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For after that our Lord rose from the dead, and To the book of the Acts of the Apostles, its they (the apostles) were endowed from above with author, and credit, the testimony of Irenæus is no the power of the Holy Ghost coming down upon less explicit. Referring to the account of Saint them, they received a perfect knowledge of all Paul's conversion and vocation, in the ninth chap things. They then went forth to all the ends of ter of that book, " Nor can they,” says he, meanthe earth, declaring to men the blessing of hea- ing the parties with whom he argues, “ show that venly peace, having all of them, and every one he is not to be credited, who has related to us the alike the Gospel of God. Matthew, then among truth with the greatest exactness." In another the Jews, wrote a Gospel in their own language, place, he has actually collected the several texts, while Peter and Paul were preaching the Gospel in which the writer of the history is represented at Rome, and founding a church there : and after as accompanying St. Paul; which leads him to their exit, Mark also, the disciple and interpreter deliver a summary of almost the whole of the last of Peter, delivered to us in writing the things that twelve chapters of the book. had been preached by Peter; and Luke, the com In an author thus abounding with references panion of Paul, put down in a book the Gospel and allusions to the Scriptures, there is not one preached by him (Paul.) Afterwards John, the to any apocryphal Christian writing whatever. disciple of the Lord, who also leaned upon his This is a broad line of distinction between our breast, he likewise published a Gospel while he sacred books, and the pretensions of all others. dwelt at Ephesus in Asia.". If any modern divine The force of the testimony of the period which should write a book upon the genuineness of the we have considered, is greatly strengthened by Gospels, he could not assert it more expressly, or the observation, that it is the testimony, and the state their original more distinctly, than Irenæus concurring testimony, of writers who lived in counhath done within little more than a hundred years tries remote from one another. Clement flourishafter they were published.

ed at Rome, Ignatius at Antioch, Polycarp at The correspondency, in the days of Irenæus, of Smyrna, Justin Martyr in Syria, and Irenæus in the oral and written tradition, and the deduction France. of the oral tradition through various channels XI. Omitting Athenagoras and Theophilus, from the age of the apostles, which was then late- who lived about this time;* in the remaining ly passed, and, by consequence, the probability works of the former of whom are clear references that the books truly delivered what the apostles to Mark and Luke; and in the works of the lat taught, is inferred also with strict regularity from ter, who was bishop of Antioch, the sixth in sucanother passage of his works. "The tradition of cession from the apostles, evident allusions to the apostles,” this father saith, "hath spread it- Matthew and John, and probable allusions to self over the whole universe ; and all they, who Luke, (which, considering the nature of the comsearch after the sources of truth, will find this positions, that they were addressed to heathen tradition to be held sacred in every church. We readers, is as much as could be expected;) observmight enumerate all those who have been appoint- ing also, that the works of two learned Christian ed bishops to these churches by the apostles, and writers of the same age, Miltiades, and Pantænust all their successors up to our days. It is by this un now lost; of which Miltiades, Eusebins interrupted succession that we have received the records, that his writings were monuments of tradition which actually exists in the church, as zeal for the Divine Oracles;" and which Panalso the doctrines of truth, as it was preached by tænus, as Jerome testifies, was a man of prudence the apostles."* The reader will observe upon and learning, both in the Divine Scriptures and this, that the same Irenæus, who is now stating secular literature, and had left inany commentathe strength and uniformity of the tradition, we ries upon the Holy Scriptures then extant ; passing have before seen recognizing, in the fullest man. by these without further remark, we come to one of ner, the authority of the written records; from the most voluminous of ancient Christian writers, which we are entitled to conclude, that they were Clement of Alexandria. Clement followed Ire then conformable to each other.

næus at the distance of only sixteen years, and I have said, that the testimony of Irenæus in therefore may be said to maintain the series of tes favour of our Gospels is exclusive of all others. I timony in an uninterrupted continuation. allude to a remarkable passage in his works, in In certain of Clement's works now lost, but of which for some reasons sufficiently fanciful, he which various parts are recited by Eusebius, there endeavours to show, that there could be neither is given a distinct account of the order in which more nor fewer Gospels than four. With his the four Gospels were written.

