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knowledge of it to be highly conducive to the hap-, is a bar to every proof, and to all future reasoning piness of the species, a purpose which so many upon the subject, it may be necessary, before we provisions of nature are calculated to promote : proceed further, to examine the principle upon Suppose, nevertheless, almost the whole race, which it professes to be founded; which principle either by the imperfection of their faculties, the is concisely this, That it is contrary to experience misfortune of their situation, or by the loss of some that a miracle should be true, but not contrary to prior revelation, to want this knowledge, and not experience that testimony should be false. to be likely, without the aid of a new revelation, to Now there appears a small ambiguity in the attain it: Under these circumstances, is it impro- term “experience,” and in the phrases, “contrary bable that a revelation should be made ? is it incredi- to experience,” or “contradicting experience," ble that God should interpose for such a purpose? which it may be necessary to remove in the first Suppose him to design for mankind a future state; place. Strictly speaking, the narrative of a fact is is it unlikely that he should acquaint him with it? then only contrary to experience, when the fact is

Now in what way can a revelation be made, but related to have existed at a time and place, at by miracles? In none which we are able to con- which time and place we being present, did not ceive. Consequently, in whatever degree it is perceive it to exist : as if it should be asserted, that probable, or not very improbable, that a revelation in a particular room, and at a particular hour of a should be communicated to mankind at all; in the certain day, a man was raised from the dead, in same degree is it probable, or not very impro- which room, and at the time specified, we being bable, that miracles should be wrought. There- present and looking on, perceived no such event fore, when miracles are related to have been to have taken place. Here the assertion is conwrought in the promulgating of a revelation mani- trary to experience properly so called: and this is festly wanted, and, if true, of inestimable value, a contrariety which no evidence can surmount. It the improbability which arises from the miraculous matters nothing, whether the fact be of a miracunature of the things related, is not greater than lous nature or not. But although this be the exthe original improbability that such a revelation perience, and the contrariety, which Archbishop should be imparted by God.

Tillotson alleged in the quotation with which I wish it, however, to be correctly understood, Mr. Hume opens his Essay, it is certainly not in what manner, and to what extent, this argu- that experience, nor that contrariety, which Mr. ment is alleged. We do not assume the attributes Hume himself intended to otject. And, short of of the Deity, or the existence of a future state, in this, I know no intelligible signification which can order to prove the reality of miracles. That re- be affixed to the term “contrary to experience," ality always must be proved by evidence. We but one, viz. that of not having ourselves expeassert only, that in miracles adduced in support of rienced any thing similar to the thing related, or revelation, there is not any such antecedent im- such things not being generally experienced by probability as no testimony can surmount. And others. I say “not generally;" for to state confor the purpose of maintaining this assertion, we cerning the fact in question, that no such thing contend, that the incredibility of miracles related was erer experienced, or that unirersal experience to have been wrought in attestation of a message is against it, is to assume the subject of the confrom God, conveying intelligence of a future state of troversy. rewards and punishments, and teaching mankind Now the improbability which arises from the how to prepare themselves for that state, is not in want (for this properly is a want, not a contradicitself greater than the event, call it either probable tion) of experience, is only equal to the probability or improbable, of the two following propositions there is, that, if the thing were true, we should being true: namely, first, that a future state of ex- experience things similar to it, or that such things istence should be destined by God for his human would be generally experienced. Suppose it then creation; and, secondly, that, being so destined, he to be true that miracles were wrought on the first should acquaint them with it. It is not necessary promulgation of Christianity, when nothing but for our purpose, that these propositions be capable miracles could decide its authority, is it certain of proof, or even that, by arguments drawn from that such miracles would be repeated so often, and the light of nature, they can be made out to be in so many places, as to become objects of general probable; it is enough that we are able to say con- experience? Is it a probability approaching to cerning them, that they are not so violently im- certainty ? is it a probability of any great strength probable, so contradictory to what we already be- or force? is it such as no evidence can encounter ? lieve of the divine power and character, that either And yet this probability is the exact conrerse, and the propositions themselves, or facts strictly con- therefore the exact measure, of the improbability nected with the propositions (and therefore no which arises from the want of experience, and further improbable than they are improbable,) which Mr. Hume represents as invincible by huought to be rejected at first sight, and to be reject- man testimony. ed by whatever strength or complication of evi It is not like alleging a new law of nature, or a dence they be attested.

