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in which we must allow it to be possible for , thing sought after and ascertained: it must be the ancient writings to be placed; and it is a situation groundwork of every other observation. in which it is more difficult to distinguish spu The reader then will please to remember this rius from genuine writings, than in either of the word undesignedness, as denoting that upon cases described in the preceding suppositions ; which the construction and validity of our arguinasmuch as the congruities observable are so far ment chiefly depend. accidental, as that they are not produced by the As to the proofs of undesignedness, I shall in immediate transplanting of names and circum- this place say little ; for I had rather the reader's stances out of one writing into the other. But persuasion should arise from the instances themalthough, with respect to each other, the agree- selves, and the separate remarks with which they ment in these writings be mediate and secondary, may be accompanied, than from any previous foryet it is not properly or absolutely undesigned: mulary or description of argument. In a great because, with respect to the common original plurality of examples, I trust he will be perfectly from which the information of the writers proceeds, convinced that no design or contrivance whatever it is studied and factitious. The case of which we has been exercised: and if some of the coincidences treat must, as to the letters, be a case of forgery: alleged appear to be minute, circuitous, or oblique, and when the writer who is personating another, let him reflect that this very indirectness and sub sits down to his composition—whether he have tility is that which gives force and propriety to the history with which we now compare the letters, the example. Broad, obvious, and explicit agree or some other record before him ; or whether he ments prove little ; because it may be suggested have only loose tradition and reports to go by—he that the insertion of such is the ordinary expemust adapt his imposture, as well as he can, to dient of every forgery: and though they may occur, what he finds in these accounts; and his adaptations and probably will occur in genuine writings, yet will be the result of counsel, scheme, and industry: it cannot be proved that they are peculiar to these. art must be employed; and vestiges will appear of Thus what St. Paul declares in chap. xi. of 1 Cor. management and design. Add to this, that, in concerning the institution of the eucharist—“For most of the following examples, the circumstances I have received of the Lord that which I also dein which the coincidence is remarked, are of too livered unto you, that the Lord Jesus, the same particular and domestic a nature, to have floated night in which he was betrayed, took bread; and down upon the stream of general tradition. when he had given thanks he brake it, and said,
Of the three cases which we have stated, the Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for difference between the first and the two others is, you; this do in remembrance of me”-though it that in the first the design may be fair and honest, be in close and verbal conformity with the account in the others it must be accompanied with the of the same transaction preserved by St. Luke, is consciousness of fraud; but in all there is design. yet a conformity of which no use can be made in In examining, therefore, the agreement between our argument ; for if it should be objected that this ancient writings, the character of truth and ori- was a mere recital from the gospel, borrowed by ginality is undesignedness: and this test applies the author of the epistle, for the purpose of setting to every supposition ; for, whether we suppose the off his composition by an appearance of agreement history to be true, but the letters spurious; or, the with the received account of the Lord's supper, I letters to be genuine, but the history false; or, should not know how to repel the insinuation. In lastly, falsehood to belong to both-the history to like manner, the description which St. Paul gives be a falle, and the letters fictitious: the same in- of himself in his epistle to the Philippians (iii
. 5.) ference will result-that either there will be no -"Circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of agreement between them, or the agreement will Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, an Hebrew of be the effect of design. Nor will it elude the the Hebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee; principle of this rule, to suppose the same person concerning zeal, persecuting the Church; touchto have been the author of all the letters, or even ing the righteousness which is in the law, blame the author both of the letters and the history; for less"—is made up of particulars so plainly de
no less design is necessary to produce coincidence livered concerning him, in the Acts of the Apos• between different parts of a man's own writings, tles, the Epistle to the Rornans, and the Epistle to
especially when they are made to take the differ- the Galatians, that I cannot deny but that it ent forms of a history and of original letters, than would be easy for an impostor, who was fabricato adjust them to the circumstances found in any ting a letter in the name of St. Paul, to collect other writing
