« السابقةمتابعة »
are assumed or asserted by every one of them. selves escape with impunity, or pursue their pur
The names under which some of them came forth, pose in ease and safety. This probability, thus are the names of men of eminence in our histories. sustained by foreign testimony, is advanced, I What these books give, are not contradictions, think, to historical certainty, by the evidence of but unauthorized additions. The principal facts our own books; by the accounts of a writer who are supposed, the principal agents the same; which was the companion of the persons whose suffershows, that these points were too much fixed to ings he relates; by the letters of the persons thembe altered or disputed.
selves; by predictions of persecutions ascribed to If there be any book of this description, which the Founder of the religion, which predictions appears to have imposed upon some considerable would not have been inserted in this history, number of learned Christians, it is the Sibylline much less have been studiously dwelt upon, if oracles; but, when we reflect upon the circum- they had not accorded with the event, and which, stances which facilitated that imposture, we shall even if falsely ascribed to him, could only have cease to wonder either at the attempt or its success. been so ascribed, because the event suggested It was at that time universally understood, that them; lastly, by incessant exhortations to fortisuch a prophetic writing existed. Its contents tude and patience, and by an eamestness, repetiwere kept secret. This situation afforded to some tion, and urgency, upon the subject, which were one a hint, as well as an opportunity, to give out unlikely to have appeared, if there had not been, a writing under this name, favourable to the al at the time, some extraordinary call for the exerready established persuasion of Christians, and cise of these virtues. which writing, by the aid and recommendation of It is made out also, I think, with sufficient evithese circumstances, would in some degree, it is dence, that both the teachers and converts of the probable, be received. Of the ancient forgery we religion, in consequence of their new profession, know but little: what is now produced, could not, took up a new course of life and behaviour. in my opinion, have imposed upon any one. It The next great question is, what they did this is nothing else than the Gospel history, woven FOR. That it was for a miraculous story of some into verse; perhaps was at first rather a fiction kind or other, is to my apprehension extremely than a forgery; an exercise of ingenuity, more manifest; because, as to the fundamental article, than an attempt to deceive.
the designation of the person, viz. that this particular person, Jesus of Nazareth, ought to be received as the Messiah, or as a messenger from God, they neither had, nor could have, any thing
but miracles to stand upon. That the exertions CHAPTER X.
and sufferings of the apostles were for the story
which we have now, is proved by the consideraRecapitulation.
tion that this story is transmitted to us by two of
their own number, and by two others personally The reader will now be pleased to recollect, connected with them; that the particularity of the that the two points which form the subject of our narrative proves, that the writers claimed to pos present discussion, are first, that the Founder of sess circumstantial information, that from their Christianity, his associates, and immediate follow- situation they had full opportunity of acquiring ers, passed their lives in labours, dangers, and suf- such information, that they certainly, at least, ferings; secondly, that they did so, in attestation knew what their colleagues, their companions, of the miraculous history recorded in our Scrip- their masters, taught; that each of these books tures, and solely in consequence of their belief of contains enough to prove the truth of the religion; the truth of that history.
