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narrative, the historical books of the New Tes- tion; both living in habits of society and correstament be deserving of credit as histories, so that pondence with those who had been present at the a fact ought to be accounted true, because it is transactions which they relate. The latter of them fourt in them; or whether they are entitled to be accordingly tells us, (and with apparent sincerity, considered as representing the accounts which, because he tells it without pretending to personal true or false, the apostles published ;-whether knowledge, and without claiming for his work their authority, in either of these views, can be greater authority than belonged to it,) that the trusted to, is a point which necessarily depends things which were believed amongst Christians, upon what we know of the books, and of their came from those who from the beginning were authors.

eye-witnesses and ministers of the word; that Now, in treating of this part of our argument, he had traced accounts up to their source; and the first and most material observation upon the that he was prepared to instruct his reader in the subject is, that such was the situation of the au- certainty of the things which he related.* Very thors to whom the four Gospels are ascribed, that, few histories lie so close to their facts; very few if any one of the four be genuine, it is sufficient historians are so nearly connected with the subfor our purpose. The received author of the first, ject of their narrative, or possess such means of was an original apostle and emissary of the re- authentic information, as these. ligion. The received author of the second, was The situation of the writers applies to the truth an inhabitant of Jerusalem at the time, to whose of the facts which they record. But at present we house the apostles were wont to resort, and him- use their testimony to a point somewhat short of self an attendant upon one of the most eminent this, namely, that the facts recorded in the Gosof that number. The received author of the third, pels, whether true or false, are the facts, and the was a stated companion and fellow-traveller of the sort of facts, which the original preachers of the most active of all the teachers of the religion, and religion alleged. Strictly speaking, I am conin the course of his travels frequently in the cerned only to show, that what the Gospels consociety of the original apostles. The received au- tain is the same as what the apostles preached. thor of the fourth, as well as of the first, was one of Now, how stands the proof of this point? A set these apostles. No stronger evidence of the truth of men went about the world, publishing a story of a history can arise from the situation of the composed of miraculous accounts, (for miraculous historian, than what is here offered. The authors from the very nature and exigency of the case of all the histories lived at the time and upon the they must have been,) and, upon the strength of spot. The authors of two of the histories were these accounts, called upon mankind to quit the present at many of the scenes which they de- religions in which they had been educated, and to scribe ; eye-witnesses of the facts, ear-witnesses take up, thenceforth, a new system of opinions, of the discourses; writing from personal know- and new rules of action. What is more in attesledge and recollection; and, what strengthens tation of these accounts, that is, in support of an their testimony, writing upon a subject in which institution of which these accounts were the fountheir minds were deeply engaged, and in which, dation, is that the same men voluntarily exposed as they must have been very frequently repeating themselves to harassing and perpetual labours, the accounts to others, the passages of the history dangers, and sufferings. We want to know what would be kept continually alive in their memory. these accounts were. We have the particulars, Whoever reads the Gospels (and they ought to be i.e. many particulars, from two of their own num. read for this particular purpose,) will

find in them ber. We have them from an attendant of one of not merely a general affirmation of miraculous the number, and who, there is reason to believe, powers, but detailed circumstantial accounts of was an inhabitant of Jerusalem at the time. We miracles, with specifications of time, place, and have them from a fourth writer, who accompanied persons; and these accounts many and various. the most laborious missionary of the institution in In the Gospels, therefore, which bear the names his travels; who, in the course of these travels, of Matthew and John, these narratives, if they was frequently brought into the society of the really proceeded from these men, must either be rest; and who, let it be observed, begins his nartrue, as far as the fidelity of human recollection is rative by telling us that he is about to relate the usually to be depended upon, that is, must be true things which had been delivered by those who in substance, and in their principal parts (which were ministers of the word, and eye witnesses of is sufficient for the purpose of proving a super- the facts. I do not know what information can natural agency,) or they must be wilful and medi- be more satisfactory than this. We may, perhaps, tated falsehoods. Yet the writers who fabricated perceive the force and value of it more sensibly, if and uttered these falsehoods, if they be such, are we reflect how requiring we should have been if of the number of those who, unless the whole we had wanted it. Supposing it to be sufficiently contexture of the Christian story be a dream, sa- proved, that the religion now professed among us, criticed their ease and safety in the cause, and for owed its original to the preaching and ministry a purpose the most inconsistent that is possible of a number of men, who, about eighteen cenwith dishonest intentions. They were villains turies ago, set forth in the world a new system of for no end but to teach honesty, and martyrs religious opinions, founded upon certain extraorwithout the least prospect of honour or advan- dinary things which they related of a wonderful tage.

