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population. The influx from these sources may stock, only vary the distribution of it, they are be immense, and yet the country remain poor and not necessarily prejudicial to population. If the ill-peopled; of which we see an egregious example state exact money from certain members of the in the condition of Spain, since the acquisition of community, she dispenses it also amongst other its South-American dominions.
members of the same community. They who But, secondly, money may become also a real contribute to the revenue, and they who are supand an operative cause of population, by acting ported or benefited by the expenses of governas a stimulus to industry, and by facilitating the ment, are to be placed one against the other; and means of subsistence. The ease of subsistence, whilst what the subsistence of one part is profited and the encouragement of industry, depend nei- by receiving, compensates for what that of the ther upon the price of labour, nor upon the price other suffers by paying, the common fund of the of provision, but upon the proportion which one society is not lessened." This is true : but it must bears to the other. Now the intlux of money into be observed, that although the sum distributed by a country, naturally tends to advance this pro the state be always equal to the sum collected portion ; that is, every fresh accession of money from the people, yet the gain and loss to the raises the price of labour before it raises the price means of subsistence may be very unequal ; and of provision. When money is brought from the balance will remain on the wrong or the abroad, the persons, be they who they will, into right side of the account, according as the money whose hands it first arrives, do not buy up pro passes by taxation from the industrious to the vision with it, but apply it to the purchase and idle, froin the many to the few, from those who payment of labour. If the state receives it, the want to those who abound, or in a contrary distate dispenses what it receives amongst soldiers, rection. For instance: a tax upon coaches, to be sailors, artificers, engineers, shipwrights, work- laid out in the repair of roads, would probably immen;—if private persons bring home treasures prove the population of a neighbourhood; a tax of gold and silver they usually expend them in upon cottages, to be ultimately expended in the the building of houses, the improvement of estates, purchase and support of coaches, would certainly the purchase of furniture, dress, equipage, in ar- diminish it. In like manner, a tax upon wine or ticles of luxury or splendour :- if the merchant be tea distributed in bounties to fishermen or husenriched by returns of his foreign commerce, he bandmen, would augment the provision of a counapplies his increased capital to the enlargement try; a tax upon fisheries and husbandry, howof his business at home. The money ere long ever indirect or concealed, to be converted, when comes to market for provision; but it comes raised, to the procuring of wine or tea for the idle thither through the hands of the manufacturer, the and opulent, would naturally impair the public artist, the husbandman, and labourer. Its effect, stock.' The effect, therefore, of taxes, upon the therefore, upon the price of art and labour, will means of subsistence, depends not so much upon precede its effect upon the price of provision; and the amount of the sum levied, as upon the during the interval between one effect and the object of the tax and the application." Taxes other, the means of subsistence will be multiplied likewise may be so adjusted as to conduce to the and facilitated, as well as industry be excited by restraint of luxury, and the correction of vice; new rewards. When the greater plenty of money to the encouragement of industry, trade, agriculin circulation has produced an advance in the ture, and marriage. Taxes thus contrived, become price of provision, corresponding to the advanced rewards and penalties; not only sources of reprice of labour, its effect ceases. The labourer no venue, but instruments of police. Vices indeed longer gains any thing by the increase of his themselves cannot be taxed, without holding forth wages. It is not, therefore, the quantity of specie such a conditional toleration of them as to destroy collected into a country, but the continual in- men's perception of their guilt; a tax comes to be crease of that quantity, from which the advantage considered as a commutation: the materials, howarises to employment and population. It is only ever, and incentives of vice, may. Although, for the accession of money which produces the effect, instance, drunkenness would be, on this account, and it is only by money constantly flowing into a an unfit object of taxation, yet public houses and country that the effect can be constant. Now spirituous liquors are very properly subjected to whatever consequence arises to the country from heavy imposts. the influx of money, the contrary may be ex Nevertheless, although it may be true that pected to follow from the diminution of its quan- taxes cannot be pronounced to be detrimental to tity: and accordingly we find, that whatever population, by an absolute necessity in their nacause drains off the specie of a country, faster ture; and though, under some modifications, and than the streams which feed it can supply, not when urged only to a certain extent, they may only impoverishes the country, but depopulates even operate in favour of it; yet it will be found, it. The knowledge and experience of this effect in a great plurality of instances, that their tenhave given occasion to a phrase which occurs in dency is noxious. Let it be supposed that nine almost every discourse upon commerce or politics. families inhabit a neighbourhood,
each possessing The balance of trade with any foreign nation is barely the means of subsistence, or of that mode said to be against or in favour of a country, sim- of subsistence which custom hath established ply as it tends to carry money out, or bring it in: amongst them; let a tenth family be quartered that is, according as the price of the imports ex- upon these, to be supported by a tax raised from ceeds or falls short of the price of the exports : so the nine; or rather, let one of the nine have his mvariably is the increase or diminution of the income augmented by a similar deduction from specie of a country regarded as a test of the pub- the incomes of the rest; in either of these cases, lic advantage or detriment which arises from any it is evident that the whole district would be branch of its commerce.