that, if any one of them therefore be genuine, it is The argument, by which these two propositions sufficient; that the genuineness, however, of all have been maintained by us, stands thus: of them is made out, as well by the general argu
No historical fact, I apprehend, is more certain, ments which evince the genuineness of the most than that the original propagators of Christianity undisputed remains of antiquity, as also by pecuvoluntarily subjected themselves to lives of fatigue, liar and specific proofs, viz. by citations from them danger, and suffering, in the prosecution of their in writings belonging to a period immediately conundertaking. The nature of the undertaking; tiguous to that in which they were published; by the character of the persons employed in it; the the distinguished regard paid by early Christians opposition of their tenets to the fixed opinions and to the authority of these books, (which regard was expectations of the country in which they first ad- manifested by their collecting of them into a va vanced them; their undissembled condemnation lume, appropriating to that volume titles of pecuof the religion of all other countries; their total liar respect, translating them into various lanwant of power, authority, or force ; render it in guages, digesting them into harmonies, writing the highest degree probable that this must have commentaries upon them, and, still more conspicubeen the case. The probability is increased, by ously, by the reading of them in their public aswhat we know of the fate of the Founder of the semblies in all parts of the world ;) by a universal institution, who was put to death for his attempt; agreement with respect to these books, whilst and by what we also know of the cruel treatment doubts were entertained concerning some others; of the converts to the institution, within thirty by contending sects appealing to them; by the years after its commencement; both which points early adversaries of the religion not disputing are attested by heathen writers, and, being once their genuineness, but, on the contrary, treating admitted, leave it very incredible that the primi- them as the depositaries of the history upon which tive emissaries of the religion, who exercised their the religion was founded; by many formal cataministry, first, amongst the people who had de- logues of these, as of certain and authoritative stroyed their Master, and, afterward, amongst writings, published in different and distant parts those who persecuted their converts, should them- of the Christian world ; lastly, by the absence or
defect of the above-cited topics of evidence, when their lives in labours, dangers, and sufferings, applied to any other histories of the same subject. voluntarily undertaken and undergone in at
These are strong arguments to prove, that the testation of the accounts which they delivered, books actually proceeded from the authors whose and solely in consequence of their belief of the names they bear, (and have always borne, for truth of those accounts; and that they also there is not a particle of evidence to show that submitted, from the same motives, to new they ever went under any other ;) but the strict rules of conduct.” genuineness of the books is perhaps more than is Our second proposition, and which now remains necessary to the support of our proposition. For
to be treated of, is, " That there is not satisfaceven supposing that, by reason of the silence of
tory evidence, that persons pretending to be antiquity, or the loss of records, we know not who were the writers of the four Gospels, yet the fact,
original witnesses of any other similar mira
cles, have acted in the same manner, in attestthat they were received as authentic accounts of the transaction upon which the religion rested,
ation of the accounts which they delirered, and were received as such by Christians, at or
and solely in consequence of their belief of the
truth of those accounts." near the age of the apostles, by those whom the apostles had taught, and by societies which apos. I ENTER upon this part of my argument, by tles had founded; this fact, I say, connected with declaring how far my belief in miraculous accounts the consideration, that they are corroborative of goes. If the reformers in the time of Wickliffe, each other's testimony, and that they are farther or of Luther; or those of England, in the time of corroborated by another contemporary history, Henry the Eighth, or of queen Mary; or the taking up the story where they had left it, and, in founders of our religious sects since, such as were a narrative built upon that story, accounting for Mr. Whitfield and Mr. Wesley in our own times; the rise and production of changes in the world, had undergone the life of toil and exertion, of the effects of which subsist at this day ; connected, danger and sufferings, which we know that many moreover, with the confirmation which they re- of them did undergo, for a miraculous story; that ceive from letters written by the apostles them- is to say, if they had founded their public ministry selves, which both assume the same general story, upon the allegation of miracles wrought within and, as often as occasions lead them to do so, al- their own knowledge, and upon narratives which lude to particular parts of it; and connected also could not be resolved into delusion or mistake; with the reflection, that if the apostles delivered and if it had appeared, that their conduct really any different story, it is lost, (the present and no had its origin in these accounts, I should have other being referred to by a series of Christian believed them. Or, to borrow an instance which writers, down from their age to our own; being will be familiar to every one of my readers, if the likewise recognised in a variety of institutions, late Mr. Howard had undertaken his labours and which prevailed early and universally amongst the journeys in attestation, and in consequence of a disciples of the religion ;) and that so great a clear and sensible miracle, I should have believed change, as the oblivion of one story and the sub- him also. Or, to represent the same thing under stitution of another, under such circumstances, a third supposition; if Socrates had professed to could not have taken place; this evidence would perform public miracles at Athens; if the friends be deemed, I apprehend, sufficient to prove con- of Socrates, Phædo, Cebes, Crito, and Simmias, cerning these books, that, whoever were the au- together with Plato, and many of his followers, thors of them, they exhibit the story which the relying upon the attestations which these miraapostles told, and for which, consequently, they cles afforded to his pretensions, had, at the hazard acted, and they suffered.