person who had appeared in Judea; suppose it to The Gospels which bear the name of Mark and Luke, although not the narratives of eye-wit

* Why should not the candid and modest preface of nesses, are, if genuine, removed from that only this historian be believed, as well as that which Dion by one degree. They are the narratives of con- Cassius prefixes to his Life of Commodus ? " These temporary writers; or writers themselves mixing things and the following I write not from the report of with the business; one of the two probably living I see no reason to doubt but that both passages describe

others, but from my own knowledge and observation." in the place which was the principal scene of ac-truly enough the situation of the authors.

be also sufficiently proved, that, in the course and Luke; and let it also for a moment be supposed prosecution of their ministry, these men had sub- that these histories were not, in fact, written by jected themselves to extreme hardships, fatigue, Matthew and Luke; yet, if it be true that Mark, and peril; but suppose the accounts which they a contemporary of the apostles, living in habits of published had not been committed to writing till society with the apostles, a fellow-traveller and some ages after their times, or at least that no fellow-labourer with some of them; if, I say, it be histories, but what had been composed some ages true that this person made the compilation, it folafterwards, had reached our hands; we should lows, that the writings from which he made it have said, and with reason, that we were willing existed in the time of the apostles, and not only tu believe these men under the circumstances in so, but that they were then in such esteem and which they delivered their testimony, but that we credit, that a companion of the apostles formed a did not, at this day, know with sufficient evidence history out of them. Let the Gospel of Mark be what their testimony was. Had we received the called an epitome of that of Matthew; if a person particulars of it from any of their own number, in the situation in which Mark is described to from any of those who lived and conversed with have been, actually made the epitome, it affords them, from any of their hearers, or even from any the strongest possible attestation to the character of their contemporaries, we should have had some of the original. thing to rely upon. Now, if our books be genuine, Again, parallelisms in sentences, in words, and we have all these. We have the very species of in the order of words, have been traced out between information which, as it appears to me, our imagi- the Gospel of Matthew and that of Luke; which nation would have carved out for us, if it had been concurrence cannot easily be explained otherwise wanting.

than by supposing, either that Luke had consulted But I have said, that if any one of the four Matthew's history, or, what appears to me in noGospels be genuine, we have not only direct his wise incredible, that minutes of some of Christ's torical testimony to the point we contend for, but discourses, as well as brief memoirs of some pastestimony which, so far as that point is concerned, sages of his life, had been committed to writing at cannot reasonably be rejected. "If the first Gospel the time; and that such written accounts had by was really written by Matthew, we have the narra- both authors been occasionally admitted into their tive of one of the number, from which to judge what histories. Either supposition is perfectly consistwere the miracles, and the kind of miracles, which ent with the acknowledged formation of St. Luke's the apostles attributed to Jesus. Although, for narrative, who professes not to write as an eyeargument's sake, and only for argument's sake, witness, but to have investigated the original of we should allow that this Gospel had been erro- every account which he delivers: in other words, neously ascribed to Matthew; yet, if the Gospel to have collected them from such documents and of Saint John be genuine, the observation holds testimonies, as he, who had the best opportunities with no less strength. Again, although the Gos- of making inquiries, judged to be authentic. pels both of Matthew and John could be supposed Therefore, allowing that this writer also, in some to be spurious, yet, if the Gospel of Saint Luke instances, borrowed from the Gospel which we were truly the composition of that person, or of call Matthew's, and once more allowing, for the any person, be his name what it might, who was sake of stating the argument, that that Gospel was actually in the situation in which the author of not the production of the author to whom we that Gospel professes himself to have been, or if ascribe it; yet still we have, in Saint Luke's Gos. the Gospel which bears the name of Mark really pel, a history given by a writer immediately conproceeded from hin; we still, even upon the low- nected with the transaction, with the witnesses of est supposition, possess the accounts of one writer it, with the persons engaged in it, and composed at least, who was not only contemporary with the from materials which that person, thus situated, apostles, but associated with them in their minis- deemed to be safe sources of intelligence; in other try; which authority seems sufficient, when the words, whatever supposition be made concerning question is simply what it was which these apos- any or all the other Gospels, if Saint Luke's Gostles advanced.

