of pharisaical prayers, and his the sore and grief of each man's own heart the recommendation to his disciples, of retirement and business of his application to God. This must be simplicity in theirs, together with his dictating a the office of private exercises of devotion, being particular form of prayer, all presuppose prayer imperfectly, if at all, practicable in any other. to be an acceptable and availing service.
* The reformed Churches of Christendom, sticking 2. Examples of prayer for particular favours close in this article to their guide, have laid aside pray. by namne: "For this thing” (to wit, some bodily ers for the dead, as authorised by no precept or precedent infirmity, which he calls 'a thorn given him in the found in Scripture. For the same reason they properly fiesh') " I besought the Lord thrice, that it might reject the invocation of saints; as also because such in depart from me." -“ Night and day praying ex- knowledge whichcan perceive what passes in different ceedingly, that we might see your face, and per- regions of the earth at the same time. And they deem fect that which is lacking in your faith.” 2 Cor. it too much to take for granted, without the smallest in. XD 8: I Thess. iii. 10.
timation of such a thing in Scripture, that any created
being possesses a faculty little short of that omniscience 3. Directions to pray for national or public and omnipresence which they ascribe to the Deity, N
Private prayer is generally more devout and general diffusion of religious knowledge amongst earnest than the share we are capable of taking all orders of Christians, which will appear a great in joint acts of worship; because it affords leisure thing when compared with the intellectual condition and opportunity for the circumstantial recollection of barbarous nations, can fairly, I think, be ascribof those personal wants, by the remembrance and ed to no other cause than the regular establishment ideas of which the warmth and earnestness of of assemblies for divine worship; in which, either prayer are chiefly excited.
portions of Scripture are recited and explained, or Private prayer, in proportion as it is usually ac- the principles of Christian erudition are so concompanied with more actual thought and reflection stantly taught in sermons, incorporated with liof the petitioner's own, has a greater tendency than turgies, or expressed in extempore prayer, as to other modes of devotion to revive and fasten upon imprint, by the very repetition, some knowledge the mind the general impressions of religion. So- and memory of these subjects upon the most unlitude powerfully assists this effect. When a man qualified and careless hearer. finds himself alone in communication with his The two reasons above stated, bind all the memCreator, his imagination becomes filled with a bers of a community to uphold public worship, by conflux of awful ideas concerning the universal their presence and example, although the helps and agency, and invisible presence, of that Being; opportunities which it attords may not be necessary concerning what is likely to become of himself: to the devotion or edification of all; and to some and of the superlative importance of providing for may be useless : for it is easily foreseen, how soon the happiness of his future existence by endea- religious assemblies would fall into contempt and vours to please him who is the arbiter of his des- disuse, if that class of mankind who are above tiny: reflections which, whenever they gain ad- seeking instruction in them, and want not that mittance, for a season overwhelm all others; and their own piety should be assisted by either forms leave, when they depart, a solemnity upon the or society in devotion, were to withdraw their atthoughts, that will seldom fail, in some degree, to tendance; especially when it is considered, that affect the conduct of life.
all who please, are at liberty to rank themselves Private prayer, thus recommended by its own of this class. This argument meets the only sepropriety and by advantages not attainable in any rious apology that can be made for the absenting form of religious communion, receives a superior of ourselves from public worship.--"Surely (some sanction from the authority and example of Christ: will say) I may be excused from going to church, “When thou prayest, enter into thy closet; and so long as I pray at home: and have no reason to when thou hast shut the door, pray to thy Father, doubt that my prayers are as acceptable and effiwhich is in secret; and thy Father, which seeth in cacious in my closet, as in a cathedral; still less can secret, shall reward thee openly. And when I think myself obliged to sit out a tedious sermon, he had sent the multitudes away, he went up in order to hear what is known already, what is into a mountain apart to pray." Matt. vi. 6; better learnt from books, or suggested by meditaxiv, 23.
tion.”—They, whose qualifications and habits II. Family Prayer.