of their lives, and the certain expense of their ease If it be so, the religion must be true. These and tranquillity, gone about Greece, after his men could not be deceivers.—By only not bearing death, to publish and propagate his doctrines : testimony, they might have avoided all these suf- and if these things had come to our knowledge, ferings, and have lived quietly. Would men in in the same way as that in which the life of such circumstances pretend to have seen what Socrates is now transmitted to us, through the they never saw; assert facts which they had no hands of his companions and disciples, that is, by knowledge of; go about lying to teach virtue; writings received without doubt as theirs, frora and, though not only convinced of Christ's being the age in which they were published to the prean impostor, but having seen the success of his sent, I should have believed this likewise. And imposture in his crucifixion, yet persist in carry- my belief would, in each case, be much strengthing it on; and so persist, as to bring upon them- ened, if the subject of the mission were of importselves, for nothing, and with a full knowledge of ance to the conduct and happiness of human life: the consequence, enmity and hatred, danger and if it testified any thing which it behoved mankind death?
to know from such authority; if the nature of what it delivered, required the sort of proof which
it alleged; if the occasion was adequate to the ECT HISTORICAL EVIDENCE OF interposition, the end worthy of the means. In
the last case, my faith would be much confirmed, if the effects of the transaction remained ; more especially, if a change had been wrought, at the time, in the opinion and conduct of such numbers,
as to lay the foundation of an institution, and of a CHAPTER I.
system of doctrines, which had since overspread
the greatest part of the civilized world. I should Our first proposition was, That there is satisfac- have believed, I say, the testimony in these cases;
tory eridence that many, pretending to be origi: yet none of them do more than come up to the nal witnesses of the Christian miracles, possed apostolic history.
If any one choose to call assent to its evidence story was published in the peace in which it was credulity, it is at least incumbent upon him to acted. The church of Christ was first planted at produce examples in which the same evidence Jerusalem itself. With that church, others corhath turned out to be fallacious. And this con- responded. From thence the primitive teachers tains the precise question which we are now to of the institution went forth; thither they assemagitate.
bled. The church of Jerusalem, and the several In stating the comparison between our evidence, churches of Judea, subsisted from the beginning, and what our adversaries may bring into compe- and for many ages ;* received also the same Looks tition with ours, we will divide the distinctions and the same accounts, as other churches did. which we wish to propose into two kinds,-those This distinction disposes, amongst others, of which relate to the proof, and those which relate the above-mentioned miracles of Apollonius Tyato the miracles. Under the former head we may neus, most of which are related to have been lay out the case.
performed in India; no evidence remaining that 1. Such accounts of supernatural events as are either the miracles ascribed to him, or the history found only in histories by some ages posterior to of those miracles, were ever heard of in India. the transaction, and of which it is evident that the Those of Francis Xavier, the Indian missionary, historian could know little more than his reader. with many others of the Romish breviary, are liaOurs is contemporary history. This difference ble to the same objection, viz. that the accounts alone removes out of our way, the miraculous his- of them were published at a vast distance from the tory of Pythagoras, who lived five hundred years supposed scene of the wonders.t before the Christian era, written by Porphyry Ill. We lay out of the case transient rumours. and Jamblicus, who lived three hundred years Upon the first publication of an extraordinary acafter that era; the prodigies of Livy's history; count, or even of an article ofordinary intelligence, the fables of the heroic ages; the whole of the no one, who is not personally acquainted with the Greek and Roman, as well as of the Gothic transaction, can know whether it be true or false, mythology; a great part of the legendary history because any man may publish any story. It is in of Popish saints, the very best attested of which is the future confirmation, or contradiction, of the extracted from the certificates that are exhibited account; in its permanency, or its disappearance; during the process of their canonization, a cere- its dying away into silence, or its increasing in mony which seldom takes place till a century after notoriety; its being followed up by subsequent their deaths. It applies also with considerable accounts, and being repeated in different and inforce to the miracles of Apollonius Tyaneus, dependent accounts; that solid truth is distinguish. which are contained in a solitary history of his ed from fugitive lies. This distinction is altogether life, published by Philostratus, above a hundred on the side of Christianity. The story did not years after his death; and in which, whether drop. On the contrary, it was succeeded by a Philostratus had any prior account to guide him, train of action and events dependent upon it. depends upon his single unsupported assertion. The accounts, which we have in our hands, were Also to some of the miracles of the third century, composed after the first reports must have subespecially to one extraordinary instance, the ac- sided. They were followed by a train of writings count of Gregory, bishop of Neocesarea, called upon the subject. The historical testimonies of Thaumaturgus, delivered in the writings of Gre- the transaction were many and various, and congory of Nyssen, who lived one hundred and thirty nected with letters, discourses, controversies, apo years after the subject of his panegyric.