pel be genuine, we have in it a credible evidence I think it material to have this well noticed. of the point which we maintain. The New Testament contains a great number of The Gospel according to Saint John appears to distinct writings, the genuineness of any one of be, and is on all hands allowed to he, an independwhich is almost sufficient to prove the truth of the ent testimony, strictly and properly so called. Notreligion: it contains, however, four distinct histo withstanding, therefore, any connexion, or supries, the genuineness of any one of which is per- posed connexion, between some of the Gospels, I fectly sufficient. If, therefore, we must be con- again repeat what I before said, that if any one of sidered as encountering the risk of error in as the four be genuine, we have, in that one strong signing the authors of our books, we are entitled reason, from the character and situation of the to the advantage of so many separate probabilities. writer, to believe that we possess the accounts And although it should appear that some of the which the original emissaries of the religion deevangelists had seen and used each other's works; livered. this discovery, whilst it subtracts indeed from Secondly: In treating of the written evidences their characters as testimonies strictly independ- of Christianity, next to their separate, we are to ent, diminishes, I conceive, little, either their se consider their aggregate authority. Now, there parate authority (by which I mean the authority is in the evangelic history a cumulation of testiof any one that is genuine,) or their mutual con- mony which belongs hardly to any other history, firmation. For, let the most disadvantageous but which our habitual mode of reading the Scripsupposition possible be made concerning them; tures sometimes causes us to overlook. When a let it be allowed, what I should have no great dif- passage, in any wise relating to the history of ficulty in admitting, that Mark compiled his his-Christ, is read to us out of the epistle of Clemens tory almost entirely from those of Matthew and Romanus, the epistles of Ignatius, of Polycarp, or

from any other writing of that age, we are imme If we dispose our ideas in a different order, the diately sensible of the confirmation which it affords matter stands thus:—Whilst the transaction was to the Scripture account. Here is a new witness. recent, and the original witnesses were at hand to Now, it we had been accustomed to read the Gos-relate it; and whilst the apostles were busied in pel of Matthew alone, and had known that of preaching and travelling, in collecting disciples, in Luke only as the generality of Christians know forming and regulating societies of converts, ir. the writings of the apostolical fathers, that is, had supporting themselves against opposition; whilst known that such a writing extant and ac- they exercised their ministry under the harassinge knowledged; when we came, for the first time, to of frequent persecution, and in a state of almost look into what it contained, and found many of continual alarm, it is not probable that, in this enthe facts which Matthew recorded, recorded also gaged, anxious, and unsettled condition of life, there, many other facts of a similar nature added, they would think immediately of writing histories and throughout the whole work the same general for the information of the public or of posterity.* series of transactions stated, and the same general But it is very probable, that emergencies might character of the person who was the subject of the draw from some of them occasional letters upon history preserved, I apprehend that we should feel the subject of their mission, to converts, or to sa our minds strongly impressed by this discovery of cieties of converts, with which they were connectfresh evidence. We should feel a renewal of the ed; or that they might address written discourses same sentiment in first reading the Gospel of Saint and exhortations to the disciples of the institution John. That of Saint Mark perhaps would strike at large, which would be received and read with a us as an abridgment the history with which we respect proportioned to the character of the writer. were already acquainted; but we should naturally Accounts in the mean time would get abroad of reflect, that if that history was abridged by such a the extraordinary things that had been passing, person as Mark, or by any person of so early an written with different degrees of information and age, it afforded one of the highest possible attest- correctness. The extension of the Christian soations to the value of the work. This successive ciety, which could no longer be instructed by a disclosure of proof would leave us assured, that personal intercourse with the apostles, and the there must have been at least some reality in a possible circulation of imperfect or erroneous narstory which not one, but many, had taken in hand ratives, would soon teach some amongst them the to commit to writing. The very existence of four expediency of sending forth authentic memoirs of separate histories would satisfy us that the subject the life and doctrine of their Master. When achad a foundation; and when, amidst the variety counts appeared authorized by the name, and crewhich the different information of the different dit, and situation of the writers, recommended or writers had supplied to their accounts, or which recognised by the apostles and first preachers of their different choice and judgment in selecting the religion, or found to coincide with what the their materials had produced, we observed many apostles and first preachers of the religion had facts to stand the same in all; of these facts, at taught, other accounts would fall into disuse and least, we should conclude, that they were fixed in neglect; whilst these maintaining their reputation their credit and publicity. If, after this, we should (as, if genuine and well founded, they would do) come to the knowledge of a distinct history, and under the test of time, inquiry, and contradiction, that also of the same age with the rest, taking up night be expected to make their way into the the subject where the others had left it, and carry- hands of Christians of all countries of the world. ing on a narrative of the effects produced in the This seems the natural progress of the business; world by the extraordinary causes of which we and with this the records in our possession, and had already been informed, and which effects sub- the evidence concerning them, correspond. We sist at this day, we should think the reality of the have remaining, in the first place, many letters original story in no little degree established by this of the kind above described, which have been presupplement. If subsequent inquiries should bring served with a care and fidelity answering to the to our knowledge, one after another, letters writ- respect with which we may suppose that such letten by some of the principal agents in the business, ters would be received. But as these letters were upon the business, and during the time of their not written to prove the truth of the Christian reactivity and concern in it, assuming all along and ligion, in the sense in which we regard that quesrecognising the original story, agitating the ques- tion: nor to convey information of facts, of which tions that arose out of it, pressing the obligations those to whom the letters were written had been which resulted from it, giving advice and direc- previously informed; we are not to look in them tions to those who acted upon it; I conceive that for any thing more than incidental allusions to we should find, in every one of these, a still fur- the Christian history. We are able, however, to ther support to the conclusion we had formed. At gather from these documents, various particular present, the weight of this successive confirmation attestations which have been already enumerated; is, in a great measure, unperceived by us. The and this is a species of written evidence, as far as evidence does not appear to us what it is; for, being it goes, in the highest degree satisfactory, and in from our infancy accustomed to regard the New point of time perhaps the first. But for our more Testament as one book, we see in it only one testi- circumstantial information, we have in the next mony. The whole occurs to us as a single evidence; | place five direct histories, bearing the names of and its different parts, not as distinct attestations, persons acquainted, by their situation, with the out as different portions only of the same. Yet in truth of what they relate, and three of them purthis conception of the subject, we are certainly porting, in the very body of the narrative, to be mistaken; for the very discrepancies among the