best supply to themselves all the effect of public The peculiar use of family piety consists in its ordinances, will be the last to prefer this excuse, influence upon servants, and the young members when they advert to the general consequence of of a family, who want sufficient seriousness and setting up such an exemption, as well as when reflection to retire of their own accord to the ex- they consider the turn which is sure to be given ercise of private devotion, and whose attention you in the neighbourhood to their absence from public cannot easily command in public worship. She worship. You stay from church, to employ he example also and authority of a father and master Sabbath at home in exercises and studies suited to act in this way with the greatest force; for his its proper business : your next neighbour stays private prayers, to which his children and servants from church to spend the seventh day less reliare not witnesses, act not at all upon them as ex-giously than he passed any of the six, in a sleepy, amples; and his attendance upon public worship stupid rest, or at some rendezvous of drunkenness they will readily impute to fashion, to a care to and debauchery, and yet thinks that he is only preserve appearances, to a concern for decency and imitating you, because you both agree in not going character, and to many motives besides a sense of to church. The same consideration should overJuty to God. Add to this, that forms of public rule many small scruples concerning the rigorous worship, in proportion as they are more compre- propriety of some things, which may be contained hensive, are always less interesting, than family in the forms, or admitted into the administration, prayers; and that the ardour of devotion is better of the public worship of our communion : for it supported, and the sympathy more easily propaga- seems impossible that even “two or three should ted, through a small assembly, connected by the be gathered together" in any act of social worship, affections of domestic society, than in the presence if each one require from the rest an implicit subof a mixed congregation.
mission to his objections, and if no man will atIII. Public Worship.
tend upon a religious service which in any point If the worship of God be a duty of religion, contradicts his opinion of truth, or falls short of public worship is a necessary institution; foras- his ideas of perfection. much as without it, the greater part of mankind Beside the direct necessity of public worship to would exercise no religious worship at all. the greater part of every Christian community,
These assemblies afford also, at the same time, (supposing worship at all to be a Christian duty,) opportunities for moral and religious instruction to there are other valuable advantages growing out those who otherwise would receive none. In all of the use of religious assemblies, without being protestant, and in most Christian countries, the designed in the institution or thought of by the elements of natural religion, and the important individuals who compose them. parts of the Evangelic history, are familiar to the 1. Joining in praver and praises to their comlowest of the people. This competent degree and mon Creator and Governor, has a sensible ten
dency to unite mankind together, and to cherish from which it proceeds. Again, in the Epistle to an enlarge the generous affections.
the Hebrews; “not forsaking the assembling of So many pathetic reflections are awakened by ourselves together, as the manner of some is;' every exercise of social devotion, that most men, I which reproof seems as applicable to the desertion believe, carry away from public worship a better of our public worship at this day, as to the fortemper towards the rest of mankind, than they saking the religious assemblies of Christians in brought with them. Sprung from the same ex- the age of the apostle. Independently of these traction, preparing together for the period of all passages of Scripture, a disciple of Christianity worldly distinctions, reminded of their mutual in- I will hardly think' himself at liberty to dispute a firmities and common dependency, imploring and practice set on foot by the inspired preachers of receiving support and supplies from the same great his religion, coeval with its institution, and resource of power anıl bounty, having all one in- tained by every sect into which it has been since terest to secure, one Lord to serve, one judgment, divided. the supreme object to all of their hopes and fears, to look towards; it is hardly possible, in this position, to behold mankind as strangers, competitors, or enemies; or not to regard them as children of
CHAPTER V. the same family, assembled before their common parent, and with some portion of the tenderness
Of Forms of Prayer in Public Worship. which belongs to the most endearing of our do LITURGIES, or preconcerted forms of public de mestic relations. It is not to be expected, that any votion, being neither enjoined in Scripture, nor single effect of this kind should be considerable or forbidden, there can be no good reason for either lasting; but the frequent return of such sentiments receiving or rejecting them, but that of expeas the presence of a devout congregation naturally diency; which expediency is to be gathered from suggests, will gradually melt down the rugged- a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages ness of many unkind passions, and may generate, attending upon this mode of worship, with those in time, a permanent and productive benevolence. which usually accompany extemporary prayer.