broken up: for as the entire income of cach is IV. Taxation. As taxes take nothing out supposed to be barely sufficient for the establishaf a country; as they do not diminish the public ment which it maintains, a deduction of any part
destroys that establishment. Now it is no answer telligible; it encourages no activity which is useto this objection, it is no apology for the grievance, ful or productive. to say, that nothing is taken out of the neighbour The sum to be raised being settled, a wise hood"; that the stock is not diminished: the mis- statesman will contrive his taxes principally with chief is done by deranging the distribution. Nor, a view to their effect upon population; that is, he again, is the luxury of one family, or even the will so adjust them as to give the least possible maintenance of an additional family, a recom- obstruction to those means of subsistence by which pense to the country for the ruin of nine others. the mass of the community is maintained. We Nor, lastly, will it alter the effect though it may are accustomed to an opinion, that a tax, to be conceal the cause, that the contribution, instead just, ought to be accurately proportioned to the of being levied directly upon each day's wages, circumstances of the persons who pay it. But is mixed up in the price of some article of con- upon what, it might be asked, is this opinion stant use and consumption, as in a tax upon founded; unless it could be shown that such a candles, malt, leather, or fuel. This example illus- proportion interferes the least with the general trates the tendency of taxes to obstruct subsist conveniency of subsistence? Whereas I should ence; and the minutest degree of this obstruction rather believe, that a tax, constructed with a view will be felt in the formation of families. The to that conveniency, ought to rise upon the difexample, indeed, forms an extreme case; the evil ferent classes of the community, in a much higher is magnified, in order to render its operation dis- ratio than the simple proportion of their incomes. tinct and visible. In real life, families may not be The point to be regarded is, not what men have, broken up, or forced from their habitation, houses but what they can spare; and it is evident that a be quitted, or countries suddenly deserted, in con- man who possesses a thousand pounds a year, sequence of any new imposition whatever ; but can more easily give up a hundred, than a man marriages will become gradually less frequent. with a hundred pounds a year can part with ten;
It seems necessary, however, to distinguish be- that is, those habits of life which are reasonable tween the operation of a new tax, and the effect and innocent, and upon the ability to continue of taxes which have been long established. In which the formation of families depends, will be the course of circulation, the money may flow back much less affected by the one deduction than the to the hands from which it was taken. The pro- other: it is still more evident, that a man of a portion between the supply and the expense of hundred pounds a year would not be so much subsistence, which had been disturbed by the tax, distressed in his subsistence, by a demand from may at length recover itself again. In the in- him of ten pounds, as a man of ten pounds a stance just now stated, the addition of a tenth year would be by the loss of one: to which we family to the neighbourhood, or the enlarged ex- must add, that the population of every country penses of one of the nine, may, in some shape or being replenished by the marriages of the lowest other, so advance the profits, or increase the em- ranks of the society, their accommodation and reployment, of the rest, as to make full restitution lief become of more importance to the state, than for the share of their property of which it deprives the conveniency of any higher but less numerous them; or, what is more likely to happen, a reduc- order of its citizens. But whatever be the protion may take place in their mode of living, suited portion which public expediency directs, whether to the abridgment of their incomes. Yet still the the simple, the duplicate, or any higher or interultimate and permanent effect of taxation, though mediate proportion of men's incomes, it can never distinguishable from the impression of a new tax, be attained by any single tax: as no single object is generally adverse to population. The proportion of taxation can be found, which measures the above spoken of, can only be restored by one side ability of the subject with sufficient generality or other of the following alternative: by the peo- and exactness. It is only by a system and variety ple either contracting their wants, which at the of taxes, mutually balancing and equalising one same time diminishes consumption and employ- another, that a due proportion can be preserved. ment; or by raising the price of labour, which ne- For instance: if a tax upon lands press with cessarily adding to the price of the productions greater hardship, upon those who live in the and manufactures of the country, checks their country, it may be properly counterpoised by a sale at foreign markets. A nation which is bur- tax upon the rent of houses, which will afiect thened with taxes, must always be undersold by principally the inhabitants of large towns. Disa nation which is free from them, unless the dif- tinctions may also be framed in some taxes, which ference be made up by some singular advantage shall allow abatements or exemptions to married of climate, soil, skill, or industry. This quality persons; to the parents of a certain number of belongs