The Gospels argument we have no concern. The position which contain the genealogies, were (he says) itself

, proves that four, and only four, Gospels were at written first; Mark's next, at the instance of that time publicly read and acknowledged. That Peter's followers; and John's the last: and this these were our Gospels, and in the state in which account he tells us that he had received from pres we now have them, is shown, from many other byters of more ancient times. This testimony places of this writer beside that which we have proves the following points; that these Gospels already alleged. He mentions how Matthew were the histories of Christ then publicly received, begins his Gospel, how Mark begins and ends his, and relied upon; and that the dates, occasions, and and their supposed reasons for so doing. He enu- circumstances of their publication, were at that merates at length the several passages of Christ's time subjects of attention and inquiry amongst history in Luke, which are not found in any of Christians. In the works of Clement which rethe other evangelists. He states the particular main, the four Gospels are repeatedly quoted by the design with which St. John composed his Gospel, names of their authors, and the Acts of the Apos and accounts for the doctrinal declarations which precede the narrative.

* Lardner, vol. i. p. 400. 492.

† Lardner, vol. i. p. 413. 450. * Iren. in Hær. I. iii. c. 3

| Lardner, vol. ii. P. 469.


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tles is expressly ascribed to Luke. In one place, Commentary, and observes how Saint Paul's after mentioning a particular circumstance, he adds epistles confirm it. these remarkable words : “We have not this pas After this general evidence, it is unnecessary sage in the four Gospels delivered to us, but in to add particular quotations. These, however, that according to the Egyptians;" which puts a are so numerous and ample, as to have led Dr. marked distinction between the four Gospels and Lardner to observe, " that there are more, and all other histories, or pretended histories, of Christ. larger quotations of the small volume of the New In another part of his works, the perfect confi- Testament in this one Christian author, than dence, with which he received the Gospels, is sig- there are of all the works of Cicero in writers of nified by him in these words: “That this is true, all characters for several ages." * appears from hence, that it is written in the Gos Tertullian quotes no Christian writing as of pel according to St. Luke;" and again, “I need equal authority with the Scriptures, and no spunot use many words, but only to allege the evan- rious books at all; a broad line of distinction, we gelic voice of the Lord.” His quotations are nu may once more observe, between our sacred books

The sayings of Christ, of which he and all others. alleges many, are all taken from our Gospels ; the We may again likewise remark the wide exsingle exception to this observation appearing to tent through which the reputation of the Gospels, be a loose * quotation of a passage in Saint Mat- and of the Acts of the Apostles, had spread, and thew's Gospel.