2. Assemblies for the purpose of divine wor The advantages of a liturgy are these : ship, placing men under impressions by which I. That it prevents absurd, extravagant, or imthey are taught to consider their relation to the pious addresses to God, which, in an order of Deity, and to contemplate those around them with men so numerous as the sacerdotal, the folly and a view to that relation, force upon their thoughts enthusiasm of many must always be in danger of the natural equality of the human species, and producing, where the conduct of the public worthereby promote humility and condescension in ship is entrusted, without restraint or assistance, the highest orders of the community, and in to the discretion and abilities of the officiating spire the lowest with a sense of their rights. The minister. distinctions of civil life are almost always insisted II. That it prevents the confusion of extemupon too much, and urged too far. Whatever, porary prayer, in which the congregation, being therefore, conduces to restore the level, by quali ignorant of each petition before they hear it, and fying the dispositions which grow out of great having little or no time to join in it after they have elevation or depression of rank, improves the cha- heard it, are confounded between their attention racter on both sides. Now things are made to to the minister, and to their own devotion. The appear little, by being placed beside what is great. devotion of the hearer is necessarily suspended, In which manner, superiorities, that occupy the until a petition be concluded; and before he can whole field of imagination, will vanish or shrink assent to it, or properly adopt it, that is, before he to their proper diminutiveness, when compared can address the same request to God for himself, with the distance by which even the highest of and from himself, his attention is called off to keep men are removed from the Supreme Being; and pace with what succeeds. Add to this, that the this comparison is naturally introduced by all acts mind of the hearer is held in continual expectaof joint worship. If ever the poor man holds up tion, and detained from its proper business, by the his head, it is at church: if ever the rich man very novelty with which it is gratitied. A conviews him with respect, it is there : and both will gregation may be pleased and affected with the be the better, and the public profited, the oftener prayers and devotion of their minister, without they meet in a situation, in which the conscious- joining in them; in like manner as an audience ness of dignity in the one is tempered and miti- öftentimes are with the representation of devotion gated, and the spirit of the other erected and con- upon the stage, who, nevertheless, come away firmed. We recommend nothing adverse to sub- without being conscious of having exercised any ordinations which are established and necessary : act of devotion themselves. Joint praver, which but then it should be remembered, that subordi- amongst all denominations of Christians is the nation itself is an evil, being an evil to the sub- declared design of " coming together," is prayer ordinate, who are the majority, and therefore in which all join ; and not that which one alone ought not to be carried a tittle beyond what the in the congregation conceives and delivers, and of greater good, the peaceable government of the which the rest are merely hearers. This objection community, requires.
seems fundamental, and holds even where the The public worship of Christians is a duty of minister's office is discharged with every possible Divine appointment. “Where two or three,” advantage and accomplishment. The labouring says Christ, " are gathered together in my name, recollection, and embarrassed or tumultuous dethere am I in the midst of them."* This invita- livery, of many extempore speakers, form an adtion will want nothing of the force of a command ditional objection to this mode of public worship: with those who respect the person and authority for these imperfections are very general, and give
great pain to the serious part of a congregation, as fect is in general to be looked for, but that in. well as afford a profane diversion to the levity of dolence will find in it an excuse, and piety be disthe other part.
concerted by impatience. These advantages of a liturgy are connected The length and repetitions complained of in with two principal inconveniences: first, that our liturgy, are not so much the fault of the comforms of prayer composed in one age become untit pilers, as the effect of uniting into one service for another, by the unavoidable change of lan- what was originally, but with very little regard to guage, circumstances, and opinions: secondly, that the conveniency of the people, distributed into the perpetual repetition of the same form of words three. Notwithstanding that dread of innovations produces weariness and inattentiveness in the in religion, which seems to have become the panic congregation. However, both these inconveniences of the age, few, I should suppose, would be disare in their nature vincible. Occasional revisions pleased with such omissions, abridgements, or of a liturgy may obviate the first, and devotion change in the arrangement, as the combination will supply a remedy for the second: or they may of separate services must necessarily require, even both subsist in a considerable degree, and yet be supposing each to have been faultless in itself. out-weighed by the objections which are insepara- | If, together with these alterations, the Epistles ble from extemporary prayer.
and Gospels, and Collects which precede them, The Lord's Prayer is a precedent, as well as a were composed and selected with more regard to pattern, for forms of prayer. Our Lord appears, unity of subject and design; and the Psalms and if not to have prescribed, at least to have au- Lessons either left to the choice of the minister, thorized, the use of fixed forms, when he com or better accommodated to the capacity of the auplied with the request of the disciple, who said dience, and the edification of modern life; the unto him, "Lord, teach us to pray, as John also church of England would be in possession of a taught his disciples.” Luke xi. 1.