logies, successively produced by the same transacThe value of this circumstance is shown to have tion. been accurately exemplified in the history of Igna IV. We may lay out of the case what I call tius Loyola, founder of the order of Jesuits.* His naked history. It has been said, that if the prolife, written by a companion of his, and by one of digies of the Jewish history had been found only the order, was published about fifteen years after in fragments of Manetho, or Berosus, we should his death. In which life, the author, so far from have paid no regard to them: and I am willing to ascribing any miracles to Ignatius, industriously admit this. If we knew nothing of the fact, but states the reasons why he was not invested with from the fragment; if we possessed no proof that any such power. The life was republished fifteen these accounts had been credited and acted upon, years afterward, with the addition of many cir- from times, probably, as ancient as the accounts cumstances which were the fruit, the author says, themselves; if we had no visible effects connected of farther inquiry, and of diligent examination; with the history, no subsequent or collateral testi, but still with a total silence about miracles. When mony to confirm it; under these circumstances, I Ignatius had been dead nearly sixty years, the think that it would be undeserving of credit. But Jesuits, conceiving a wish to have the founder of this certainly is not our case. In appreciating their order placed in the Roman calendar, began, the evidence of Christianity, the books are to be as it should seem, for the first time, to attribute to combined with the institution; with the prevahim a catalogue of miracles, which could not then lency of the religion at this day; with the time be distinctly disproved; and which there was, in and place of its origin; which are acknowledged those who governed the church, a strong disposi- points; with the circumstances of its rise and protion to admit upon the slenderest proofs. gress, as collected from external history; with the
Il. We may lay out of the case, accounts pub- fact of our present books being received by the lished in one country, of what passed in a distant votaries of the institution from the beginning; country, without any proof that such accounts with that of other books coming after these, filled were known or received at home. In the case of Christianity, Judea, which was the scene of the
* The succession of many eminent bishops of Jerusa.
lem in the first three centuries, is distinctly preserved; transaction, was the centre of the mission. The as Alexander, A. D. 212, who succeeded Narcissus, lben
116 years old. • Douglas's Criterion of Miracles, p. 74.
Douglas's Crit. p A.
with accounts of effects and consequences result- rest is involved, nothing is to be done or changed mg from the transaction, or referring to the trans- in consequence of believing them. Such stories action, or built upon it; lastly, with the considerare credited, if the careless assent that is given to ation of the number and variety of the books them deserve that name, more by the indolence of themselves, the different writers from which they the hearer, than by his judgment: or, though not proceed, the different views with which they were much credited, are passed from one to another written, so disagreeing as to repel the suspicion of without inquiry or resistance. To this case, and confederacy, so agreeing as to show that they were to this case alone, belongs what is called the love founded in a common original, i.e. in a story sub- of the marvellous. I have never known it carry stantially the same. Whether this proof be satis- men farther. Men do not suffer persecution from factory or not, it is properly a cumulation of evi- the love of the marvellous. Of the indifferent nadence, by no means a naked or solitary record. ture we are speaking of, are most vulgar errors
V. A'mark of historical truth, although only and popular superstitions: most, for instance, of in a certain way, and to a certain degree, is par- the current reports of apparitions. Nothing deticularity, in names, dates, places, circumstances, pends upon their being true or false. But not, and in the order of events preceding or following surely, of this kind were the alleged miracles of the transaction: of which kind, for instance, is Christ and his apostles. They decided, if true, the particularity in the description of Saint Paul's the most important question upon which the huvoyage and shipwreck, in the 27th chapter of the man mind can fix its anxiety. They claimed to Acts, which no man, I think, can read without regulate the opinions of mankind, upon subjects being convinced that the writer was there; and in which they are not only deeply concerned, but also in the account of the cure and examination usually refractory and obstinate. Men could not of the blind man, in the ninth chapter of Saint be utterly careless in such a case as this. If a John's Gospel, which bears every mark of per- Jew look up the story, he found his darling parsonal knowledge on the part of the historian. I tiality to his own nation and law wounded; if a do not deny that fiction has often the particularity | Gentile, he found his idolatry and polytheism reof truth; but then it is of studied and claborate probated and condemned. Whoever entertained fiction, or of a formal attempt to deceive, that we the account, whether Jew or Gentile, could not observe this. Since, however, experience proves