the perfect consent, in this point, of distant and XII. In the age in which they lived, + Tertul independent societies. It is now only about one han joins on with Clement. The number of the hundred and fifty years since Christ was crucified; Gospels then received, the names of the evangelists, and within this period, to say nothing of the aposand their proper descriptions, are exhibited by tolical fathers who have been noticed already, we this writer in one short sentence : “ Among the have Justin Martyr at Neapolis, Theophilus at apostles, John and Matthew teach us the faith; Antioch, Irenæus in France, Clement at Alexanamong apostolical men, Luke and Mark refresh it. dria, Tertullian at Carthage, quoting the same The next passage to be taken from Tertullian, books of historical Scriptures, and, may say, affords as complete an attestation to the authenti- quoting these alone. city of our books as can be well imagined. After XIII. An interval of only thirty years, and that enumerating the churches which had been found- occupied by no small number of Christian writers + ed by Paul, at Corinth, in Galatia, at Philippi, whose works only remain in fragments and quoThessalonica, and Ephesus; the church of Rome tations, and in every one of which is some reestablished by Peter and Paul, and other churches ference or other to the Gospels, (and in one of derived from John; he proceeds thus :-“I say them, Hippolytus, as preserved in Theodoret, is an then, that with them, but not with them only abstract of the whole Gospel history,) brings us which are apostolical, but with all who have fel to a name of great celebrity in Christian antiquity, lowship with them in the same faith, is that Gos-Origen of Alexandria, who in the quantity of pel of Luke received from its first publication, his writings, exceeded the most laborious of the which we so zealously maintain:” and presently Greek and Latin authors. Nothing can be more afterwards adds; " The same authority of the peremptory upon the subject now under considerapostolical churches will support the other Gospels, ation, and, from a writer of his learning and inwhich we have from them and according to them, formation, more satisfactory, than the declaration I mean John's and Matthew's; although that of Origen, preserved, in an extract from his works, likewise which Mark published may be said to be by Eusebius; “ That the four Gospels alone are Peter's, whose interpreter Mark was.” In another received without dispute by the whole church of place Tertullian affirms, that the three other God under heaven:" to which declaration is imGospels were in the hands of the churches from mediately subjoined a brief history of the respectthe beginning, as well as Luke's. This noble ive authors, to whom they were then, as they are testimony fixes the universality with which the now, ascribed. The language holden concerning Gospels were received, and their antiquity; that the Gospels, throughout the works of Origen they were in the hands of all, and had been so which renain, entirely corresponds with the tesfrom the first. And this evidence appears not timony here cited. His attestation to the Acts of more than one hundred and fifty years after the the Apostles is no less positive: “And Luke also publication of the books. The reader must be once more sounds the trumpet, relating the acts given to understand, that when Tertullian speaks of the apostles.” The universality with which of maintaining or defending (tuendi) the Gospel the Scriptures were then read, is well signified by of Saint Luke, he only means maintaining or this writer, in a passage in which he has occasion defending the integrity of the copies of Luke re- to observe against Celsus, “That it is not in any ceived by Christian churches, in opposition to cer- private books, or such as are read by a few only, tain curtailed copies used by Marcion, against and those studious persons, but in books read hy whom he writes.

every body, that it is written, The invisible things This author frequently cites the Acts of the of God, from the creation of the world, are clearly Apostles under that title, once calls it Luke's seen, being understood by things that are made."

*" Ask great things, and the small shall be added It is to no purpose to single out quotations of anto you." Clement rather chose to expound the words Scripture from such a writer as this.' We might of Matthew (chap. vi. 33,) than literally to cite them; as well make a selection of the quotations of and this is most undeniably proved by another place in Scripture in Dr. Clarke's Sermons. They are so the same Clement, where he both produces the text and these words as an exposition :-"Seek ye first the king. dom of heaven and its righteousness, for these are the * Lardner, vol. ij. p. 647. great things; but the sinall things, and things relating † Minucius Felix, Apollonius, Caius, Asterius, Ur. to this life, shall be added unto you."-Jones's New and banus, Alexander bishop of Jerusalem, Hippolytus. Full Method, vol. 1. p. 553.

Ammonius, Julius Africanus. Lardner, vol. ii. p. 561.

| Lardner, vol. iii. p. 234.

thickly sown in the works of Origen, that Dr. I the credit of these historians; observing, that they Mill says, “ If we had all his works remaining, were eye-witnesses of the facts which they relate, we should have before us almost the whole text of and that their ignorance of the arts of composition the Bible."

was rather a confirmation of their testimony, than Origen notices, in order to censure, certain an objection to it. Lactantius also argues in deapocryphal Gospels. He also uses four writings fence of the religion, from the consistency, simpliof this sort; that is, throughout his large works city, disinterestedness, and sufferings of the he once or twice, at the most, quotes each of the Christian historians, meaning by that term our four; but always with some mark, either of direct evangelists. reprobation or of caution to his readers, manifest XVII. We close the series of testimonies with ly esteeming them of little or no authority. that of Eusebius,* bishop of Cæsarea, who flou