liturgy, in which those who assent to her doctrines The properties required in a public liturgy are, would have little to blame, and the most disthat it be compendious; that it express just con- satisfied must acknowledge many beauties. The ceptions of the Divine Attributes; that it recite style throughout is excellent; calm, without coldsuch wants as a congregation are likely to feel, ness; and, though every where sedate, oftentimes and no other; and that it contain as few contro- affecting. The pauses in the service are disposed verted propositions as possible.
at proper intervals. The transitions from one i I. That it be compendious.
office of devotion to another, from confession to It were no difficult task to contract the liturgies prayer, from prayer to thanksgiving, from thanksof most churches into half their present compass, giving to "hearing of the word,' are contrived and yet retain every distinct petition, as well as like scenes in the drama, to supply the mind with the substance of every sentiment which can be a succession of diversified engagements. As much found in them. But brevity may be studied too variety is introduced also in the form of praying, much. The composer of a liturgy must not sit as this kind of composition seems capable of addown to his work with the hope, that the devotion mitting. The prayer at one time is continued; of the congregation will be uniformly sustained at another, broken by responses, or cast into short throughout, or that every part will be attended to articulate ejaculations: and sometimes the conby every hearer. If this could be depended upon, gregation is called upon to take its share in the a very short service would be sufficient for every service, by being left to complete a sentence purpose that can be answered or designed by so- which the minister had begun. The enumeration cial worship: but seeing the attention of most men of human wants and sufferings in the Litany, is is apt to wander and return at intervals, and by almost complete. A Christian petitioner can have starts, he will admit a certain degree of amplifica- few things to ask of God, or to deprecate, which tion and repetition, of diversity of expression upon he will not find there expressed, and for the most the same subject, and variety of phrase and form part with inimitable tenderness and simplicity. with little addition to the sense, to the end that II. That it express just conceptions of the Dithe attention, which has been slumbering or ab-vine Attributes. sent during one part of the service, may be ex This is an article in which no care can be too cited and recalled by another; and the assembly great. The popular notions of God are formed, kept together until it may reasonably be presumed, in a great measure, from the accounts which the that the most heedless and inadvertent have per- people receive of his nature and character in their formed some act of devotion, and the most de religious assemblies. An error here becomes the sultory attention been caught by some part or error of multitudes : and as it is a subject in which other of the public service. On the other hand, almost every opinion leads the way to some practhe too great length of church-services is more tical consequence, the purity or depravation of unfavourable to piety, than almost any fault of public manners will be affected, amongst other composition can be. It begets, in many, an early causes, by the truth or corruption of the public and unconquerable dislike to the public worship forms of worship. of their country or communion. They come to III. That it recite such wants as the congregachurch seldom, and enter the doors, when they tion are likely to feel, and no other. do come, under the apprehension of a tedious Of forms of prayer which oflend not egregiously attendance, which they prepare for at first, or against truth and decency, that has the most soon after relieve, by composing themselves to a merit, which is best calculated to keep alive the drowsy forgetfulness of the place and duty, or by devotion of the assembly. It were to be wished, sending abroad their thoughts in search of more therefore, that every part of a liturgy were peramusing occupation. Although there may be sonally applicable to every individual in the consome few of a disposition not to be wearied with gregation; and that nothing were introduced to religious exercises; yet, where a ritual is prolix, interrupt the passion, or damp the flame, which it and the celebration of divine service long, no ef- | is not easy to rekindle. Upon this principle, the
sale prayers in our liturgy should be fewer and mere rest from the ordinary occupations of civil shorter.- Whatever may be pretended, the con- life: and he who would defend the institution, as gregation do not feel that concern in the subject it is required by law to be observed in Christian of these prayers, which must be felt, ere ever countries, unless he can produce a command for prayers be made to God with earnestness. The a Christian Sabbath, must point out the uses of state style likewise seems unseasonably introduced it in that view. into these prayers, as ill according with that First, then, that interval of relaxation which annihilation of human greatness, of which every Sunday affords to the laborious part of mankind, act that carries the mind to God, presents the idea. contributes greatly to the comfort and satisfaction