to all taxes which affect the mass of the legitimate children; to improvers of the soil; to community, even when imposed upon the proper- particular modes of cultivation, as to tillage in est objects, and applied to the fairest purposes. preference to pasturage; and in general to that But abuses are inseparable from the disposal of industry which is immediately productive, in prepublic money. As governments are usually ad- ference to that which is only instrumental; but ministered, the produce of public taxes is ex-above all, which may leave the heaviest part of pended upon a train of gentry, in the maintaining the burthen upon the methods, whatever they be, of pomp, or in the purchase of influence. The of acquiring wealth without industry, or even of conversion of property which taxes effectuate, subsisting in idleness. when they are employed in this manner, is at V. EXPORTATION OF BREAD-CORN.—Nothing tended with obvious evils. It takes from the in- seems to have a more positive tendency to reduce dustrious, to give to the idle; it increases the the number of the people, than the sending abroad number of the latter; it tends to accumulation; part of the provision by which they are maintained; it sacrifices the conveniency of many to the luxury yet this has been the policy of legislators very of a few; it makes no return to the people, from studious of the improvement of their country. In whom the tax is drawn, that is satisfactory or in order to reconcile ourselves to a practice which
appears to militate with the chief interest, that is, discover or adopt a mechanical improvement, will, with the population of the country that adopts it, for some time, draw to themselves an increase of we must be reminded of a maxim which belongs employment; and that this preference may conto the productions both of nature and art," that it tinue even after the improvement has become is impossible to have enough without a super- general; for, in every kind of trade, it is not only fluity. The point of sufficiency cannot, in any a great but permanent advantage, to have once case, be so exactly hit upon, as to have nothing preoccupied the public reputation. Thirdly, after to spare, yet never to want. This is peculiarly true every superiority which might be derived from the of bread-corn, of which the annual increase is possession of a secret, has ceased, it may be well extremely valuable. · As it is necessary that the questioned whether even then any loss can accrue crop be adequate to the consumption in a year of to employment. The same money will be spared scarcity, it must, of consequence, greatly exceed to the same article still. Wherefore, in proportion it in a year of plenty. A redundancy therefore as the article can be afforded at a lower price, by will occasionally arise from the very care that is reason of an easier or shorter process in the manutaken to secure the people against the danger of facture, it will either grow into more general use, want; and it is manifest that the exportation of or an improvement will take place in the quality this redundancy subtracts nothing from the num- and fabric, which will demand a proportionable ber that can regularly be maintained by the pro- addition of hands. The number of persons emduce of the soil. Moreover, as the exportation of ployed in the manufactory of stockings, has not, I corn, under these circumstances, is attended with apprehend, decreased since the invention of stockno direct injury to population, so the benefits ng-mills. The amount of what is expended upon which indirectly arise to population from foreign the article, after subtracting from it the price of commerce, belongs to this, in common with other the raw material, and consequently what is paid speries of trade ; together with the peculiar advan- for work in this branch of our manufactories, is not tage of presenting a constant incitement to the less than it was before. Goods of a tiner texture skill and industry of the husbandman, by the are worn in the place of coarser. This is the promise of a certain sale and an adequate price, change which the invention has produced; and under every contingency of season and produce. which compensates to the manufactory for every
There is another situation, in which corn may other inconveniency. Add to which, that in not only be exported, but in which the people can the above, and in almost every instance, an imthrive by no other means; that is, of a newly provement which conduces to the recommendasettled country, with a fertile soil. The exporta- tion of a manufactory, either by the cheapness tion of a large proportion of the corn which a coun- or the quality of the goods, draws up after it many try prodluces, proves, it is true, that the inhabitants dependent employments, in which no abbreviation have not yet attained to the number which the has taken place. country is capable of maintaining : but it does not prove but that they may be hastening to this limit with the utmost practicable celerity, which is the perfection to be sought for in a young establish From the reasoning that has been pursued, and ment. In all cases except these two, and in the the various considerations suggested in this chapformer of them to any greater degree than what ter, a judgment may, in some sort, be formed, how is necessary to take off occasional redundancies, far regulations of law are in their nature capable the exportation of corn is either itself noxious to of contributing to the support and advancement of population, or argues a defect of population arising population. I say how
far; for, as in many subfrom some other cause.