XIV. Gregory, bishop of Neocæsarea, and rished in the year 315, contemporary with, or Dionysius of Ålexandria, were scholars of Origen. posterior only by fifteen years to, the two authors Their testimony, therefore, though full and parti- last cited. This voluminous writer, and most dicular, may be reckoned a repetition only of his. ligent collector of the writings of others, beside a The series, however, of evidence, is continued by variety of large works, composed a history of the Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, who flourished with affairs of Christianity from its origin to his own in twenty years after Origen. “The church,” time. His testimony to the Scriptures is the tessays this father, "is watered, like Paradise, by timony of a man much conversant in the works of four rivers, that is, by four Gospels." The Acts Christian authors, written during the first three of the Apostles is also frequently quoted by Cy- centuries of its era, and who had read many prian under that name, and under the name of the which are now lost. In a passage of his Evange· Divine Scriptures." In his various writings are lical Demonstration, Eusebius remarks, with great such constant and copious citations of Scripture, nicety, the delicacy of two of the evangelists in as to place this part of the testimony beyond con- their manner of noticing any circumstance which troversy. Nor is there, in the works of this emi- regarded themselves; and of Mark, as writing unnent African bishop, one quotation of a spurious der Peter's direction, in the circumstances which or apocryphal Christian writing.

regarded him. The illustration of this remark Xv. Passing over a crowdt of writers following leads him to bring together long quotations from Cyprian at different distances, but all within forty each of the evangelists; and the whole passage is years of his time; and who all, in the imperfect a proof, that Eusebius, and the Christians of those remains of their works, either cite the historical days, not only read the Gospels, but studied them Scriptures of the New Testament, or speak of with attention and exactness. In a passage of his them in terms of profound respect ;' I single out Ecclesiastical History, he treats, in form, and at Victorin, bishop of Pettaw in Germany, merely large, of the occasions of writing the four Gospels, on account of the remoteness of his situation from and of the order in which they were written. that of Origen and Cyprian, who were Africans; The title of the chapter is, “Of the Order of the by which circumstance his testimony, taken in Gospels ;” and it begins thus: “Let us observe conjunction with theirs, proves that the Scripture the writings of this apostle John, which are not histories, and the same histories, were known and contradicted by any; and, first of all, must be received from one side of the Christian world to mentioned, as acknowledged by all, the Gospel the other. This bishopt lived about the year 290: according to him, well known to all the churches and in a commentary upon this text of the Reve- under heaven; and that it has been justly placed lation, “ The first was like a lion, the second was by the ancients the fourth in order, and after the like a calf, the third like a man, and the fourth other three, may be made evident in this manlike a flying eagle," he makes out that by the four ner.”—Eusebius then proceeds to show that John creatures are intended the four Gospels; and to wrote the fast of the four, and that his Gospel was show the propriety of the symbols, he recites the intended to supply the omissions of the others; subject with which each evangelist opens his his- especially in the part of our Lord's ministıy, tory. The explication is fanciful, but the testi. which took place before the imprisonment of John mony positive. He also expressly cites the Acts the Baptist. He observes, “that the apostles of of the Apostles.

Christ were not studious of the ornaments of comXVI." Arnobius and Lactantius,s about the position, nor indeed forward to write at all, being year 300, composed formal arguments upon the wholly occupied with their ministry.” credibility of the Christian religion. As these This learned author makes no use at all of arguments were addressed to Gentiles, the au-Christian writings, forged with the names of thors abstain from quoting Christian books by Christ's apostles, or their companions. name; one of them giving this very reason for his We close this branch of our evidence here, bereserve; but when they come to state, for the in- cause, after Eusebius, there is no room for any formation of their readers, the outlines of Christ's question upon the subject; the works of Christian history, it is apparent that they draw their ac writers being as full of texts of Scripture, and of counts from our Gospels, and from no other references to Scripture, as the discourses of modern sources; for these statements exhibit a summary divines. Future testimonies to the books of Scripof almost every thing which is related of Christ's ture could only prove that they never lost their actions and miracles by the four evangelists. Ar- character or authority. nobius vindicates, without mentioning their names, Mill, Proleg. cap. vi. p. 66.