new experiment in natural philosophy; because, This is the prejudication we would resist. For when these are related, it is expected that, under to this length does a modern objection to miracles the same circumstances, the same effect will folgo, viz. that no human testimony can in any case low universally; and in proportion as this expectrender them credible. I think the reflection above ation is justly entertained, the want of a corre stated, that, if there be a revelation, there must be sponding experience negatives the history. But miracles, and that under the circumstances in to expect concerning a miracle, that it should sucwhich the human species are placed, a revelation ceed upon a repetition, is to expect that which is not improbable, or not improbable in any great would make it cease to be a miracle, which is condegree, to be a fair answer to the whole objection. trary to its nature as such, and would totally de

But since it is an objection which stands in the stroy the use and purpose for which it was wrought very threshold of our argument, and if admitted, | The force of experience as an objection to mi

tacles, is founded in the presumption, either that tion, we ought to have some other to rest in ; and that the course of nature is invariable, or that, if none, even by our adversaries, can be admitted, it be ever varied, variations will be frequent and which is not inconsistent with the principles that general. Has the necessity of this alternative regulate human affairs and human conduct at been demonstrated ? Permit us to call the course present, or which makes men then to have been a of nature the agency of an intelligent Being; and different kind of beings from what they are now. is there any good reason for judging this state of But the short consideration which, independthe case to be probable ? Ought we not rather to ently of every other, convinces me that there is no expect that such a Being, on occasions of peculiar solid foundation in Mr. Hume's conclusion, is the importance, may interrupt the order which he had following: . When a theorem is proposed to a appointed; yet, that such occasions should return mathematician, the first thing he does with it is seldom; that these interruptions consequently to try it upon a simple case, and if it produce a should be confined to the experience of a few; false result, he is sure that there must be some that the want of it, therefore, in many, should be mistake in the demonstration. Now, to proceed matter neither of surprise nor objection.

in this way with what may be called Mr. Hume's But as a continuation of the argument from ex- theorem. "If twelve men, whose probity and good perience, it is said that, when we advance accounts sense I had long known, should seriously and of miracles, we assign effects without causes, or circumstantially relate to me an account of a miwe attribute effects to causes inadequate to the racle wrought before their eyes, and in which it purpose, or to causes, of the operation of which we was impossible that they should be deceived; if have no experience. Of what causes, we may the governor of the country, hearing a rumour of ask, and of what effects does the objection speak? this account,

should call these men into his preIf it be answered that, when we ascribe the cure sence, and offer them a short proposal, either to of the palsy to a touch, of blindness to the anoint- confess the imposture, or submit to be tied up to ing of the eyes with clay, or the raising of the a gibbet; if they should refuse with one voice to dead to a word, we lay ourselves open to this im- acknowledge that there existed any falsehood or putation; we reply, that we ascribe no such effects imposture in the case ; if this threat were commuto such causes. "We perceive no virtue or energy nicated to them separately, yet with no different in these things more than in other things of the effect; if it was at last executed; if I myself saw same kind. They are merely signs to connect them, one after another, consenting to be racked, the miracle with its end. The ettect we ascribe burnt, or strangled, rather than give up the truth simply to the volition of the Deity; of whose ex- of their account; still, if Mr. Hume's rule be my istence and power, not to say of whose presence guide, I am not to believe them. Now I underand agency, we have previous and independent take to say that there exists not a sceptic in the proof. We have, therefore, all we seek for in the world who would not believe them, or who would works of rational agents,-a sufficient power and defend such incredulity. an adequate motive. In a word, once believe that Instances of spurious miracles supported by there is a God, and miracles are not incredible. strong and apparent testimony, undoubtedly de

Mr. Hume 'states the case of miracles to be a mand examination ; Mr. Hume has endeavoured contest of opposite improbabilities, that is to say, a to fortify his argument by some examples of this question whether it be more improbable that the kind. I hope in a proper place to show that none miracle should be true, or the testimony false : and of them reach the strength or circumstances of the this I think a fair account of the controversy. But Christian evidence. In these however, consiste herein I remark a want of argumentative justice, the weight of his objection : in the principle itself, that, in describing the improbability of miracles, I am persuaded, there is none. he suppresses all those circumstances of extenuation, which result from our knowledge of the exist. ence, power, and disposition of the Deity; his concern in the creation, the end answered by the miracle, the importance of that end, and its subserviency to the plan pursued in the work of