jects, so especially in those which relate to comVI. ABRIDGMENT OF LABOUR.—It has long merce, to plenty, to riches, and to the number of been made a question, whether those mechanical people, more is wont to be expected from laws, than contrivances which abridge labour, by perform-laws can do. Laws can only imperfectly restrain ing the same work by fewer hands, be detrimental that dissoluteness of manners, which, by diminishor not to the population of a country. From ing the frequency of marriages, impairs the very what has been delivered in preceding parts of the source of population. Laws cannot regulate the present chapter, it will be evident that this ques- wants of mankind, their mode of living, or their tion is equivalent to another, -whether such con- desire of those superfluities which fashion, more trivances diminish or not the quantity of employ- irresistible than laws, has once introduced into ment. The first and most obvious effect undoubt- general usage; or, in other words, has erected into ally is this; because, if one man be made to do necessaries of life. Laws cannot induce men to what three men did before, two are immediately enter into marriages, when the expenses of a discharged: but if, by some more general and re- family must deprive them of that system of acmoter consequence, they increase the demand for commodation to which they have habituated their work, or, what is the same thing, prevent the di- expectations. Laws, by their protection, by asminution of that demand, in a greater proportion suring to the labourer the fruit and profit of his than they contract the number of hands by which labour, may help to make a people industrious; it is performed, the quantity of employment, upon but without industry, the laws cannot provide the whole, will gain an addition. Upon which either subsistence or employment; laws cannot principle it may be observed, first, that whenever make corn grow without tni and care, or trade a mechanical invention succeeds in one place, it is flourish without art and diligence. In spite of all necessary that it be imitated in every other, where laws, the expert, laborious, honest workman, will the same manufacture is carried on; for, it is mani- be employed, in preference to the lazy, the unfest, that he who has the benefit of a conciser ope- skilful, the fraudulent, and evasive: and this is not ration, will soon outvie and undersell a competitor more true of two inhabitants of the same village, who continues to use a more circuitous labour. It than it is of the people of two different countries, is also true, in the second place, that whoever firstwhich communicate either with each other, or withi
the rest of the world. The natural basis of trade and general law of enfranchisement, partition, and is rivalship of quality and price; or, which is the enclosure; which, though compulsory upon the saine thing, of skill and industry. Every attempt | lord, or the rest of the tenants, whilst it has in view to force trade by operation of law, that is, by com- the melioration of the soil, and tenders an equitable pelling persons to buy goods at one market, which compensation for every right that it takes away, is ihey can obtain cheaper and better from another, neither more arbitrary, nor more dangerous to the is sure to be either eluded by the quick-sighted- stability of property, than that which is done in ness and incessant activity of private interest, or the construction of roads, bridges, embankments, to be frustrated by retaliation. One half of the navigable canals, and indeed in almost every puta commercial laws of many states are calculated lic work, in which private owners of land are merely to counteract the restrictions which have obliged to accept that price for their property which been imposed by other states. Perhaps the only an indifferent jury may award. It may here, howway in which the interposition of law is salutary ever, be proper to observe, that although the enin trade, is in the prevention of frauds.
