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not dramatic writers; nor possessed the talents of thefts, false witness, blasphemies: these are the dramatic writers; nor will it, I believe, be sus- things which defile a man: BUT TO EAT WITH pected, that they studied uniformity of character, UNWASHEN HANDS DEFILETH NOT A MAN.” Our or ever thought of any such thing, in the person Saviour, on this occasion, expatiates rather more who was the subject of their histories. Such uni- at large than usual, and his discourse also is more formity, if it exists, is on their part casual; and if divided: but the concluding sentence brings back there be, as I contend there is, a perceptible re- the whole train of thought to the incident in the semblance of manner, in passages, and between first verse, viz. the objugatory question of the discourses, which are in themselves extremely dis- Pharisees, and renders it evident that the whole tinct, and are delivered by historians writing with sprang from that circumstance. out any imitation of, or reference to, one another, Mark x. 13–15.“ And they brought young it affords a just presumption, that these are, what children to him, that he should touch them; and they profess to be, the actions and the discourses his disciples rebuked those that brought them: but of the same real person; that the evangelists wrote when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and from fact, and not from imagination.
said unto them, Suffer the little children to come The article in which I find this agreement most unto me, and forbid them not; for of such is the strong, is in our Saviour's mode of teaching, and kingdom of God: verily I say unto you, W'hosoin that particular property of it, which consists in erer shall not receire the kingdom of God as a his drawing of his doctrine from the occasion; or, little child, he shall not enter therein." which is nearly the same thing, raising reflections Mark i. 16, 17. "Now as he walked by the sea from the objects and incidents before him, or of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew his brother turning a particular discourse then passing, into casting a net into the sea, for they were fishers: an opportunity of general instruction.
and Jesus said unto them, Come ye after me, and It will be my business to point out this manner I will make you fishers of men." in the first three evangelists; and then to inquire, Luke xi. 27. “And it came to pass as he spake whether it do not appear also, in several examples these things, a certain woman of the company of Christ's discourses, preserved by Saint John. lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed is
The reader will observe in the following quota- the womb that bare thee, and the paps which thou tions, that the Italic letter contains the reflection; hast sucked: but be said, Yca, rather blessed are the common letter, the incident or occasion from they that hear the word of God and keep it."' which it springs.
Luke xiii. 1–3. “ There were present at that Matt. xii. 47-50. "Then they said unto him, season, some that told him of the Galileans, whose Behold, thy mother and thy brethren stand with blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices; and out desiring to speak with thee. But he answered Jesus answering, said unto them, Suppose ye, that and said unto him that told him, Who is my mothese Galileans were sinners above all the Galither? and who are my brethren? And he leans, because they suffered such things ? I tell stretched forth his hand towards his disciples, and you, Nay: but, excepi ye repent, ye shall all likesaid, Behold my mother and my brethren: for wise perish.” whosoerer shall do the will of my Father which Luke xiv. 15. " And when one of them that is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, sat at meat with him, heard these things, he said and mother."
unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the Matt. xvi. 5. "And when his disciples were kingdom of God. Then said he unto him, A cercome to the other side, they had forgotten to take tain man made a great supper, and bade many, bread; then Jesus said unto them, Take heed, &c. The parable is rather too long for insertion, and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and but affords a striking instance of Christ's manner of the Sadducees. And they reasoned among of raising a discourse from the occasion. Observe themselves, saying, It is because we have taken also in the same chapter two other examples of no bread.—How is it that ye do not understand, advice, drawn from the circumstances of the enthat I spake it not to you concerning bread, that tertainment and the behaviour of the guests. ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, We will now see, how this manner discovers and of the Sadducees? Then understood they, itself in St. John's history of Christ. how that he bade them not beware of the leaven John vi. 25. “And when they had found him of bread, but of the DOCTRINE of the Pharisees on the other side of the sea, they said unto him, and of the Sadducees."