PART 1. nature. As Mr. Hume has represented the question, miracles are alike incredîble to him who is previously assured of the constant agency of a Divine Being, and to him who believes that no

TIANITY, AND WHEREIN IT 18 DISTINGUISHED such Being exists in the universe. They are

FROM THE EVIDENCE ALLEGED FOR OTHER MIequally incredible, whether related to have been wrought upon occasions the most deserving, and The two propositions which I shall endeavour for purposes the most beneficial, or for no assign- to establish are these: able end whatever, or for an end confessedly tri I. That there is satisfactory evidence that fling or pernicious. This surely cannot be a cor- many, professing to be original witnesses of the rect statenient. In adjusting also the other side Christian Miracles, passed their lives in labours, of the balance, the strength and weight of testi- dangers, and sufferings, voluntarily undergone in mony, this author has provided an answer to attestation of the accounts which they delivered, every possible accumulation of historical proof by and solely in consequence of their belief of those telling us, that we are not obliged to explain how accounts; and that they also submitted, from tho the story of the evidence arose. Now I think that same motives, to new rules of conduct. we are obliged: not, perhaps, to show by positive II. That there is not satisfactory evidence, accounts how it did, but by a probable hypothesis that persons professing to be original witnesses of how it might so happen. 'The existence of the other miracles, in their nature as certain as these testimony is a phenomenon; the truth of the fact are, have ever acted in the same manner, in atsolves the phenomenon. If we reject this solu- I testation of the accounts which they delivered, and



properly in consequence of their belief of those scenes, or the desire, which is common to all, of accounts.

personal ease and freedom, but conviction. The first of these propositions, as it forms the Secondly, it is also highly probable, from the argument, will stand at the head of the following nature of the case, that the propagation of the nine chapters.

new religion was attended with difficulty and danger. As addressed to the Jews, it was a system adverse not only to their habitual opinions, but to those opinions, upon which their hopes, their par

tialities, their pride, their consolation, was founded. CHAPTER I.

This people, with or without reason, had worked

themselves into a persuasion, that some signal and There is satisfactory evidence that many, pro- greatly advantageous change was to be effected in

fessing to be originul witnesses of the Chris- the condition of their country, by the agency of a tian miracles, passed their lives in labours, dan- long-promised messenger from heaven. * The rugers, and sufferings, voluntarily undergone lers of the Jews, their leading sect, their priesthood, in attestation of the accounts which they de- had been the authors of this persuasion to the livered, and solely in consequence of their be- common people. So that it was not merely the lief of those accounts; and that they also sub- conjecture of theoretical divines, or the secret exmitted, from the same motives, to new rules of pectation of a few recluse devotees, but it was beconduct.

come the popular hope and passion, and like all

popular opinions, undoubting, and impatient of To support this proposition, two points are ne- contradiction. They clung to this hope under cessary to be made out: first, that the Founder of every misfortune of their country, and with more the institution, his associates and immediate fol- tenacity as their dangers or calamities increased. lowers, acted the part which the proposition im- To find, therefore, that expectations so gratifying putes to them : secondly, that they did so in attest were to be worse than disappointed; that they ation of the miraculous history recorded in our were to end in the diffusion of a mild unambitious Scriptures, and solely in consequence of their be- religion, which, instead of victories and triumphs, lief of the truth of this history.

instead of exalting their nation and institution Before we produce any particular testimony to above the rest of the world, was to advance those the activity and sufferings which compose the sub- whom they despised to an equality with themject of our first assertion, it will be proper to con- selves, in those very points of comparison in which sider the degree of probability which the assertion they most valued their own distinction, could be derives from the nature of the case, that is, by in- no very pleasing discovery to a Jewish mind; nor ferences from those parts of the case which, in could the messengers of such intelligence expect point of fact, are on all hands acknowledged. to be well received or easily credited. The doce First, then, the Christian religion exists, and trine was equally harsh and novel