avoid the following reflection:-“If these things that particularity is not confined to truth, I have be true, I must give up the opinions and princistated that it is a proof of truth only to a certain ples in which I have been brought up, the religion extent, i. e. it reduces the question to this, whe- in which my fathers lived and died.” It is not ther we can depend or not upon the probity of the conceivable that a man should do this upon any relater? which is a considerable advance in our idle report or frivolous account, or indeed, without present argument; for an express attempt to de- being fully satisfied and convinced of the truth ceive, in which case alone particularity can ap- and credibility of the narrative to which he trust pear without truth, is charged upon the evange- ed. But it did not stop at opinions. They who lists by few. If the historian acknowledge himself believed Christianity, acted upon it. Many made to have received his intelligence from others, the it the express business of their lives to publish the particularity of the narrative shows, prima facie, intelligence. It was required of those who adthe accuracy of his inquiries, and the fulness of mitted that intelligence, to change forthwith their his information. This remark belongs to Saint conduct and their principles, to take up a differ Luke's history. Of the particularity which we ent course of life, to part with their habits and allege, many examples may be found in all the gratifications, and begin a new set of rules, and Gospels. And it is very difficult to conceive, that system of behaviour. The apostles, at least, were such numerous particularities, as are almost every interested not to sacrifice their ease, their fortunes where to be met with in the Scriptures, should be and their lives, for an idle tale; multitudes besides raised out of nothing, or be spun out of the imagi- them were induced, by the same tale, to encounnation without any fact to go upon.t
ter opposition, danger, and sufferings. It is to be remarked, however, that this particu If it be said, that the mere promise of a future larity is only to be looked for in direct history. It state would do all this; I answer, that the mere is not natural in references or allusions, which yet, promise of a future state, without any evidence in other respects, often afford, as far as they go, io give credit or assurance to it, would do nothing. the most unsuspicious evidence.
A few wandering fishermen talking of a resurrecVI. We lay out of the case such stories of su- tion of the dead, could produce no effect. If it be pernatural events, as require, on the part of the farther said, that men easily believe what they hearer, nothing more than an otiose assent; stories anxiously desire; I again answer that, in my upon which nothing depends, in which no inte- opinion, the very contrary of this is nearer to the
truth. Anxiety of desire, earnestness of expecta* Both these chapters ought to be read for the sake tion, the vastness of an event, rather cause men of this very observation.
to disbelieve, to doubt, to dread a fallacy, to dis† "There is always some truth where there are considerable particularities related; and they always seem
trust, and to examine. When our Lord's resurto bear some proportion to one another. Thus there is rection was first reported to the apostles, they did a great want of the particulars of time, place, and per not believe, we are told, for joy. This was natusons, in Manetho's account of the Egyptian Dynasties, ral, and is agreeable to experience. Ctesias's of the Assyrian Kings, and ihose which the
VII. We have laid out of the case those actechnical chronologers have given of the ancient king. Joms of Greece: and agreeably thereto, the accounts counts which require no more than a simple as have much fiction and falsehood, with some truth : sent; and we now also lay out of the case those whereas, Thucydides's History of the Peloponnesian which come merely in affirmance of opinions War, and Cæsar's of the War in Gaul, in both which already formed. This last circumstance is of the ed, are universally esteemed true to a great degree of utmost importance to notice well. It has long exactness."-Hartley, vol. ii. p. 109,
been observed, that Popish miracles happen in
Popish countries ; that they make no converts: 1 land, Calvin in France, or any of the reformers, which proves that stories are accepted, when they advance this plea ?"* The French prophets, in fall in with principles already fixed, with the pub- the beginning of the present century, + ventured lic sentiments, or with the sentiments of a party to allege miraculous evidence, and immediately already engaged on the side the miracle supports, ruined their cause by their temerity. “Concernwhich would not be attempted to be produced in ing the religion of ancient Rome, of Turkey, the face of enemies, in opposition to reigning of Siam, of China, a single miracle cannot he tenets or favourite prejudices, or when, if they be named, that was ever oftered as a test of any of believed, the belief must draw men away from those religions before their establishment." I their preconceived and habitual opinions, from We may add to what has been observed of the their modes of life and rules of action. In the distinction which we are considering, that, where former case, men may not only receive a miracu- miracles are alleged merely in affirmance of a lous account, but may both act and suffer on the prior opinion, they who believe the