*This thought occurred to Eusebius: “Nor were the several documents which form our volume, prove, apostles of Christ greatly concerned about the writing if all other proof were wanting, that in their origi- of books, being engaged in a more excellent ministry nal composition they were separate, and most of which is above all human power."-Eccles. Hist. 1. iii. them independent productions.

c. 24 The same consideration accounts also for the pau. city of Christian writings in the first century of its era.

written by such persons; of which books we know, Now the fact of their early existence, and not that some were in the hands of those who were only of their existence but their reputation, is contemporaries of the apostles, and that, in the age made out by some ancient testimonies which do immediately posterior to that, they were in the not happen to specify the names of the writers: hands, we may say, of every one, and received by add to which, what hath been already hinted, that Christians with so much respect and deference, as two out of the four Gospels contain averments in to be constantly quoted and referred to by them, the body of the history, which, though they do not without any doubt of the truth of their accounts. disclose the names, fix the time and situation of They were treated as such histories, proceeding the authors, viz. that one was written by an eyefrom such authorities, might expect to be treated. witness of the sufferings of Christ, the other by a In the preface to one of our histories, we have in contemporary of the apostles. In the Gospel of tinations left us of the existence of some ancient Saint John, (xix. 35,) after describing the cruciaccounts which are now lost. There is nothing fixion, with the particular circumstance of piercing in this circumstance that can surprise us. It was Christ's side with a spear, the historian adds, as to be expected, from the magnitude and novelty of for himself, “and he that saw it bare record, the occasion, that such accounts would swarm. and his record is true, and he knoweth that he When better accounts came forth, these died saith true, that ye might believe.” Again, (xxi, away. Our present histories superseded others. 24,) after relating a conversation which passed They soon acquired a character and established a between Peter and "the disciple," as it is there reputation which does not appear to have belonged expressed," whom Jesus loved,” it is added, “this to any other: that, at least, can be proved concerning is the disciple which testifieth of these things, them, which cannot be proved concerning any other and wrote these things.” This testimony, let it