. The extendtherefore by some means or other was established. ing of the kingdom of God to those who did not Now it either owes the principle of its establish- conform to the law of Moses, was a notion that ment, i. e. its first publication, to the activity of the had never before entered into the thoughts of a Person who was the founder of the institution, and Jew. of those who were joined with him in the under The character of the new institution was, in taking, or we are driven upon the strange supposi- other respects also, ungrateful to Jewish habits tion, that, although they might lie by, others would and principles. Their own religion was in a high take it up; although they were quiet and silent, degree technical. Even the enlightened Jew placed other persons busied themselves in the success a great deal of stress upon the ceremonies of his and propagation of their story. This is perfectly law, saw in them a great deal of virtue and effiincredible. To me it appears little less than cer-cacy; the gross and vulgar had scarcely any thing tain, that, if the first announcing of the religion else; and the hypocritical and ostentatious magby the Founder had not been followed up by the nified them above measure, as being the instruzeal and industry of his immediate disciples, the ments of their own reputation and influence. attempt must have expired in its birth. Then as The Christian scheme, without formally repealto the kind and degree of exertion which was em- ing the Levitical code, lowered its estimation exployed, and the mode of life to which these persons tremely. In the place of strictness and zeal in submitted, we reasonably suppose it to be like performing the observances which that code prethat which we observe in all others who volunta- scribed, or which tradition had added to it, the rily become missionaries of a new faith. Fre- new sect preached up faith, well-regulated affecquent, earnest, and laborious preaching, constant- tions, inward purity, and moral rectitude of disly conversing with religious persons upon religion, position, as the true ground, on the part of the à sequestration from the common pleasures, en- worshipper, of merit and acceptance with God. gagements, and varieties of life, and an addic- This, however rational it may appear, or recomtion to one serious object, compose the habits of mending to us at present, did not by any means such men. I do not say that this mode of life is facilitate the plan then. On the contrary, to diswithout enjoyment, but I say that the enjoyment parage those qualities which the highest characsprings from sincerity. With a consciousness at ters in the country valued themselves most upon, the bottom, of hollowness and falsehood, the fatigue and restraint would become insupportable. I am

#"Percrebuerat oriente toto vetus et constans opinir, apt to believe that very few hypocrites engage in esse in fatis, ut eo tempore Judæa profecti rerum pots these undertakings; or, however, persist in them rentur."-Sueton Vespasian. cap. 4-8. long. Ordinarily speaking, nothing can overcome

“ Pluribus persuasio inerat, antiquis sacerdotum the indolence of mankind, the love which is natural teris contineri, eo ipso tempore fore, ut valesceret oriens,

profectique Judæa rerum potirentur."-Tacit. Histor. to most tempers of cheerful society and cheerful lib. v.cap. 9–13.

was a sure way of making powerful enemies. As ject of their worship. It accepted no compromise; if the frustration of the national hope was not it admitted no comprehension. It must prevail

, enough, the long-esteemed merit of ritual zeal and if it prevailed at all, by the overthrow of every punctuality was to be decried, and that by Jews statue, altar, and temple, in the world. It will preaching to Jews.

not easily be credited, that a design, so bold as The ruling party at Jerusalem had just before this was, could in any age be attempted to be carcrucified the Founder of the religion. That is a ried into execution with impunity: fact which will not be dispute They, therefore, For it ought to be considered, that this was not who stood forth to preach the religion, must ne- setting forth, or magnifying the character and cessarily reproach these rulers with an execution, worship of some new competitor for a place in which they could not but represent as an unjust the Pantheon, whose pretensions might be disand cruel murder. This would not render their cussed or asserted without questioning the reality office more easy, or their situation more safe. of any others; it was pronouncing all other gods

With regard to the interference of the Roman to be false, and all other worship vain. From the government which was then established in Judea, facility with which the polytheism of ancient naI should not expect, that, despising as it did the tions admitted new objects of worship into the religion of the country, it would, if left to itself