Rabbi, when camest thou hither Jesus answerMatt. xv. 1, 2, 10, 11, 15—20. " Then came ed them, and said, Verily I say unto you, ye seek to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of me not because ye saw the miracles, but because Jerusalem, saying, Why do thy disciples trans- ye did eat of the loaves, and were filled. Labour gress the traditions of the elders ? for they wash not for the meat which perisheth, but for that not their hands when they eat bread. -And he meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which called the multitude, and said unto them, Hear the Son of man shall give unto you. and understand: Not that which goeth into the John iv. 12. “ Art thou greater than our father mouth defileth a man, but that which cometh out Abraham, who gave us the well, and drank thereof the mouth, this defileth a man. - Then an- of himself, and his children, and his cattle? Jesus swered Peter, and said unto him, Declare unto us answered, and said unto her (the woman of Sathis parable.' And Jesus said, Are ye also yet maria,) Whosoever drinketh of this water shall without understanding? Do ye not yet under-thirst again; but whosoever drinketh of the water stand, that whatsoever entereth in at the mouth, that I shall gire him, shall nerer thirst; but the goeth' into the belly, and is cast out into the water that I shall gire hiin, shall be in him a Draught? but those things which proceed out of well of water, springing up into everlasting the mouth, come forth from the heart, and they life.” defile the man: for out of the heart proceed John iv. 31. " * In the mean while, his disciples evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, prayed him, saying, Master, eat; but he said unto
them, I have meat to eat that ye know not of. semblance. But the affinity which I would point Therefore said the disciples one to another, Hath out consists in these two articles: First, that both any man brought him aught to eat ? Jesus saith stories denote the emulation which prevailed unto them, My meat is, to do the will of him that amongst Christ's disciples, and his cwn care and sent me, and to finish his work."
desire to correct it; the moral of both is the same. John ix. 1-5. “And as Jesus passed by, he Secondly, that both stories are specimens of the saw a man which was blind from his birth; and same manner of teaching, viz. by action; a mode his disciples asked him, saying, Who did sin, this of emblematic instruction extremely peculiar, and, man or his parents, that he was born blind ? in these passages, ascribed, we see, to our Saviour, Jesus answered, Neither hath this man sinned, by the first three evangelists, and by Saint John por his parents, but that the works of God should in instances totally unlike, and without the smallbe made manifest in him. I must work the works est suspicion of their borrowing from each other. of him that sent me, while it is day; the night II. A singularity in Christ's language, which cometh, when no man can work. As long as I runs through all the evangelists, and which is am in the world, I am the light of the world." found in those discourses of Saint John that have
John ix. 35–40. "Jesus heard that they had nothing similar to them in the other Gospels, is cast him (the blind man above-mentioned) out: the appellation of “the Son of man;" and it is in and when he had found him, he said unto him, all the evangelists found under the peculiar cirDost thou believe on the Son of God? And he cumstance of being applied by Christ to himself, answered, and said, Who is he, Lord, that I but of never being used of him, or towards him, might believe on him? And Jesus said unto him, by any other person. It occurs seventeen times Thou hast both seen him, and it is he that talketh in Matthew's Gospel, twenty times in Mark's, with thee. And he said, Lord, I believe ; and he twenty-one times in Luke's, and eleven times in worshipped him. And Jesus said, For judgment John's, and always with this restriction. I am come into this world, that they which see IV. A point of agreement in the conduct of not, might see; and that they which see, might Christ, as represented by his different historians, be made blind."
is that of his withdrawing himself out of the way, All that the reader has now to do, is to com- whenever the behaviour of the multitude indicated pare the series of examples taken from Saint John, a disposition to tumult. with the series of examples taken from the other Matt. xiv. 22. “And straightway Jesus conevangelists, and to judge whether there be not a strained his disciples to get into a ship, and to go visible agreement of manner between them. In before him unto the other side, while he sent the the above-quoted passages, the occasion is stated, multitude away. And when he had sent the mulas well as the reflection. 'They seem, therefore, titude away, he went up into a mountain apart the most proper for the purpose of our argument. to pray." A large, however, and curious collection has been Luke v. 15, 16. “But so much the more went made by different writers,* of instances, in which there a fame abroad of him, and great multitudes it is extremely probable that Christ spoke in allu- came together to hear, and to be healed by him of sion to some object, or some occasion, then before their infirmities : and he withdrew himself into him, though the mention of the occasion, or of the the wilderness, and prayed.” object, be omitted in the history. I only observe, With these quotations, compare the following that these instances are common to Saint John's from Saint John: Gospel with the other three.