SECTION II. † Novatus, Rome, A. D. 251 ; Dionysius, Rome, A. D. 250; Commodian, A. D. 270; Anatolius, Laodicea, A. When the Scriptures are quoted, or alluded to, D. 270; Theognostus, A. D. 282 ; Methodius, Lycia, A. D. 290; Phileas, Egypt, A. D. 296.

they are quoted with peculiar respect, as books 1 Lardner, vol. v. p. 214. § Ib. vol. vii. p. 43. 201.

* Lardner, vol. viii. p. 33.

sui generis; as possessing an authority which , lies close to that of Origen, earnestly exhorts Chrisbelonged to no other books, and as conclusive tian teachers, in all doubtful cases, “ to go back to in all questions and controversies amongst the fountain ; and if the truth has in any case Christians.

been shaken, to recur to the Gospels and apostolic

writings.”—The precepts of the Gospel,” says he Beside the general strain of reference and quo- in another place, " are nothing less than authoritation, which uniformly and strongly indicates tative divine lessons, the foundations of our hope, this distinction, the following may be regarded as the supports of our faith, the guides of our way, specific testimonies:

the safeguards of our course to heaven.” I. Theophilus,* bishop of Antioch, the sixth in VI. Novatus,* a Roman, contemporary with succession from the apostles, and who flourished Cyprian, appeals to the Scriptures, as the authorilittle more than a century after the books of the ty by which all errors were to be repelled, and New Testament were written, having occasion to disputes decided. " That Christ is not only man, quote one of our Gospels, writes thus: “ These but God also, is proved by the sacred authority of things the Holy Scriptures teach us, and all who the Divine Writings."-" The Divine Scripture were moved by the Holy Spirit, among whom easily detects and confutes the frauds of heretics." John says, In the beginning was the Word, and—“ It is not by the fault of the heavenly Scripthe Word was with God." Again : “Concerning tures, which never deceive." Stronger assertions the righteousness which the law teaches, the like than these could not be used. things are to be found in the Prophets and the VII. At the distance of twenty years from the Gospels, because that all, being inspired, spoke by writer last cited, Anatolius,t a learned Alexanone and the same Spirit of God." No words can drian, and bishop of Laodicea, speaking of the testify more strongly than these do, the high and rule for keeping Easter, a question at that day peculiar respect in which these books were holden. agitated with much earnestness, says of those

II. A writer against Artemon, who may be whom he opposed, " They can by no means prove supposed to come about one hundred and fifty- their point by the authority of the Divine Scripeight years after the publication of the Scripture, ture.' in a passage quoted by Eusebius, uses these ex VIII. The Arians, who sprung up about fifty pressions: Possibly what they (our adversaries) years after this, argued strenuously against the say, might have been credited, if first of all the use of the words consubstantial and essence, and Divine Scriptures did not contradict them; and like phrases; because they were not in Scrip then the writings of certain brethren more ancient ture." I And in the same strain one of their adthan the times of Victor.". The brethren men- vocates opens a conference with Augustine, after tioned by name, are Justin, Miltiades, Tatian, the following manner: “If you say what is reaClement, Irenæus, Melito, with a general appeal sonable, I must submit. If you allege any thing to many more not named. This passage proves, from the Divine Scriptures, which are common to first, that there was at that time a collection called both, I must hear. But unscriptural expressions Divine Seriptures ; secondly, that these Scrip-|(quæ extra Scripturam sunt) deserve no regard.” tures were esteemed of higher authority than the Athanasius, the great antagonist of Arianism, writings of the most early and celebrated Chris- after having enumerated the books of the Old and tians.