closure of wastes and pastures be generally beneNext to the indispensable requisites of internal ficial to population, yet the enclosure of lands in peace and security, the chief advantage which can tillage, in order to convert them into pastures, is be derived to population from the interference of as generally hurtful. law, appears to me to consist in the encourage But, secondly, agriculture is discouraged by every ment of agriculture. This, at least, is the direct constitution of landed property which lets in those, way of increasing the number of the people : every who have no concern in the improvement, to a other mode being effectual only by its influence participation of the profit. This objection is apupon this. Now the principal expedient by which plicable to all such customs of manors as subject such a purpose can be promoted, is to adjust the the proprietor, upon the death of the lord or tenant, laws of property, as nearly as possible, to the two or the alienation of the estate, to a fine apportioned following rules: first,“ to give to the occupier all to the improved value of the land. But of all inthe power over the soil
, which is necessary for its stitutions which are in this way adverse to cultiperfect cultivation;"-secondly, "to assign the vation and improvement, none is so noxious as that whole profit of every improvement to the persons of tithes. A claimant here enters into the produce, by whose activity it is carried on.” What we call who contributed no assistance whatever to the proproperty in land, as hath been observed above, is duction. When years, perhaps, of care and toil power over it. Now it is indifferent to the public in have matured an improvement; when the huswhose hands this power resides, if it be rightly used; bandman sees new crops ripening to his skill and it matters not to whom the land belongs, if it be industry; the moment he is ready to put his sickle well cultivated. When we lament that great estates to the grain, he finds himself compelled to Jiare often united in the same hand, or complain vide his harvest with a nger. Tithes are a that one man possesses what would be sufficient tax not only upon industry, but upon that industry for a thousand, we suffer ourselves to be misled by which feeds mankind; upon that species of exerwords. The owner of ten thousand pounds a year, tion which it is the aim of all wise laws to cherish consumes little more of the produce of the soil than and promote; and to uphold and excite which, the owner of ten pounds a-year. If the cultivation composes, as we have seen, the main benefit that be equal, the estate in the hands of one great lord, the community receives from the whole system of affords subsistence and employment to the same trade, and the success of commerce. And, togenumber of persons as it would do if it were divided ther with the more general inconveniency that atamongst a hundred proprietors. In like manner tends the exaction of tithes, there is this additional we ought to judge of the effect upon the public in- evil, in the mode at least according to which they terest, which may arise from lands being holden are collected at present, that they operate as a by the king, or by the subject; by private persons, bounty upon pasturage. The burthen of the tax or by corporations; by laymen, or ecclesiastics; in falls with its chief, if not with its whole weight, fee, or for life; by virtue of office, or in right of in- upon tillage; that is to say, upon that precise mode heritance. I do not mean that these varieties make of cultivation, which, as hath been shown above, no difference, but I mean that all the difference it is the business of the state to relieve and remu. they do make respects the cultivation of the lands nerate, in preference to every other. No meawhich are so holden.
sure of such extensive concern appears to me so There exist in this country, conditions of tenure practicable, nor any single alteration so beneficial, which condemn the land itself to perpetual sterility. as the conversion of tithes into corn-rents. This Of this kind is the right of common, which pre- commutation, I am convinced, might be so adjusted cludes each proprietor from the improvement, or as to secure to the tithe-holder a complete and even the convenient occupation, of his estate, with perpetual equivalent for his interest, and to leave out (what seldom can be obtained) the consent of to industry its full operation, and entire reward. many others. This tenure is also usually embarrassed by the interference of manorial claims, under which it often happens that the surface belongs to one owner, and the soil to another; so
CHAPTER XII. that neither owner can stir a clod without the concurrence of his partner in the property. In many
Of War, and of Military Establishments. manors, the tenant is restrained from granting Because the Christian Scriptures describe wars leases beyond a short term of years; which renders as what they are,—as crimes or judgments, some every plan of solid improvement impracticable. have been led to believe that it is unlawful for a In these cases, the owner wants, what the first Christian to bear arms. But it should be rememrule of rational policy requires," sufficient power bered that it may be necessary for individuals to over the soil for its perfect cultivation." This unite their force, and for this end to resign thempower ought to be extended to him by some easy selves to the direction of a common will; and yet