doctrine may side and in the cause, which the miracle supports, sometimes propagate a belief of the miracles which yet not act or suffer for the miracle, but in pur- they do not themselves entertain. This is the suance of a prior persuasion. The miracle, like case of what are called pious frauds; but it is a any other argument which only confirms what case, I apprehend, which takes place solely in was before believed, is admitted with little ex- support of a persuasion already established. At amination. In the moral as in the natural world, least it does not hold of the apostolical history. If it is change which requires a cause. Men are the apostles did not believe the miracles, they did easily fortified in their old opinions, driven from not believe the religion; and, without this belief, them with great difficulty. Now how does this where was the piety, what place was there for any apply to the Christian history? The miracles, thing which could bear the name or colour of there recorded, were wrought in the midst of ene- piety, in publishing and attesting miracles in its mies, under a government, a priesthood, and a behalf? If it be said that any promote the belief magistracy, decidedly and vehemently adverse to of revelation, and of any accounts which favour them, and to the pretensions which they support that belief, because they think them, whether well ed. They were Protestant miracles in a Popish or ill founded, of public and political utility; I country; they were Popish miracles in the midst answer, that if a character exist, which can with of Protestants. They produced a change; they less justice than another be ascribed to the founestablished a society upon the spot, adhering to ders of the Christian religion;it is that of politicians, the belief of them; they made converts ; and those or of men capable of entertaining political views. who were converted gave up to the testimony The truth is, that there is no assignable character their most fixed opinions and most favourite pre- which will account for the conduct of the apostles, judices. They who acted and suffered in the supposing their story to be false. If bad men, cause, acted and suffered for the miracles: for what could have induced them to take such pains there was no anterior persuasion to induce them, to promote virtue? If good men, they would not no prior reverence, prejudice, or partiality, to take have gone about the country with a string of lies hold of. Jesus had not one follower when he set in their mouths. up his claim. His miracles gave birth to his sect. IN APPRECIATING the credit of any miraculous No part of this description belongs to the ordinary story, these are distinctions which relate to the evidence of Heathen or Popish miracles. Even evidence. There are other distinctions, of great most of the miracles alleged to have been perform- moment in the question, which relate to the miraed by Christians, in the second and third century cles themselves. Of which latter kind the folof its era, want this confirmation. It constitutes lowing ought carefully to be retained. indeed a line of partition between the origin and I. It not necessary to admit as a miracle, the progress of Christianity. Frauds and falla- what can be resolved into a false perception. Of cies might mix themselves with the progress, this nature was the demon of Socrates; the visions which could not possibly take place in the com- of Saint Anthony, and of many others; the vision mencement of the religion ; at least, according to which Lord Herbert of Cherbury describes himany laws of human conduct that we are acquaint. self to have seen; Colonel Gardner's vision, as reed with. What should suggest to the first propa. lated in his life, written by Dr. Doddridge. All gators of Christianity, especially to fishermen, these may be accounted for by a momentary tax-gatherers, and husbandmen, such a thought insanity; for the characteristic symptom of human as that of changing the religion of the world; madness is the rising up in the mind of images what could bear them through the difficulties in not distinguishable by the patient from impreswhich the attempt engaged them; what could sions upon the senses. The cases, however, in procure any degree of success to the attempt; are which the possibility of this delusion exists, are questions which apply, with great force, to the divided from the cases in which it does not exist, setting out of the institution, with less, to every by many, and those not obscure marks. They future stage of it.
are, for the most part, cases of visions or voices. To hear some men talk, one would suppose the The object is hardly ever touched. The vision setting up of a religion by miracles to be a thing submits not to be handled. One sense does not of every day's experience; whereas the whole cur- i confirm another. They are likewise almost alrent of history is against it. Hath any founder ways cases of a solitary witness. It is in the of a new sect amongst Christians pretended to highest degree improbable, and I know not, indeed, miraculous powers, and succeeded by his preten- whether it hath ever been the fact that the same sions? “Were these powers claimed or exercised derangement of the mental organs should seize by the founders of the sects of the Waldenses and Albigenses? Did Wicklifle in England pretend to it? Did Huss or Jerome in Bohemia ?
* Campbell on Miracles, p. 120. ed. 1766.
| Adams on Mir. p. 75. Did Luther in Germany, Zuinglius in Switzer
§ Batty on Lunacy.