IV. That it contain as few controverted pro- of their lives, both as it refreshes them for the positions as possible.
time, and as it relieves their six days' labour by We allow to each church the truth of its pe- the prospect of a day of rest always approaching; culiar tenets, and all the importance which zeal which could not be said of casual indulgences of can ascribe to them. We dispute not here the leisure and rest, even were they more frequent right or the expediency of framing creeds, or of than there is reason to expect they would be if imposing subscriptions. But why should every left to the discretion or humanity of interested position which a church maintains, be woven task-masters. To this difference it may be added, with so much industry into her forms of public that holy-days which come seldom and unexpected, worship? Some are oftended, and some are ex are unprovided, when they do come, with any cluded; this is an evil of itself, at least to them : duty or employment; and the manner of spending and what advantage or satisfaction can be derived them being regulated by no public decency or es to the rest, from the separation of their brethren, tablished usage, they are commonly consumed in it is difficult to imagine ; unless it were a duty to rude, if not criminal pastimes, in stupid sloth, or publish our system of polemic divinity, under the brutish intemperance. Whoever considers how name of making confession of our faith, every much sabbatical institutions conduce, in this retime we worship God; or a sin to agree in respect, to the happiness and civilization of the laligious exercises with those from whom we differ bouring classes of mankind, and reflects how great in some religious opinions. Indeed, where one a majority of the human species these classes comman thinks it his duty constantly to worship a pose, will acknowledge the utility, whatever he being, whom another cannot, with the assent of may believe of the origin, of this distinction; and his conscience, permit himself to worship at all, will consequently perceive it to be every man's there seems to be no place for comprehension, or duty to uphold the observation of Sunday when any expedient left but a quiet secession. All other once established, let the establishment have prodifferences may be compromised by silence. If ceeded from whom or from what authority it will. sects and schisms be an evil, they are as much to Nor is there any thing lost to the community be avoided by one side as the other. If sectaries by the intermission of public industry one day in are blamed for taking unnecessary offence, es- the week. For, in countries tolerably advanced in tablished churches are no less culpable for unne- population and the arts of civil life, there is alcessarily giving it; they are bound at least to ways enough of human labour, and to spare. The produce a command, or a reason of equivalent difficulty is not so much to procure, as to employ utility, for shutting out any from their communion, it
. The addition of the seventh day's labour to by mixing with divine worship doctrines, which that of the other six, would have no other effect whether true or false, are unconnected in their than to reduce the price. The labourer himself, nature with devotion.
who deserved and suffered most by the change, would gain nothing.
2. Sunday, by suspending many public diver
sions, and the ordinary rotation of employment, CHAPTER VI.
leaves to men of all ranks and professions sufOf the Use of Sabbatical Institutions.
ficient leisure, and not more than what is suf
ficient, both for the external offices of Christianity, An assembly cannot be collected, unless the and the retired, but equally necessary duties of time of assembling be fixed and known before- religious meditation and inquiry. It is true, that hand: and if the design of the assembly require many do not convert their leisure to this purpose; that it be holden frequently, it is easiest that it but it is of moment, and is all which a public conshould return at stated intervals. This produces stitution can effect, that to every one be allowed a necessity of appropriating set seasons to the so- the opportunity. cial offices of religion. It is also highly convenient 3. They, whose humanity embraces the whole that the same seasons be observed throughout the sensitive creation, will esteem it no inconsiderable country, that all may be employed, or all at leisure, recommendation of a weekly return of public rest, together; for if the recess from worldly occupation that it affords a respite to the toil of brutes. Nor be not general, one man's business will perpetually can we omit to recount this among the uses which interfere with another man's devotion; the buyer the Divine Founder of the Jewish Sabbath exwill be calling at the shop when the seller is gone pressly appointed a law of the institution. to church. This part, therefore, of the religious We admit, that none of these reasons show distinction of seasons, namely, a general inter- why Sunday should be preferred to any other day mission of labour and business during times pre- in the week, or one day in seven to one day in six, viously set apart for the exercise of public wor- or eight: but these points, which in their nature ship, is founded in the reasons which make public are of arbitrary determination, being established to worship itself a duty. But the celebration of di- our hands, our obligation applies to the subsisting vine service never occupies the whole day. What establishment, so long as we confess that some such remains, therefore, of Sunday, beside the part of institution is necessary, and are neither able nor it employed at church, must be considered as a l attempt to substitute any other in its place.