these articles into one view. This, therefore, is a With respect to those writings of the New conformity which we do not adduce. But when Testament which are to be the subject of our I read in the Acts of the Apostles, that when present consideration, I think, that, as to the au " Paul came to Derbe and Lystra, behold a certain thenticity of the epistles, this argument, where it disciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of is sufficiently sustained by instances, is nearly a certain woman which was a jeress;" and when, conclusive; for I cannot assign a supposition of in an epistle addressed to Timothy, I find him reforgery, in which coincidences of the kind we minded of his “having known the Holy Scripinquire after are likely to appear. As to the tures from a child;" which implies that he must, history, it extends to these points :— It proves the on one side or both, have been brought up by general reality of the circumstances: it proves the Jewish parents : I conceive that I remark a coinhistorian's knowledge of these circumstances. In cidence which shows, by its very obliquity, that the present instance it confirms his pretensions of scheme was not employed in its formation. In having been a contemporary, and in the latter part like manner, if a coincidence depend upon a comof his history, a companion, of St. Paul. In a parison of dates, or rather of circumstances from word, it establishes the substantial truth of the which the dates are gathered the more intricate narration; and substantial truth is that, which, that comparison shall be; the more numerous the in every historical inquiry, ought to be the first intermediate steps through which the conclusion
is deduced ; in a word, the more circuitous the in- | simply a collection of sentences from the canon. vestigation is, the better, because the agreement ical epistles, strung together with very little skill. which finally results is thereby farther removedThe second, which is a more versute and specious from the suspicion of contrivance, affectation, or forgery, is introduced with a list of names of perdesign. And it should be remembered, concern sons who wrote to St. Paul from Corinth; and is ing these coincidences, that it is one thing to be preceded by an account sufficiently particular of minute, and another to be precarious; one thing the manner in which the epistle was sent from to be unobserved, and another to be obscure; one Corinth to St. Paul, and the answer returned. thing to be circuitous or oblique, and another to But they are names which no one ever heard of; be forced, dubious, or fanciful. And this distinc- and the account it is impossible to combine with tion ought always to be retained in our thoughts. any thing found in the Acts, or in the other epis
The very particularity of St. Paul's epistles ; tles. It is not necessary for me to point out the the perpetual recurrence of names of persons and internal marks of spuriousness and imposture places; the frequent allusions to the incidents of which these compositions betray; but it was nehis private life, and the circumstances of his con cessary to observe, that they do not afford those dition and history; and the connexion and paral- coincidences which we propose as proofs of authenlelism of these with the same circumstances in ticity in the epistles which we defend. the Acts of the Apostles, so as to enable us, for Having explained the general scheme and formthe most part, to confront them one with another; ation of the argument, I may be permitted to subas well as the relation which subsists between the join a brief account of the manner of conducting it. circumstances, as mentioned or referred to in the I have disposed the several instances of agreedifferent Epistles-afford no inconsiderable proof ment under separate numbers : as well to mark of the genuiness of the writings, and the reality of more sensibly the divisions of the subject, as for the transactions. For as no advertency is suf- another purpose, viz: that the reader may thereby ficient to guard against slips and contradictions, be reminded that the instances are independent of when circumstances are multiplied, and when one another. I have advanced nothing which I did they are liable to be detected by contemporary not think probable; but the degree of probability accounts equally circumstantial, an impostor, I by which different instances are supported, is unshould expect, would either have avoided particu- doubtedly very different. If the reader, therefore, lars entirely, contenting himself with doctrinal meets with a number which contains an instance discussions, moral precepts, and general reflec- that appears to him unsatisfactory, or founded tions; * or if, for the sake of imitating St. Paul's in mistake, he will dismiss that number from style, he should have thought it necessary to inter- the argument, but without prejudice to any other. sperse his composition with names and circum- He will have occasion also to observe that the costances, he would have placed them out of the incidences discoverable in some epistles are much reach of comparison with the history. And I am fewer