Chap. v. 13. “And he that was healed wist not I conclude this article by remarking, that no who it was; for Jesus had conveyed himself away, thing of this manner is perceptible in the speeches a multitude being in that place." Tecorded in the Acts, or in any other but those Chap. vi. 15. "When Jesus therefore perceived which are attributed to Christ, and that, in truth, that they would come and take him by force to it was a very unlikely manner for a forger or fa- make him a king, he departed again into a mounoulist to attempt; and a manner very difficult for tain himself alone.” any writer to execute, if he had to supply all the In this last instance, Saint John gives the mo. materials, both the incidents and the observations tive of Christ's conduct, which is left unexplained upon them, out of his own head. A forger or a by the other evangelists, who have related the fabulist would have made for Christ, discourses conduct itself. exhorting to virtue and dissuading from vice in V. Another, and a more singular circumstance general terms. It would never have entered into in Christ's ministry, was the reserve, which, for the thoughts of either, to have crowdled together some time, and upon some occasions at least, he such a number of allusions to time, place, and used in declaring his own character, and his leavother little circumstances, as occur, for instance, ing it to be collected from his works rather than in the sermon on the mount, and which nothing his professions. Just reasons for this reserve have but the actual presence of the objects could have been assigned.* But it is not what one would suggested.”+
have expected. We meet with it in Saint Mat17. There appears to me to exist an affinity be- thew's Gospel: chap. xvi. 20. “ Then charged tween the history of Christ's placing a little child he his disciples, that they should tell no man that in the midst of his disciples, as related by the first he was Jesus the Christ.”. Again, and upon a three evangelists, and the history of Christ's different occasion, in Saint Mark's: chap. iii. 11. washing his disciples' feet, as given by Saint “And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell Johns In the stories themselves there is no re- down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the
Son of God: and he straightly charged them that Newton on Daniel, p. 148, note a. Jortin, Dis. p. they should not make him known.” Another in213. Bishop Law's Life of Christ. | See Bishop Law's Life of Christ.
stance similar to this last is recorded by Saint | Mati. xviii. 1. Mark ix. 33. Luke ix. 46 Chap xii. 3.
* Soe Locke's Reasonableness of Christianity.
Luke, chap. iv. 41. What we thus find in the witness of the evil; but if well, why smitest thou three evangelists, appears also in a passage of me?"* was such an answer, as might have been Saint John, chap. x. 24, 25. “Then came the looked for from the person, who, as he proceeded Jews round about hin, and said unto him, How to the place of execution, bid his companions, (as long dost thou make us to doubt ? If thou be the we are told by Saint Luke,)t weep not for him, Christ, tell us plainly." The occasion here was but for themselves, their posterity, and their coundifferent from any of the rest ; and it was indirect. try; and who, whilst he was suspended upon the We only discover Christ's conduct through the cross, prayed for his murderers," for they know upbraidings of his adversaries. But all this not," said he, “what they do." The urgency also strengthens the argument. I had rather at any of his judges and his prosecutors to extort from time surprise a coincidence in some oblique allu- him a detence to the accusation, and his unwillingsion, than read it in broad assertions.
ness to make any, (which was a peculiar circumVI. In our Lord's commerce with his disciples, stance,) appears in Saint John's account, as well one very observable particular is the difficulty as in that of the other evangelists.I which they found in understanding him, when he There are moreover two other correspondencies spoke to them of the future part of his history, between Saint John's history of the transaction especially of what related to his passion or resur- and theirs, of a kind somewhat different from rection. This difficulty produced, as was natural, those which we have been now mentioning. a wish in them to ask for farther explanation ; The first three evangelists record what is called from which, however, they appear to have been our Saviour's agony, i. e. his devotion in the garsometimes kept back, by the fear of giving offence. den immediately before he was apprehended, in All these circumstances are distinctly noticed by which narrative they all make him pray, "that Mark and Luke upon the occasion of his inform- the cup might pass from him.” This is the paring them, (probably for the first time,) that the ticular metaphor which they all ascribe to him. Son of man should be delivered into the hands of Saint Matthew adds, “O niy Father, if this cup men. "They understood not,” the evangelists tell may not pass away from me except I drink it, thy us, "this saying, and it was hid from them, that will be done."'S Now Saint John does not givethey perceived it not: and they feared to ask him the scene in the garden: but when Jesus was of that saying.” Luke ix. 45. Mark ix. 32. In St. seized, and some resistance was attempted to be John's Gospel we have, on a different occasion, made by Peter, Jesus, according to his account, and in a ditterent instance, the same difficulty of checked the attempt with this reply : “Put up thy apprehension, the same curiosity, and the same sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father restraint:--"A little while, and ye shall not see hath given me, shall I not drink it?"This is me: and again, a little while, and ye shall see me; something more than consistency; it is coincibecause I go to the Father. Then said some of dence : because it is extremely natural, that Jesus, his disciples among themselves, What is this that who, before he was apprehended, had been prayhe saith unto us? A little while, and ye shall not ing his Father, that "that cup might pass from see me: and again, A little while, and ye shall him," yet with such a pious retraction of his resee me: and, Because I go to the Father? They quest, as to have added, ““ If this cup may not pass said therefore, What is this that he saith, A little from me, thy will be done;" it was natural, I say, while ? we cannot tell what he saith. Now Jesus for the same person, when he actually was appreknew that they were desirous to ask him, and hended, to express the resignation to which he said unto them," &c. John xvi. 16, &c.