New Testament, adds, “ These are the fountain III. In a piece ascribed to Hippolytus, who of salvation, that he who thirsts may be satisfied lived near the same time, the author professes, in with the oracles contained in them. In these giving his correspondent instruction in the things alone the doctrine of salvation is proclaimed. Let about which he inquires, " to draw out of the su no ran add to them or take any thing from them." cred fountain, and to set before him from the Sa IX. Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem,ll who wrote cred Scriptures, what may afford him satisfaction." about twenty years after the appearance of ArianHe then quotes immediately Paul's epistles to ism, uses these remarkable words :-"Concerning Timothy, and afterwards many books of the New the divine and holy mysteries of faith, not the Testament. This preface to the quotations car- least article ought to be delivered without the Di. ries in it a marked distinction between the Scrip- vine Scriptures." We are assured that Cyril's tures and other books.

Scriptures were the same as ours, for he has left IV. “ Our assertions and discourses,” saith us a catalogue of the books included under that Origen,ll " are unworthy of credit; we must re- name. ceive the Scriptures as witnesses."' After treat X. Epiphanius, twenty years after Cyril, ing of the duty of prayer, he proceeds with his challenges the Arians, and the followers of Oriargument thus: “What we have said, may be gen, " to produce any passage of the Old and New proved from the Divine Scriptures.” In his books Testament, favouring their sentiments.” against Celsus, we find this passage : “ That our XI. Pæbadius, a Gallic bishop, who lived about religion teaches us to seek after wisdom, shall be thirty years after the council of Nice, testifies, shown, both out of the ancient Jewish Scriptures, that “the bishops of that council first consulted which we also use, and out of those written since the sacred volumes, and then declared their faith."** Jesus, which are believed in the churches to be XII. Basil, bishop of Cæsarea, in Cappadocia, divine.” These expressions afford abundant evi- contemporary with Epiphanius, says," that heardence of the peculiar and exclusive authority ers instructed in the Scriptures ought to examine which the Scriptures possessed.

what is said by their teachers, and to embrace V. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, IT whose age

* Lardner, Cred. part ii. vol. 1. p. 429.
t Ib. vol. i. p. 448. 1 lb. vol. iji. p. 40.
$ Ib. vol. iii p. 112. | Ib. vol. iii. p. 287-289.
Ib. vol. iv. p. 840.

* Lardner, Cred. vol. v. p. 102.
Ib. p. 146.

1 Ib. vol. vii. p. 283, 284.
Ib. vol. xii p. 182. Ib. vol. viii. p. 276.
1 Ib. vol. viii. p. 314, # Ib. vol. ix. p. 52.

what is agrecable to the Scriptures, and to reject | pel, for he expected to be delivered up as the what is otherwise."*

Lord also did.'* And in another place," We do XIII. Ephraim, the Syrian, a celebrated writer not commend those who offer themselves, forasof the same times, bears this conclusive testimony much as the Gospel teaches us no such thing." to the proposition which forms the subject of our In both these places, what is called the Gospels, present chapter: “The truth written in the Sa- seems to be the history of Jesus Christ, and of cred Volume of the Gospel, is a perfect rule. No his doctrine. thing can be taken from it nor added to it, without If this be the true sense of the passages, they great guilt.”+

are not only evidences of our propositions, but XIV. If we add Jerome to these, it is only for strong and very ancient proofs of the high esteem the evidence which he affords of the judgment of in which the books of the New Testament were preceding ages. Jerome observes, concerning the holden. quotations of ancient Christian writers, that is, of II. Eusebius relates, that Quadratus and some writers who were ancient in the year 400, that others, who were the immediate successors of the they made a distinction between books; some they apostles, travelling abroad to preach Christ, carquoted as of authority, and others not: which ob- ried the Gospels with them, and delivered them servation relates to the books of Scripture, com- to their converts. The words of Eusebius are: pared with other writings, apocryphal or heathen. " Then travelling abroad, they performed the work

of evangelists, being ambitious to preach Christ, and deliver the Scripture of the dirine Gospels.''

Eusebius had before him the writings both of SECTION III.