and weaker than what are supplied by confirmed in this opinion by the inspection of two others. But he will add to his observation this attempts to counterfeit St. Paul's epistles, which important circumstance—that whatever ascertains have come down to us; and the only attempts of the original of one epistle, in some measure estawhich we have any knowledge, that are at all de-blishes the authority of the rest. For, whether serving of regard.' One of these is an epistle to these epistles be genuine or spurious, every thing the Laodiceans, extant in Latin, and preserved about them indicates that they come from the by Fabricius, in his collection of apocryphal scrip- same hand. The diction, which it is extremely tures. The other purports to be an epistle of St. difficult to imitate, preserves its resemblance and Paul to the Corinthians, in answer to an epistle peculiarity throughout all the epistles. Numerfrom the Corinthians to him. This was trans ous expressions and singularities of style, found in Jated by Scroderus from a copy in the Arminian no other part of the New Testament, are repeated language which had been sent to W. Whiston, in different epistles; and occur in their respective and was afterwards, from a more perfect copy places, without the smallest appearance of force or procured at Aleppo, published by his sons, as an art. An involved argumentation, frequent obscuappendix to their edition of Moses Chorenensis. No rities, especially in the order and transition of . Greek copy exists of either: they are not only not thought, piety, vehemence, affection, bursts of supported by ancient testimony, but they are nega- rapture, and of unparalleled sublimity, are pro tived and excluded ; as they have never found ad- perties, all or most of them, discernible in every mission into any catalogue of apostolical writings, letter of the collection. But although these episacknowledged by, or known to the early ages of tles bear strong marks of proceeding from the same Christianity. In the first of these I found, as I hand, I think it is still more certain that they were expected, a total evitation of circumstances. "It is originally separate publications. They form no
continued story; they compose no regular cortesThis, however, must not be misunderstood. A pondence; they comprise not the transactions of person writing to his friends, and upon a subject in any particular period; they carry on no connexion which the transactions of his own life were concerned, of argument; they depend not upon one another; cially if it was a long one, to refer to passages found in except in one or two instances, they refer not his history. A person addressing an epistle to the pub to one another. I will farther undertake to say, lic at large, or under the form of an epistle delivering a that no study or care has been employed to it is probable, meet with an occasion of alluding to the produce or preserve an appearance of consistency circumstances of his life at all; he might, or he might amongst them. All which observations show that pot; the chance on either side is nearly equal. This is they were not intended by the person, whoever the situation of the catholic epistle. Although, there he was, that wrote them, to come forth or be read a valuable accession to the arguments by which the together: that they appeared at first separately, authenticity of a letter is maintained, yet the want of and have been collected since. them certainly forms no positive objection.
The proper purpose of the following work is to
bring together, from the Acts of the Apostles, and several journeys to Jerusalem before, and one also from the different epistles, such passages as fur- immediately after his first visit into the peninsula nish examples of undesigned coincidence; but 1 of Greece, (Acts xvii, 21,) it cannot from hence have so far enlarged upon this plan, as to take be collected in which of these visits the epistle inw it some circumstances found in the epistles, was written, or with certainty, that it was written which contributed strength to the conclusion, in either. The silence of the historian, who prothough not strictly objects of comparison. fesses to have been with St. Paul at the time,
It appeared also a part of the same plan, to (c. xx. v. 6,) concerning any contribution, might examine the difficulties which presented them lead us to look out for some different journey, or selves in the course of our inquiry.
might induce us, perhaps, to question the conI do not know that the subject has been pro- sistency of the two records, did not a very acciposed or considered in this view before. Ludovi- dental reference, in another part of the same cus, Capellus, Bishop Pearson, Dr. Benson, and history, afford us sufficient ground to believe that Dr. Lariner, have each given a continued history this silence was omission. When St. Paul made of St. Paul's life, made up from the Acts of the his reply before Felix, to the accusations of TerA postles and the Epistles joined together. But tullus, he alleged, as was natural, that neither this, it is manifest, is a different undertaking the errand which brought him to Jerusalem, nor from the present, and directed to a different pur- his conduct whilst he remained there, merited the pose.