, number of their acknowledged divinities, or the animadvert, either with much vigilance or much patience with which they might entertain propo severity, upon the schisms and controversies sals of this kind, we can argue nothing as to their which arose within it. Yet there was that in toleration of a system, or of the publishers and Christianity which might easily afford a handle active propagators of a system, whích swept away of accusation with a jealous government. The the very foundation of the existing establishment. Christians avowed an unqualified obedience to a The one was nothing more than what it would new master. They avowed also that he was the be, in popish countries, to add a saint to the calenperson who had been foretold to the Jews under dar; the other was to abolish and tread under the suspected title of King. The spiritual nature foot the calendar itself. of this kingdom, the consistency of this obedience Secondly, it ought also to be considered, that with civil subjection, were distinctions too refined this was not the case of philosophers propounding to be entertained by a Roman president, who in their books, or in their schools, doubts concernviewed the business at a great distance, or through ing the truth of the popular creed, or even avowthe medium of very hostile representations. Our ing their disbelief of it. These philosophers did histories accordingly inform us, that this was the not go about from place to place to collect proseturn which the enemies of Jesus gave to his cha- !ytes from amongst the common people; to form racter and pretensions in their remonstrances with in the heart of the country societies professing Pontius Pilate. And Justin Martyr, about a hun- their tenets; to provide for the order, instruction, dred years afterwards, complains that the same and permanency of these societies; nor did they mistake prevailed in his time: “Ye, having heard enjoin their followers to withdraw themselves from that we are waiting for a kingdom, suppose, with the public worship of the temples, or refuse a comout distinguishing, that we mean a human king- pliance with rites instituted by the laws.* These dom, when in truth we speak of that which is things are what the Christians did, and what the with God." And it was undoubtedly a natural philosophers did not; and in these consisted the source of calumny and misconstruction.

activity and danger of the enterprise. The preachers of Christianity had, therefore, to Thirdly, it ought also to be considered, that contend with prejudice backed by power. They this danger proceeded not merely from solemn had to come forward to a disappointed people, to acts and public resolutions of the state, but from å priesthood possessing a considerable" share of sudden bursts of violence at particular places, municipal authority, and actuated by strong mo- from the license of the populace, the rashness of tives of opposition and resentment; and they had some magistrates, and negligence of others; from to do this under a foreign government, to whose the influence and instigation of interested adverfavour they made no pretensions, and which was saries, and, in general, from the variety and warmth constantly surrounded by their enemics. The of opinion which an errand so novel and extraorwell-known, because the experienced fate of re- dinary could not fail of exciting. I can conceive formers, whenever the reformation subverts some that the teachers of Christianity might both fear reigning opinion, and does not proceed upon a and suffer much from these causes, without any change that has already taken place in the sen- general persecution being denounced against them timents of a country, will not allow, much less by imperial authority. Some length of time, I lead us to suppose, that the first propagators of should suppose, might pass, before the vast maChristianity at Jerusalem and in Judea, under the chine of the Roman empire would be put in modifficulties and the enemies they had to contend tion, or its attention be obtained to religious conwith, and entirely destitute as they were of force, troversy : but during that time, a great deal of authority, or protection, could execute their mis- ill usage might be endured, by a set of friendless, sion with personal ease and safety.

unprotected travellers, telling men, wherever they Let us next inquire, what might reasonably be came, that the religion of their ancestors, the reexpected by the preachers of Christianity when ligion in which they had been brought up, the rethey turned themselves to the heathen public. Now the first thing that strikes us is, that the religion they carried with them was exclusive. It The best of the ancient philosophers, Plato, Cicero, denied without reserve the truth of every article and Epictetus, allowed, or rather enjoined, men to wor of heathen mythology, the existence of every ob- ship the gods of the country,

and in the established form. See passages to this purpose, collected from their works by Dr. Clarke, Nat. and Rev. Rel. p. 180. ed. 5.

Except Socrates, they all thought it wiser to comply * Ap. Ima. p. 16. Ed. Thirl.

with the laws than to contend.

'ligion of the state, and of the magistrate, the rites | solemnities, to which the common people are which they frequented, the pomp which they greatly addicted, and which were of a nature to enadmired, was throughout a system of folly and gage them much more than any thing of that sort delusion.