had already made up his thoughts, and to express VII. The meekness of Christ during his last it in the form of speech which he had before used, sufferings, which is conspicuous in the narratives “The cup which my Father hath given me, shall of the first three evangelists, is preserved in that I not drink it?" This is a coincidence between of Saint John under separate examples. The writers, in whose narratives there is no imitation, answer given by him, in Saint John," when the but great diversity. high priest asked him of his disciples and his doc A second similar correspondency is the followtrine; “I spake openly to the world; I ever taught ing: Matthew and Mark' make the charge upon in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the which our Lord was condemned, to be a threat of Jews always resort; and in secret have I said no- destroying the temple; “We heard him say, ! thing; why askest thou me? ask them which will destroy this temple made with hands, and heard me, what I have said unto them;" is very within three days I will build another made with much of a piece with his reply to the armed party out hands :"I but they neither of them inform us, which seized him, as we read in Saint Mark's upon what circumstances this calumny was foundGospel, and in Saint Luke's:t “Are you come ed. Saint John, in the early part of the history, ** out as against a thief, with swords and with staves supplies us with this information; for he relates, to take me? I was daily with you in the temple that, on our Lord's first journey to Jerusalem, teaching, and ye took me not." In both answers, when the Jews asked him, “What sign showest we discern the same tranquillity, the same refer- thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things ? ence to his public teaching His mild expostula- he answered, Destroy this temple, and in threo tion with Pilate, on two several occasions, as re- days I will raise it up." This agreement could lated by Saint John,t is delivered with the same hardly arise from any thing but the truth of the unruffled temper, as that which conducted him case. From any care or design in Saint John, to through the last scene of his life, as described by make his narrative tally with the narratives of his other evangelists. His answer in Saint John's other evangelists, it certainly did not arise, for no Gospel, to the officer who struck him with the such design appears, but the absence of it. palm of his hand, “If I have spoken evil, bear
* Chap. xviii. 3.
† Chap. xxiii. 28.
I See John xix. 9. Matt. xxvii. 14. Luke xxiii. 9. * Chap. xviii. 20, 21. † Mark xiv. 48. Luke xxii. 52. $ Chap. xxvi. 42.
Chap. xviii 11.
** Chap. ii. 19.
T Mark xiv. 58.
A strong and more general instance of agree-| by their nature, I should expect would, and both ment is the following :— The first three evange- which, throughout the experience which this very lists have related the appointment of the twelve subject furnishes, in fact have, followed the opiapostles, * and have given a catalogue of their nions that obtained at the time. names in form. John, without ever mentioning If it be said, that Jesus, having tried the other the appointment, or giving the catalogue, supposes plan, turned at length, to this; I answer, that the throughout his whole narrative, Christ to be ac- thing is said without evidence; against evidence; companied by a select party of his disciples; the that it was competent to the rest to have done number of those to be twelve it and whenever he the same, yet ihat nothing of this sort was happens to notice any one as of that number, # it thought of by any. is one included in the catalogue of the other evangelists: and the names principally occurring in the course of his history of Christ, are the names extant in their list. This last agreement, which
CHAPTER VI. is of considerable moment, runs through every Gospel, and through every chapter of each. ONE argument, which has been much relied All this bespeaks reality.
upon (but not more than its just weight deserves) is the conformity of the facts occasionally men, tioned or referred to in Scripture, with the state
of things in those times, as represented by foreign CHAPTER V.
and independent accounts; which conformity Originality of our Saviour's Character.
proves, that the writers of the New Testament
possessed a species of local knowledge, which The Jews, whether right or wrong, had under- could only belong to an inhabitant of that country, stood their prophecies to foretell the advent of and to one living in that age. This argument, if a person, who by some supernatural assistance well made out by examples, is very little short of should advance their nation to independence, and proving the absolute genuineness of the writings, to a supreme degree of splendour and prosperity. It carries them up to the age of the reputed This was the reigning opinion and expectation authors, to an age in which it must have been of the times.
difficult to impose upon the Christian public, Now, had Jesus been an enthusiast, it is proba- forgeries in the names of those authors, and in ble that his enthusiasm would have fallen in with which there is no evidence that any forgeries were the popular delusion, and that, whilst he gave attempted. It proves, at least, that the books, himself out to be the person intended by these whoever were the authors of them, were compredictions, he would have assumed the characte posed by persons living in the time and country in to which they were universally supposed to relate. which these things were transacted; and conse
Had he been an impostor, it was his business quently capable, by their situation, of being well to have flattered the prevailing hopes, because informed of the facts which they relate. And the these hopes were to be the instruments of his at- argument is stronger when applied to the New traction and success.