calumnies with which the Jews had aspersed If what is here offered shall add one thread to him. “Now after many years (i. e. of absence,) that complication of probabilities by which the I came to bring alms to my nation, and oferChristian history is attested, the reader's atten- ings; whereupon certain Jews from Asia found tion will be repaid by the supreme importance me purified in the temple, neither with multitude, of the subject; and my design will be fully an- nor with tumult, who ought to have been here swered.
before thee, and object, if they had aught against me.” Acts xxiv. 17—19. This mention of alms and offerings certainly brings the narrative in the
Acts near to an accordancy with the epistle; yet CHAPTER II.
no one, I am persuaded, will suspect that this The Epistle to the Romans.
clause was put into St. Paul's defence, either to
supply the omission in the preceding narrative, or No. I.
with any view to such accordancy.
After all, nothing is yet said or hinted, conThe first passage I shall produce from this cerning the place of the contribution; nothing epistle, and upon which a good deal of observation concerning Macedonia and Achaia. Turn therewill be founded, is the following :
fore to the First Epistle to the Corinthians, * But now I go unto Jerusalem, to minister chap. xvi. ver. 1–4, and you have St. Paul deunto the saints; for it hath pleased them of livering the following directions : “ Concerning Macedonia and Achaia, to make a certain contri- the collection for the saints, as I have given orbution for the poor saints which are at Jerusa- ders to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye; lem."-Rom. xv. 25, 26.
upon the first day of the week let every one of In this quotation three distinct circumstances you lay by him in store as God hath prospered are stated-a contribution in Macedonia for the him, that there be no gatherings when I come. relief of the Christians of Jerusalem, a contribu. And when I come, whomsoever you shall approve tion in Achaia for the same purpose, and an in- by your letters, them will I send to bring your tended journey of St. Paul to Jerusalem. These liberality unto Jerusalem; and if it be meet, that circumstances are stated as taking place at the I go also, they shall go with me.". In this passame time, and that to be the time when the epis- sage we find a contribution carrying on at Cotle was written. Now let us inquire whether we rinth, the capital of Achaia, for the Christians of can find these circumstances elsewhere, and whe-Jerusalem; we find also a hint given of the posther, if we do find them, they meet together in sibility of St. Paul going up to Jerusalem himrespect of date. Turn to the Acts of the Apos- self, after he had paid his visit into Achaia: but tles, chap. XX. ver. 2, 3, and you read the follow- this is spoken of rather as a possibility than as ing account: “When he had gone over those any settled intention ; for his first thought was, parts, (viz. Macedonia,) and had given them "Whomsoever you shall approve by your letters, much exhortation, he came into Greece, and them will I send to bring your liberality to Jeruthere abode three months; and when the Jews salem :" and in the sixth verse he adds, “that ye laid wait for him, as he was about to sail into Sy; may bring me on my journey whithersoever I ria, he proposed to return through Macedonia.” go." This epistle purports to be written after St. From this passage, compared with the account of Paul had been at Corinth: for it refers throughSt. Paul's travels given before, and from the se-out to what he had done and said amongst them quel of the chapter, it appears that upon St. Paul's whilst he was there. The expression, therefore, second visit to the peninsula of Greece, his inten- " when I come," must relate to a second visit; tion was, when he should leave the country, to against which visit the contribution spoken of was proceed from Achaia directly by sea to Syria; desired to be in readiness. but that to avoid the Jews, who were lying in But though the contribution in Achaia be exwait to intercept him in his route, he so far pressly mentioned, nothing is here said concernchanged his purpose as to go back through Mace- ing any contribution in Macedonia. Turn, theredonja, embark at Philippi, and pursue his voyage fore, in the third place, to the Second Epistle to from thence towards Jerusalem. Here, therefore, the Corinthians, chap. viii. ver. 1-4, and you is a journey to Jerusalem; but not a syllable of will discover the particular which remains to be any contribution. And as St. Paul had taken sought for: “Moreover, brethren, we do you to