it may be true that that will is often actuated by, upon its ultimate utility; that this utility, having criminal motives, and often determined to destruc- a finite and determinate value, situations may be tire purposes. Hence, although the origin of wars feigned, and consequently may possibly arise, in De ascribed, in Scripture, to the operation of law- which the general tendency is outweighed by the less and malignant passion ;* and though war it- enormity of the particular mischief: but she reself be enunerated among the sorest calamities calls, at the same time, to the consideration of the with which a land can be visited, the profession inquirer, the almost inestimable importance, as of of a soldier is nowhere forbidden or condemned. Other general rules of relative justice, so especially When the soldiers demanded of John the Baptist of national and personal fidelity; the unseen, if what they should do, he said unto them, “ Do vio- not unbounded, extent of the mischief which must lence to no man, neither accuse any falsely, and follow from the want of it ; the danger of leaving be content with your wages.”+ In which answer it to the sufferer to decide upon the comparison we do not find that, in order to prepare themselves of particular and general consequences; and the for the reception of the kingdom of God, it was still greater danger of such decisions being drawn required of soldiers to relinquish their profession, into future precedents. If treaties, for instance, but only that they should beware of the vices of be no longer binding than whilst they are convewhich that profession was accused. The precept nient, or until the inconveniency ascend to a which follows, “ Be content with your wages," certain point, (which point must be fixed by the supposed them to continue in their situation. It judgment, or rather by the feelings, of the comwas of a Roman centurion that Christ pronounced plaining party ;) or if such an opinion, after being that mernorable eulogy, “I have not found so great authorised by a few examples, come at length to faith, no, not in Israel." The first Gentile con- prevail; one and almost the only method of avertFerts who was received into the Christian church, ing or closing the calamities of war, of either preand to whom the Gospel was imparted by the im- venting or putting a stop to the destruction of mediate and especial direction of Heaven, held mankind, is lost to the world for ever. We do the samne station : and in the history of this trans- not say that no evil can exceed this, nor any posaction we discover not the smallest intimation, sible advantage compensate it; but we say that a that Cornelius, upon becoming a Christian, quit loss, which affects all, will scarcely be made up ted the service of the Roman legion; that his pro- to the common stock of human happiness by any fession was objected to, or his continuance in it con- benefit that can be procured to a single nation, sidered as in any wise inconsistent with his new which, however respectable when compared with character.
any other single nation, bears an inconsiderable In applying the principles of morality to the af- proportion to the whole. These, however, are fairs of nations, the difficulty which meets us, the principles upon which the calculation is to be arises from hence," that the particular consequence formed. It is enough, in this place, to remark sometimes appears to exceed the value of the gen- the cause which produces the hesitation that we eral rule." "In this circumstance is founded the sometimes feel, in applying rules of personal proonly distinction that exists between the case of bity to the conduct of nations. independent states, and of independent indi As between individuals it is found impossible viduals. In the transactions of private persons, to ascertain every duty by an immediate reference no advantage that results from the breach of a to public utility, not only because such reference general law of justice, can compensate to the is oftentimes too remote for the direction of private public for the violation of the law; in the concerns consciences, but because a multitude of cases arise af empire, this may sometimes be doubted. Thus, in which it is indifferent to the general interest by that the faith of promises ought to be maintained, what rule men act, though it be absolutely necesas far as is lawful, and as far as was intended by sary that they act by some constant and known the parties, whatever inconveniency either of them rule or other: and as, for these reasons, certain may suffer by his fidelity, in the intercourse of positive constitutions are wont to be established in private life, is seldom disputed; because it is every society, which, when established, become as evident to almost every man who reflects upon obligatory as the original principles of natural the subject, that the common happiness gains justice themselves; so, likewise, it is between inmore by the preservation of the rule, than it could dependent communities. Together with those do by the removal of the inconveniency. But maxims of universal equity which are common to when the adherence to a public treaty would en-states and to individuals, and by which the rights slave a whole people; would block up seas, rivers, and conduct of the one as well as the other, ought or harbours; depopulate cities; condemn fertile to be adjusted, when they fall within the scope regions to eternal desolation ; cut off a country and application of such maxims; there exists also from its sources of provision, or deprive it of those amongst sovereigns a system of artificial jurisprucommercial advantages to which its climate, pro- dence, under the name of the law of nations. In duce, or situation naturally entitle it: the magni- this code are found the rules which determine the tnde of the particular evil induces us to call in right to vacant or newly discovered countries; question the obligation of the general rule. Moral those which relate to the protection of fugitives, Philosophy furnishes no precise solution to these the privileges of ambassadors, the condition and doubts.' She cannot pronounce that any rule of duties of neutrality, the immunities of neutral morality is so rigid as to bend to no exceptions; ships, ports, and coasts, the distance from shore to nor, on the other hand, can she comprise these which these immunities extend, the distinction exceptions within any previous description. She between free and contraband goods, and a variety Confesses that the obligation of every law depends of subjects of the same kind. Concerning which
examples, and indeel the principal part of what is
called the jus gentium, it may be observed, that James iv. 1.
| Luke jii. 14. the rules derive their moral force, (by which I I Luke vii. 9.
& Acts. x. 1. mean the regard that ought to be paid to them by