Testament, than it is in the case of almost any But, what is better than conjecture, is the fact, other writings, by reason of the mixed nature of that all the pretended Messiahs actually did so the allusions which this book contains. The We learn from Josephus, that there were many scene of action is not contined to a single country, of these. Some of them, it is probable, might be but displayed in the greatest cities of the Roman impostors, who thought that an advantage was to empire. Allusions are made to the manners and be taken of the state of public opinion. Others, principles of the Greeks, the Romans, and the perhaps, were enthusiasts, whose imagination had Jews. This variety renders a forgery proportionbeen drawn to this particular object, by the lan- ably more difficult, especially to writers of a posguage and sentiments which prevailed around terior age. A Greek or Roman Christian, who them. But, whether impostors or enthusiasts, lived in the second or third century, would have they concurred in producing themselves in the been wanting'in Jewish literature; a Jewish concharacter which their countrymen looked for, that vert in those ages would have been equally defiis to say, as the restorers and deliverers of the na- cient in the knowledge of Greece and Rome. * tion, in that sense in which restoration and deli. This, however, is an argument which depends verance were expected by the Jews.
entirely upon an induction of particulars; and as, Why therefore Jesus, if he was, like them, consequently, it carries with it little force, without either an enthusiast or impostor, did not pursue a view of the instances upon which it is built, ! the same conduct as they did, in framing his have to request the reader's attention to a detail character and pretensions, it will be found dif- of examples, distinctly and articulately proposed. ficult to explain. A mission, the operation and in collecting these examples, I have done no benefit of which was to take place in another life, more than epitomize the first volume of the first was a thing unthought of as the subject of these part of Dr. Lardner's Credibility of the Gospel prophecies. That Jesus, coming to them as their History. And I have brought the argument Messiah, should come under a character totally within its present compass, first by passing over different from that in which they expected him; some of his sections in which the accordancy apshould deviate from the general persuasion, and peared to me less certain, or upon subjects not deviate into pretensions absolutely singular and sufficiently appropriate or circumstantial; secondoriginal; appears to be inconsistent with the im- ly, by contracting every section into the fewest putation of enthusiasm or imposture, both which, words possible, contenting myself for the most
* Matt. x. 1. Mark iii, 14. Luke vi. 12. “Chap. vi. 0.
Chap. xx. 24; vi. 71.
* Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament (Marsh's Translation,) c. 2. sect. xi.
part with a mere apposition of passages; and, of Tiberius ;* and of Philip, that he died in the thirdly, by omitting many disquisitions, which twentieth year of Tiberius, when he had governthough learned and accurate, are not absolutely ed Trachonitis and Batanea and Gaulanitis thirty necessary to the understanding or verification of seven years." + the argument.
III. (p. 20.) Mark vi. 17. ^ "Herod had sent The writer principally made use of in the in- forth, and laid hold upon John, and bound him quiry, is Josephus. Josephus was born at Jeru- in prison, for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's salem four years after Christ's ascension. He wife; for he had married her." wrote his history of the Jewish war some time With this compare Joseph. Antiq. I. xviii. c. 6. after the destruction of Jerusalem, which happen- sect. 1.-—" He (Herod the tetrarch) made a visit ed in the year of our Lord Lxx, that is, thirty- to Herod his brother.-Here, falling in love with seven years after the ascension; and his history Herodias, the wife of the said Herod, he ventured of the Jews he finished in the year xciii, that is, to make her proposals of marriage. S sixty years after the ascension.