wit of the grace of God bestowed on the churches | nice examination, that he could have determined of Macedonia ; how that, in a great trial of af them to belong to the same period. In the third fiction, the abundance of their joy and their deep place, I remark, what diminishes very much the poverty abounded unto the riches of their libera- suspicion of fraud, how aptly and connectedly the lity: for to their power, I bear record, yea and mention of the circumstances in question, viz. the beyond their power, they were willing of them- journey to Jerusalem, and of the occasion of that selves: praying us with 'much entreaty, that we journey, arises from the context, Whensoever would receive the gift, and take upon us the fel- I take my journey into Spain, I will come to you; lowship of the ministering to the saints.” To for I trust to see you in my journey, and to be which add, chap. ix. ver. 2: “ I know the forward- brought on my way thitherward by you, if first I ness of your mind, for which I boast of you to be somewhat filled with your company. But now them of Macedonia, that Achaia was ready a Igo unto Jerusalem, to minister unto the sainis; year ago." In this epistle we find St. Paul'ad-for it hath pleased them of Macedonia and vanced as far as Macedonia, upon that second Achaia to make a certain contribution for the visit to Corinth which he promised in his former poor saints which are at Jerusalem. It bath epistle; we find also, in the passages now quoted pleased them verily, and their debtors they are, from it, that a contribution was going on in Ma- for if the Gentiles have been made partakers of cedonia at the same time with, or soon however their spiritual things, their duty is also to minis following, the contribution which was made in ter unto them in carnal things. When therefore Achaia ; but for whom the contribution was made I have performed this, and have sealed them to does not appear in this epistle at all: that in this fruit, I will come by you into Spain.” Is formation must be supplied from the first epistle. the passage in Italics like a passage foisted in for
Here, therefore, at length, but fetched from an extraneous purpose ? Does it not arise from three different writings, we have obtained the what goes before, by a junction as easy as any several circumstances we inquired after, and example of writing upon real business can fur which the Epistle to the Romans brings to nish? Could any thing be more natural than gether, viz. a contribution in Achiaia for the that St. Paul, in writing to the Romans, should Christians of Jerusalem ; a contribution in Ma- speak of the time when he hoped to visit them; cedonia for the same; and an approaching jour- should mention the business which then detained ney of St. Paul to Jerusalem. We have these him; and that he purposed to set forwards upon circumstances-each by some hint in the pas- his journey to them when that business was comsage in which it is mentioned, or by the date of pleted ? the writing in which the passage occursfixed
No. II. to a particular time; and we have that time turning out upon examination to be in all the same : By means of the quotation which formed the namely towards the close of St. Paul's second subject of the preceding number, we collect that visit to the peninsula of Greece. This'is an in- the Epistle to the Romans was written at the stance of conformity beyond the possibility, I will conclusion of St. Paul's second visit to the peninventure to say, of randomn writing to produce. Isula of Greece; but this we collect, not from the also assert, that it is in the highest degree im- epistle itself, nor from any thing declared conprobable that it should have been the effect of cerning the time and place in any part of the contrivance and design. The imputation of de- epistle, but from a comparison of circumstances sign amounts to this: that the forger of the Epis- referred to in the epistle, with the order of events tle to the Romans inserted in it the passage upon recorded in the Acts, and with references to the which our observations are founded, for the pur- same circumstances, though for quite different pose of giving colour to his forgery by the ap- purposes, in the two epistles to the Corinthians. pearance of conformity with other writings which Now would the author of a forgery, who sought were then extant. I reply, in the first place, that, to gain credit to a spurious letter by congruities, if he did this to countenance his forgery, he did it depending upon the time and place in which the for the purpose of an argument which