But to return to the point which led to these be remarked, is not the less worthy of regard, bereflections. By considering our records in either cause it is, in one view, imperfect. The name is of the two views in which we have represented not mentioned; which, if a fraudulent purpose them, we shall perceive that we possess a collec- had been intended, would have been done. The tion of proofs, and not a naked or solitary testi- third of our present Gospels purports to have been mony; and that the written evidence is of such a written by the person who wrote the Acts of the kind, and comes to us in such a state, as the na- Apostles; in which latter history, or rather, latter tural order and progress of things, in the infancy part of the same history, the author, by using, in of the institution, might be expected to produce. various places, the first person plural, declares

Thirdly: The genuineness of the historical himself to have been a contemporary of all, and a books of the New Testament is undoubtedly a companion of one, of the original preachers of the point of importance, because the strength of their religion. evidence is augmented by our knowledge of the situation of their authors, their relation to the subject, and the part which they sustained in the transaction; and the testimonies which we are

CHAPTER IX. able to produce, compose a firm ground of persuasion, that the Gospels were written by the There is satisfactory evidence that many, prou persons whose names they bear. Nevertheless, 1 fessing to be original witnesses of the Christian must be allowed to state, that to the argument miracles, passed their lives in labours, dangers, which I am endeavouring to maintain, this point and sufferings, voluntarily undergone in atis not essential; I mean, so essential as that the testation of the accounts which they delivered, fate of the argument depends upon it. The ques and solely in consequence of their belief of tion before us is, whether the Gospels exhibit the those accounts ; and that they also submitted, story which the apostles and first emissaries of the from the same motives, to new rules of conduct. religion published, and for which they acted and

THE AUTHENTICITY OF THE SCRIPTURES. suffered in the manner in which, for some miraculous story or other, they did act and suffer. Not forgetting, therefore, what credit is due to Now let us suppose that we possessed no other the evangelical history, supposing even any une information concerning these books than that they of the four Gospels to be genuine; what credit is were written by early disciples of Christianity'; due to the Gospels, even supposing nothing to be that they were known and read during the time, known concerning them but that they were writor near the time, of the original apostles of the re- ten by early disciples of the religion, and received ligion ; that by Christians whom the apostles in- with deterence by early Christian churches : more structed, by societies of Christians which the especially not forgetting what credit is due to the apostles founded, these books were received, (by New Testament in its capacity of cumulative eviwhich term " received,” I mean that they were dence; we now proceed to state the proper and believed to contain authentic accounts of the trans- distinct proofs, which show not only the general actions upon which the religion rested, and ac, value of these records, but their specific authority, counts which were accordingly used, repeated, and and the high probability there is that they actualrelied upon,) this reception would be a valid proof ly came from the persons whose names they bear. that these books, whoever were the authors of There are, however, a few preliminary reflecthem, must have accorded with what the apostles tions, by which we may draw up with more regutaught. A reception by the first race of Chris- larity to the propositions upon which the close tians, is evidence that they agreed with what the and particular discussion of the subject depends. first teachers of the religion delivered. In parti- of which nature are the following: cular, if they had not agreed with what the apos I. We are able to produce a great number of tles themselves preached, how could they have ancient manuscripts, found in many different gained credit in churches and societies which the countries, and in countries widely distant from apostles established ?

each other, all of them anterior to the art of print

ing, some certainly seven or eight hundred years í hesitation about them: for, had the writings inold, and some which have been preserved probably scribed with the names of Matthew and John, reabove a thousand years.* We have also many lated nothing but ordinary history, there would ancient rersions of these books, and some of them have been no more doubt whether these writings into languages which are not at present, nor for were theirs, than there is concerning the acknowmany ages have been, spoken in any part of the ledged works of Josephus or Philo; that is