among us. These things would retain great numNor do I think that the teachers of Christianity bers on its side by the fascination of spectacle and would find protection in that general disbelief of pomp, as well as interest many in its preservation the popular theology, which is supposed to have by the advantage which they drew from it." It prevailed amongst the intelligent part of the hea- was moreover interwoven,” as Mr. Gibbon rightthen public. It is by no means true that unbe-ly represents it, “ with every circumstance of bulievers are usually tolerant. They are not dis siness or pleasure, of public or private life, with posed (and why should they ?) to endanger the all the offices and amusements of society." On present state of things, by suffering a religion of the due celebration also of its rites, the people were which they believe nothing, to be disturbed by taught to believe, and did believe, that the prosanother of which they believe as little. They are perity of their country in a great measure deready themselves to conform to any thing; and pended. are, oftentimes, amongst the foremost to procure I am willing to accept the account of the matter conformity from others, by any method which they which is given by Mr. Gibbon: "The various think likely to be efficacious. When was ever a modes of worship which prevailed in the Roman change of religion patronized by infidels? How world, were all considered by the people as equally little, notwithstanding the reigning scepticism, and true, by the philosopher as equally false, and by the magnified liberality of that age, the true prin- the magistrate as equally useful :" and I would ciples of toleration were understood by the wisest ask from which of these three classes of men were men amongst them, may be gathered from two the Christian missionaries to look for protection or eminent and uncontested examples. The younger impunity ? Could they expect it from the people, Pliny, polished as he was by all the literature of "whose acknowledged confidence in the public that soft and elegant period, could gravely pro- religion” they subverted from its foundation ? nounce this monstrous judgment :-" Those who From the philosopher, who, "considering all relipersisted in declaring themselves Christians, I gions as equally false," would of course rank theirs ordered to be led away to punishment, (i. e. to among the number, with the addition of regarding execution,) for I did NOT DOUBT, whatever it was them as busy and troublesome zealots? Or from that they confessed, that contumacy and infleri- the magistrate, who, satisfied with the "utility ble obstinacy ought to be punished." His master, of the subsisting religion, would not be likely to Trajan, a mild and accomplished prince, went, countenance a spirit of proselytism and innovanevertheless, no further in his sentiments of motion ;-a system which declared war against every deration and equity, than what appears in the other, and which, if it prevailed, must end in a following rescript : “ The Christians are not to total rupture of public opinion; an upstart relibe sought for; but if any are brought before you, gion, in a word, which was not content with its and convicted, they are to be punished.” And own authority, but must disgrace all the settled this direction he gives, after it had been reported religions of the world ? It was not to be imagined to him by his own president, that, by the most that he would endure with patience, that the relistrict examination nothing could be discovered in gion of the emperor and of the state should be cathe principles of these persons, but “a bad and lumniated and borne down by a company of excessive superstition,” accompanied, it seems, superstitious and despicable Jews. with an oath or mutual federation, “to allow Lastly, the nature of the case affords a strong themselves in no crime or immoral conduct what-proof, that the original teachers of Christianity, in ever." The truth is, the ancient heathens con- consequence of their new profession, entered upon sidered religion entirely as an affair of state, as a new and singular course of life. We may be much under the tuition of the magistrate, as any allowed to presume, that the institution which other part of the police. The religion of that age they preached to others, they conformed to in their was not merely allied to the state; it was incor- own persons; because this is no more than what porated into it. Many of its offices were adminis- every teacher of a new religion both does, and tered by the magistrate. Its titles of pontiffs, must do, in order to obtain either proselytes or augurs, and flamens, were borne by senators, hearers. The change which this would produce consuls, and generals. Without discussing, there was very considerable. It is a change which we fore, the truth of the theology, they resented every do not easily estimate, because, ourselves and all affront put upon the established worship, as a about us being habituated to the institutions from direct opposition to the authority of government. our infancy, it is what we neither experience nor

Add to which, that the religious systems of observe. After men became Christians, much of those times, however ill supported by evidence, their time was spent in prayer and devotion, in had been long established. The ancient religion religious meetings, in celebrating the eucharist, in of a country has always many votaries, and some- conferences, in exhortations, in preaching, in an times not the fewer, because its origin is hidden affectionate intercourse with one another, and in remoteness and obscurity. Men have a natu- correspondence with other societies. Perhaps their ral veneration for antiquity, especially in matters mode of life, in its form and habit, was not very of religion. What Tacitus says of the Jewish, unlike the Unitas Fratrum, or the modern Metho was more applicable to the heathen establishment: dists. Think then what it was to become such “ Hi ritus, quoquo modo inducti, antiquitate de- at Corinth, at Ephesus, at Antioch, or even at fenduntur.” It was also a splendid and sumptuous Jerusalem. How new! how alien from all their worship. It had its priesthood, its endowments, former habits and ideas, and from those of every its temples. Statuary, painting, architecture, and body about them! What a revolution there must music, contributed their effect to its ornament and have been of opinions and prejudices to bring the magnificence. It abounded in festival shows and matter to this!

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