would not letter was supposed to be written, have left that strike one reader in ten thousand. Coincidences time and place to be made out, in a manner so so circuitous 'as this, answer not the ends of for- obscure and indirect as this is ? If therefore coingery; are seldom, I believe, attempted by it. In cidences of circumstances can be pointed out in the second place, I observe, that he must have this epistle, depending upon its date, or the place had the Acts of the Apostles, and the two epis- where it was written, whilst that date and place tles to the Corinthians, before him at the time. are only ascertained by other circumstances, such In the Acts of the Apostles (I mean that part of coincidences may fairly be stated as undesigned. the Acts which relate to this period,) he would Under this head I adduce have found the journey to Jerusalem; but nothing Chap. xvi. 21–23: “Timotheus, my workabout the contribution. In the First Epistle to the fellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my Corinthians he would have found a contribution kinsmen, salute you. I, Tertius, who wrote this going on in Achaia for the Christians of Jerusa- epistle, salute you in the Lord. Gaius, mine bost, lem, and a distant hint of the possibility of the and of the whole church, saluteth you; and journey; but nothing concerning a contribution Quartus, a brother.” With this passage I comin Macedonia. In the Second Epistle to the Co- pare, Acts xx. 4: "And there accompanied him rinthians he would have found a contribution in into Asia, Sopater of Berea; and, of the ThessaMacedonia accompanying that in Achaia ; but no lonians, Aristarchus and Secundus; and Gaius intimation for whom either was intended, and not of Derbe, and Timotheus; and, of Asia, Tychicus a word about the journey. It was only hy a close and Trophimus." The Epistle to the Romans, and attentive collation of the three writings, that we have seen, was written just before St. Paul's he could have picked out the circumstances which departure from Greece, after his second visit to he has united in his epistle; and by a still more I that peninsula : the persons mentioned in the
quotation from the Acts are those who accom- his wife Priscilla, because that Claudius had panied him in that departure. Of seven whose commanded all Jews to depart from Rome.” maines are joined in the salutation of the church They were connected, therefore, with the place of Rome, three, viz. Sosipater, Gaius, and Timo to which the salutations are sent. That is one thy, are proved, by this passage in the Acts, to coincidence; another is the following: St. Paul have been with St. Paul at the time. And this is became acquainted with these persons at Corinth perhaps as much coincidence as could be expected, during his first return into Greece. They accomfrom reality, though less, I am apt think, than panied him upon his visit into Asia ; were settled would have been produced by design. Four are for some time at Ephesus, Acts xviii
. 19-20, mentioned in the Acts who are not joined in the and appear to have been with St. Paul when he salutation; and it is in the nature of the case wrote from that place his First Epistle to the probable that there should be many attending St. Corinthians, 1 Cor. xvi. 19. Not long after the Paul in Greece, who knew nothing of the con- writing of which epistle St. Paul went from verts at Rome, nor were known by them. In like Ephesus into Macedonia, and, “after he had manner, several are joined in the salutation who gone over those parts,” proceeded from thence are not mentioned in the passage referred to in upon his second visit into Greece ; during which the Acts. This also was to be expected. The visit
, or rather at the conclusion of it, the Epistle occasion of mentioning them in the Acts was to the Romans, as hath been shown, was written. their proceeding with St. Paul upon his journey. We have therefore the time of St. Paul's residence But we may be sure that there were many eminent at Ephesus after he had written to the CorinChristians with St. Paul in Greece, besides those thians, the time taken up by his progress through who accompanied him into Asia.*