, there world. The existence of these manuscripts and would have been no doubt at all. Now it ought versions proves that the Scriptures were not the to be considered that this reason, however it may production of any modern contrivance. It does apply to the credit which is given to a writer's away also the uncertainty which hangs over such judgment or veracity, affects the question of publications as the works, real or pretended, of genuineness very indirectly. The works of Bede Ossian and Rowley, in which the editors are exhibit many wonderful relations: but who, for challenged to produce their manuscripts, and to that reason, doubts that they were written by show where they obtained their copies. The Bede? The same of a multitude of other authors. number of manuscripts, far exceeding those of any To which may be added, that we ask no more for other book, and their wide dispersion, afford an ar our books than what we allow to other books in gument, in some measure to the senses, that the some sort similar to ours: we do not deny the geScriptures anciently, in like manner as at this nuineness of the Koran; we admit that the history day, were more read and sought after than any of Apollonius Tyanæus, purporting to be written other books, and that also in many different coun- by Philostratus, was really written by Philostratus. tries. The greatest part of spurious Christian IV. If it had been an easy thing in the early writings are utterly lost, the rest preserved by times of the institution to have forged Christian some single manuscript. There is weight also in writings, and to have obtained currency and reDr. Bentley's observation, that the New Testa- ception to the forgeries, we should have had many ment has suffered less injury by the errors of appearing in the name of Christ himself. No transcribers, than the works of any profane author writings would have been received with so much of the same size and antiquity; that is, there ne-avidity and respect as these: consequently none ver was any writing, in the preservation and pu- afforded so great temptation to forgery. Yet have rity of which the world was so interested or so we heard but of one attempt of this sort, deserving careful.

of the smallest notice, that in a piece of a very few II. An argument of great weight with those lines, and so far from succeeding, I mean, from who are judges of the proofs upon which it is obtaining acceptance and reputation, or an acceptfounded, and capable, through their testimony, of ance and reputation in any wise similar to that being addressed to every understanding, is that which can be proved to have attended the books which arises from the style and language of the of the New Testament, that it is not so much as New Testament. It is just such a language as mentioned by any writer of the first three centumight be expected from the apostles, from persons ries. The learned reader need not be informed of their age and in their situation, and from no that I mean the epistle of Christ to Abgarus, king other persons. It is the style neither of classic of Edessa, found at present in the work of Euseauthors, nor of the ancient Christian Fathers, but bjus,* as a piece acknowledged by him, though Greek coming from men of Hebrew origin; not without considerable doubt whether the whole abounding, that is, with Hebraic and Syriac passage be not an interpolation, as it is most ceridioms, such as would naturally be found in the tain, that, after the publication of Eusebius's work, writings of men who used a language spoken in this epistle was universally rejected.t deed where they lived, but not the common dia v. 'If the ascription of the Gospels to their reslect of the country. This happy peculiarity is a pective authors had been arbitrary or conjectural, strong proof of the genuineness of these writings: they would have been ascribed to more eminent for who should forge them? The Christian fa- men. This observation holds concerning the thers were for the most part totally ignorant of first three Gospels, the reputed authors of which Hebrew, and therefore were not likely to insert were enabled, by their situation, to obtain true inHebraisms and Syriasms into their writings. The telligence, and were likely to deliver an honest acfew who had a knowledge of the Hebrew, as Jus-count of what they knew, but were persons not tin Martyr, Origen, and Epiphanius, wrote in a distinguished in the history by extraordinary language which bears no resemblance to that of marks of notice or commendation. Of the aposthe New Testament. The Nazarenes, who un- tles, I hardly know any one of whom less is said derstood Hebrew, used chiefly, perhaps almost than of Matthew, or of whom the little that is entirely, the Gospel of St. Matthew, and therefore said, is less calculated to magnify his character, cannot be suspected of forging the rest of the sa- Of Mark, nothing is said in the Gospels; and cred writings. The argument, at any rate, proves what is said of any person of that name in the the antiquity of these books; that they belonged to the age of the apostles; that they could be

* Hist. Eccl. lib.j. c. 15. composed indeed in no other.t

† Augustin, A D. 895, (De Consens. Evang. c. 34.) had III. Why should we question the genuineness heard that the Pagans pretended to be possessed of an of these books ? Is it for that they contain accounts epistle from Christ to Peter and Paul; but he bad never of supernatural events? I apprehend that this, at

seen it, and appears to doubt of the existence of any the bottom, is the real, though secret, cause of our

such piece, either genuine or spurious. No other an. cient writer mentions it. He also, and he alone, notices,

and that in order to con emn it, an epistle ascribed The Alexandrian manuscript, now in the British to Christ by the Manichees, A. D. 270, and a short hymn Museum, was written probably in the fourth or tinth attributed to him by the priscillianists, A. D. 378. (cont.

Faust. Man. lib. xxviii. c. 4.] The lateness of the wn. † See this argument stated more at large in Michaelis's ter who notices these things, the manner in which he Introduction (Marsh's translation,) vol.j.c. ii. sect. 10, notices them, and, above all, the silence of every prece. from which these observations are taken.

ding writer, render them unworthy of consideration


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