Quadratus himself, and of many others of that

age, which are now lost. It is reasonable, thereThe Scriptures were in very early times collected fore, to believe, that he had good grounds for his into a distinct volume.

assertion. What is thus recorded of the Gospels,

took place within sixty, or, at the most, seventy IGNATIUS, who was bishop of Antioch within years after they were published: and it is evident forty years after the Ascension, and who had that they must, before this time (and, it is probalived and conversed with the apostles, speaks of ble, long before this time,) have been in general the Gospel and of the apostles in terms which use, and in high esteem in the churches planted render it very probable that he meant by the Gos- by the apostles, inasmuch as they were now, we pel, the book or volume of the Gospels, and by find, collected into a volume; and the immediate the Apostles, the book or volume of their Epistles. successors of the apostles, they who preached the His words in one place are, “Fleeing to the religion of Christ to those who had not already Gospel as the flesh of Jesus, and to the apostles as heard it, carried the volume with them, and dethe presbytery of the church;" that is, as Le Clerc livered it to their converts. interprets them, “in order to understand the will III. Irenæus, in the year 178,5 puts the evanof God, he fled to the Gospels, which he believed gelic and apostolic writings in connexion with the no less than if Christ in the flesh had been speak- Law and the Prophets, manifestly intending by ing to him; and to the writings of the apostles, the one a cole or collection of Christian sacred whom he esteemed as the presbytery of the whole writings, as the other expressed the code or colChristian church." It must be observed, that lection of Jewish sacred writings. And, about eighty years after this, we have direct proof IV. Melito, at this time bishop of Sardis, writin the writings of Clement of Alexandria,li that ing to one Onesimus, tells his correspondent, these two names, “ Gospel,” and “ Apostles,” that he had procured an accurate account of the were the names by which the writings of the New books of the Old Testament. The occurrence, in Testament, and the division of these writings, this passage, of the term Old Testament, has were usually expressed.

been brought to prove, and it certainly does prove, Another passage from Ignatius is the following: that there was then a volume or collection of -“But the Gospel has somewhat in it more ex- writings called the New Testament. cellent, the appearance of our Lord Jesus Christ, V. In the time of Clement of Alexandria, about his passion and resurrection."

fifteen years after the last-quoted testimony, it is And a third : " Ye ought to hearken to the Pro- apparent that the Christian Scriptures were diphets, but especially to the Gospel, in which the vided into two parts, under the general titles of the passion has been manifested to us, and the resur- Gospels and Apostles; and that both these were rection perfected.” In this last passage, the Pro- regarded as of the highest authority. One, out of phets and the Gospel are put in conjunction; and many expressions of Clement, alluding to this As Ignatius undoubtedly meant by the Prophets a distribution, is the following :--" There is a concollection of writings, it is probable that he meant sent and harmony between the Law and the Prothe same by the Gospel, the two terms standing phets, the Apostles and the Gospel." in evident parallelism with each other.

VI. The same division, "Prophets, Gospels, This interpretation of the word “Gospel,” in and Apostles," appears in Tertullian,** the conthe passages above quoted from Ignatius, is con- temporary of Clement. The collection of the firmed by a piece of nearly equal antiquity, the Gospels is likewise called by this writer the relation of the martyrdom of Polycarp by the Evangelic Instrument;"++ the whole volume, the church of Smyrna. “ All things," say they, "New Testament;" and the two parts, the "Gos“that went before, were done, that the Lord pels and Apostles.”It might show us a martyrdom according to the Gos

Ignat. Ep. c. i.

t Ib. c. iv. Lardner, Cred. vol. ix. p. 124.

| Lardner, Cred, part ii. vol. j. p. 236. | Ib. vol. ix. p. 202. Ib. vol. x. p. 123, 124. $ Ib. vol. i 383.

Ib. p. 331. $ Ib. part ii. vol. i. p. 180. Ib. vol. ii. p. 516. IT Ib. vol. ij. p. 516.

** Ib. p. 631. Ib. vol. ii. p. 182.

tt Ib. p. 574.

It Ib. p. 632.


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