Again, Mark vi. 22. “And when the daughter At the head of each article, I have referred, by of the said Herodias came in and dancedfigures included in brackets, to the page of Dr. With this also compare Joseph. Antiq. I. xvii. Lardner's volume, where the section,
from which c. 6. sect. 4. “ Herodias was married to Herod, son the abridgment is made, begins. The edition of Herod the Great. They had a daughter, used, is that of 1741.
whose name was Salome; after whose birth, 1. (p: 14.) Matt. ii. 22. "When he (Joseph) Herodias, in utter violation of the laws of her heard that Archelaus did reign in Judea, in the country, left her husband, then living, and marroom of his father Herod, he was afraid to go ried Herod the tetrarch of Galilee, her husband's thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in brother by the father's side.” a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Gali IV. [p. 29.) Acts xii. 1. "Now, about that lee."
time, Herod the king stretched forth his hands to In this passage it is asserted, that Archelaus vex certain of the church.” In the conclusion of succeeded Herol in Judea; and it is implied, that the same chapter
, Herod's death is represented his power did not extend to Galilee. “Now we to have taken place soon after this persecution. learn from Josephus, that Herod the Great, whose The accuracy of our historian, or, rather, the dominion included all the land of Israel, appointed unmeditated coincidence, which truth of its own Archelaus his successor in Judea, and assigned accord produces, is in this instance remarkable. the rest of his dominions to other sons; and that There was no portion of time, for thirty years this disposition was ratified, as to the main parts before, nor ever afterward, in which there was a of it, by the Roman emperor. *
king at Jerusalem, a person exercising that auSaint Matthew says, that Archelaus reigned, thority in Judea, or to whom that title could be was king in Judea: Agreeably to this, we are applied, except the three last years of this Herod's informed by Josephus, not only that Herod ap- life, within which period the transaction recorded pointed Archelaus his successor in Judea, but in the Acts is stated to have taken place. This that he also appointed him with the title of King; prince was the grandson of Herod the Great. In and the Greek verb Broixouse, which the evangelist the Acts, he appears under his family-name of uses to denote the government and rank of Ar- Herod ; by Josephus he was called Agrippa. For chelaus, is used likewise by Josephus.
proof that he was a king, properly so called, The cruelty of Archelaus's character, which is we have the testimony of Josephus in full and not obscurely intimated by the evangelist, agrees direct terms :—“Sending for him to his palace, with divers particulars in his history, preserved Caligula put a crown upon his head, and appointby Josephus – "In the tenth year of his govern- ed him king of the tetrarchie of Philip, intending ment, the chief of the Jews and Samaritans, not also to give him the tetrarchie of Lysanias." being able to endure his cruelty and tyranny, pre- And that Judea was at last, but not until the last, sented complaints against him to Cæsar." I included in his dominions, appears by a subse
II. [p. 19.) Luke iii. 1. “In the fifteenth year quent passage of the same Josephus, wherein he of the reign of Tiberius Cæsar,—Herod being tells us, that Claudius, by a decree, confirmed to tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip, tetrarch Agrippa the dominion which Caligula had given of Iturea and of the region of Trachonitis,-the him; adding also Judea and Samaria, in the word of God came unto John."
utmost extent, as possessed by his grandfather By the will of Herod the Great, and the decree Herod. of Augustus thereupon, his two sons were appointed, one (Herod Antipas) tetrarch of Galilee
* Ant. lib. xviii. c. 8. sect 2. and Peræa, and the other (Philip) tetrarch of See also Matt. xiv. 1-13. Luke iii. 19. Trachonitis and the neighbouring countries. Il The affinity of the two accounts is unquestionable; We have therefore these two persons in the situa- but there is a difference in tbe name of Herodias's first tions in which Saint Luke places them; and also, husband, which in the evangelist, is Philip; in Jose. that they were in these situations in the fifteenth considerable
, when we recollect how common it was in year of Tiberius; in other words, that they con- those times for the same person to bear two names. tinued in possession of their territories and titles “Simon, which is called Peter : Lebbeus, whose sur. until that time, and afterward, appears from a
name is Thaddeus; Thomas, which is calleul Didymus;
Simeon, who was called Niger; Saul, who was also callpassage of Josephus, which relates of Herod, ed Paul" The solution is rendered likewise easier in Is that he was removed by Caligula, the successor the present case, by the consideration, that Herod the
Great had children by seven or eight wives; that Jose.
phus mentions three of his sons under the name of He* Ant. lib. xvii. c. 8. sect. 1.
rod : that it is nevertheless highly probable, that the t De Bell. lib. i. c. 33. sect. 7.
brothers bore some additional name, by which they were Ant. Jib. xvii. c. 13. sect 1.
distinguished from one another. Lardner, vol. ii p. 897. | Aut. lib. xvii. c. 8. sect. 1.
| Antiq. xviii. c. 7. sect. 10 T Ib. xix. c. 5. sect. I.
t Ibid. c. 5. sect. 6.