Macedonia, (which is indefinite, and was probably But if any one shall still contend that a forger considerable,) and his three months' abode in of the epistle, with the Acts of the Apostles before Greece; we have the sum of those three periods him, and having settled this scheme of writing a allowed for Aquila and Priscilla going back to letter as from St. Paul, upon his second visit into Rome, so as to be there when the epistle before Greece, would easily think of the expedient of us was written. Now what this quotation leads putting in the names of those persons who ap- us to observe is, the danger of scattering names peared to be with St. Paul at the time as an ob- and circumstances in writings like the present, vious recommendation of the imposture: I then how implicated they often are with dates and repeat my observations ; first, that he would have places, and that nothing but truth can preserve made the catalogue more complete; and, secondly, consistency. Had the notes of time in the Epistle that with this contrivance in his thoughts, it was to the Romans fixed the writing of it to any date certainly his business, in order to avail himself of prior to St. Paul's first residence at Corinth, the the artifice, to have stated in the body of the epis- salutation of Aquila and Priscilla would have tle, that Paul was in Greece when he wrote it; / contradicted the history, because it would have and that he was there upon his second visit. been prior to his acquaintance with these persons. Neither of which he has done, either directly, or if the notes of time had fixed it to any period even so as to be discoverable by any circumstance during that residence at Corinth, during his jourfound in the narrative delivered in the Acts. ney to Jerusalem when he first returned out of
Under the same head, viz. of coincidences de- Greece, uring his stay at Antioch, whither he pending upon date, I cite from the epistle the fol- went down to Jerusalem, or during his second lowing salutation: "Greet Priscilla and Aquila, progress through the Lesser Asia, upon which he my helpers in Jesus Christ, who have for my life proceeded from Antioch, an equal contradiction laid down their own necks; unto whom not only would have been incurred; because from Acts I give thanks, but also all the churches of the xviii. 2–18, 19—26, it appears that during all Gentiles.”—Chap. xvi. 3. It appears, from the this time Aquila and Priscilla were either along Acts of the Apostles, that Priscilla and Aquila with St. Paul, or were abiding at Ephesus. Lastly, had originally been inhabitants of Rome; for we had the notes of time in this epistle, which we read, Acts xviii
. 2, that “ Paul found a certain have seen to be perfectly incidental, compared Jew, named Aquila, lately come from Italy with with the notes of time in the First Epistle to the
Corinthians, which are equally incidental, fixed of these Jason is one, whose presence upon this oc. this epistle to be either contemporary with that, casion is very naturally accounted for.
or prior to it, a similar contradiction would have inhabitant of Thessalonica in Macedonia, and enter. ensued; because, first, when the Epistle to the tained St. Paul in his house upon his first visit to that Corinthians was written, Aquila and Priscilla country.-Acts wii 7. St. Paul, upon this his second visit, passed through Macedonia on his way to Greece, salutation of that church, 1 Cor. xvi. 19; and
were along with St. Paul, as they joined in the and, from the situation of Thessalonica, most likely through that city, it appears, froin various instances because, secondly, the history does not allow us to in the Acts, to have been the practice of many converts, suppose, that between the time of their becoming to attend St. Paul from place to place. It is therefore acquainted with St. Paul and the time of St. highly probable, I mean that it is highly consistent with Paul's writing to the Corinthians, Aquila and account a zealous disciple, the inhabitant of a city at Priscilla could have gone to Rome, so as to have no great distance from Greece, and through which, as been saluted in an epistle to that city; and then it should seem, St. Paul had lately passed, should have come back to St. Paul at Ephesus, so as to be accompanied St. Paul into Greece, and have been with joined with him in saluting the church of Corinth. epistle. A very slight alteration would convert nouxios As it is, all things are consistent. The Epistle to into Aouras, Lucius into Luke, which would produce the Romans is posterior even to the Second Episan additional coincidence : for, if Luke was the author tle to the Corinthians; because it speaks of a conof the history, he was with St. Paul at the time; in tribution in Achaia being completed, which the after the writing of this epistle
, the historian uses the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, chap. viii, is first person—" We sailed away from Philippi.” Acts xx.6. I only soliciting. It is sufficiently therefore posterior
Jason was an
him there at this time.