« السابقةمتابعة »
V. [p. 32.) Acts xii. 19_23." And he (Herod), pa being then but seventeen years of age, the went down from Judea to Cesarea, and there emperor was persuaded to alter his mind, and abode. —And on a set day, Herod, arrayed in appointed Cuspius Fadus prefect of Judea, and royal apparel, sat upon his throne, and made an the whole kingdom ;* which Fadus was succeeded oration unto them: and the people gave a shout, by Tiberius Alexander, Cumanus, Felix, Festus.t saying, It is the voice of a god, and not of a man; But that, though disappointed of his father's king and immediately the angel of the Lord smote dom, in which was included Judea, he was never him, because he gave not God the glory: and he theless rightly styled King Agrippa, and that h was eaten of worms, and gave up the ghost.” was in possession of considerable territories border
Joseph. Antiq. lib. xix. c. 8. sect. 2. "He ing upon Judea, we gather from the same authority; went to the city of Cesarea. Here he celebrated for, after several successive donations of country, shows in honour of Cæsar. On the second day" Claudius, at the same time that he sent Felix of the shows, early in the morning, he came into to be procurator of Judea, promoted Agrippa from the theatre, dressed in a robe of silver, of most Chalcis to a greater kingdom, giving to him the curious workmanship. The rays of the rising i tetrarchie which had been Philip's; and he added sun, reflected from such a splendid garb, gave him moreover the kingdom of Lysanias, and the proa majestic and awful appearance. They called vince that had belonged to Varus." I him a god; and entreated him to be propitious to Saint Paul addresses this person as a Jew: them, saying, Hitherto we have respected you as “King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets ? ! a man : but now we acknowledge you to be more know that thou believest.” As the son of Herod than mortal. The king neither reproved these Agrippa, who is described by Josephus to have persons, nor rejected the impious flattery.--Im- been a zealous Jew, it is reasonable to suppose mediately after this, he was seized with pains in that he maintained the same profession. But his bowels, extremely violent at the very first.-what is more material to remark, because it is He was carried therefore with all haste to his more close and circumstantial, is, that Saint Luke, palace. These pains continually tormenting him, speaking of the Father, (Acts xii. 1—3,) calls he expired in five days' time."
him Herod the king, and gives an example of the The reader will perceive the accordancy of exercise of his authority at Jerusalem: speaking these accounts in various particulars. The place of the son, (xxv. 13,) he calls him king, but not (Cesarea), the set day, the gorgeous dress, the of Judea ; which distinction agrees correctly with acclamations of the assembly, the peculiar turn the history. of the flattery, the reception of it, the sudden and VIII. (p: 51.) Acts xiii. 6. "And when they critical incursion of the disease, are circumstances had gone through the isle (Cyprus) to Paphos, noticed in both narratives. The worms, men- they found a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a tioned by Saint Luke, are not remarked by Jose- Jew, whose name was Barjesus, which was the phus: but the appearance of these is a symptom, deputy of the country, Sergius Paulus, a prudent not unusually, I believe, attending the diseases man.' which Josephus describes, viz. violent affections The word, which is here translated deputy, of the bowels.
signifies proconsul, and upon this word our ob VI. [p. 41.) Acts xxiv. 24. "And after certain servation is founded. The provinces of the Rodays, when Felix came with his wife Drusilla, man empire were of two kinds; those belonging which was a Jewess, he sent for Paul."
to the emperor, in which the governor was called Joseph. Antiq. lib. xx. c. 6. sect. 1, 2. " Agrip- proprætor; and those belonging to the senate, in pa gave his sister Drusilla in marriage to Azizus, which the governor was called proconsul. And king of the Emesenes, when he had consented to this was a regular distinction. "Now it appears be circumcised.—But this marriage of Drusilla from Dio Cassius, that the province of Cyprus, with Azizus was dissolved in a short time after in which in the original distribution was assigned this manner :- When Felix was procurator of to the emperor, had been transferred to the senate, Judea, having had a sight of her, he was mighti- in exchange for some others; and that, after this ly taken with her.-She was induced to transgress exchange, the appropriate title of the Roman gothe laws of her country, and marry Felix.” vernor was proconsul.
Here the public station of Felix, the name of Ib. xviii. 12. [p. 55.) “ And when Gallio was his wife, and the singular circumstance of her deputy (proconsul) of Achaia.” religion, all appear in perfect conformity with the The propriety of the title "proconsul,” is in evangelist.
this passage still more critical. For the province VII. [p. 46.) “And after certain days, king of Achaia, after passing from the senate to the Agrippa and Bernice came to Cesarea to salute emperor, had been restored again by the emperor Festus." By this passage we are in effect told, Claudius to the senate (and consequently its go that Agrippa was a king, but not of Judea ; for vernment had become proconsular) only six or he came to salute Festus, who at this time ad-seven years before the time in which this transacministered the government of that country at tion is said to have taken place.ll And what conCesarea.
tines with strictness the appellation to the time is, Now, how does the history of the age corres- that Achaia under the following reign ceased to pond with this account? The Agrippa here be a Roman province at all. spoken of, was the son of Herod Agrippa, men IX. (p. 152.) It appears, as well from the getioned in the last article : but that he did not suc- neral constitution of a Roman province, as from ceed to his father's kingdom, nor ever recovered what Josephus delivers concerning the state of Judea, which had been a part of it, we learn by the information of Josephus, who relates of him * Antiq. xix. c. 9. ad fin. that, when his father was dead, Claudius intend
| Ib xx. De Bell. lib. ii. ed, at first, to have put him immediately in possession of his father's dominions; but that Agrip
Suet. in Claud. c. 25. Dio. lib. Ixi.
De Bell. lib. ii. c. 12. ad fin
Judea in particular, that the power of life and I vince, appears expressly in the following passage death resided exclusively in the Roman governor; of Cicero's oration against Verres :-"Ulud nebut that the Jews, nevertheless, had magistrates gare posses, aut nunc negabis, te, concilio tuo diand a council, invested with a subordinate and misso, viris primariis, qui in consilio C. Sacerdotis municipal authority. This economy is discerned fuerant, tibique esse volebant, remotis, de re judiin every part of the Gospel narrative of our Sa- catâ judicàsse ?". viour's crucifixion.
XIV. (p. 235.) Acts xvi. 13. "And (at PhiX. [p. 203.] Acts ix. 31. "Then had the lippi) the sabbath we went out of the city by a churches rest throughout all Judea and Galilee river-side, where prayer was wont to be made," and Samaria."
or where a oportuna, oratory, or place of prayer This rest synchronizes with the attempt of was allowed. The particularity to be remarked, Caligula to place his statue in the temple of Jeru- is the situation of ihe place where prayer was salem; the threat of which outrage produced wont to be made, viz. by a rirer-side. amongst the Jews a consternation that, for a Philo, describing the conduct of the Jews of season, diverted their attention from every other Alexandria, on a certain public occasion, relates object.
of them, that “ early in the morning, flocking out XI. [p: 218.) Acts xxi. 30. “And they took of the gates of the city, they go to the neighbour Paul, and drew him out of the temple ; and forth- ing shores (for the apossuame were destroyed,) and, with the doors were shut. And as they went standing in a most pure place, they lift up their about to kill him, tidings came to the chief cap-voices with one accord.*** tain of the band, that all Jerusalem was in an up Josephus gives us a decree of the city of Hali
Then the chief captain came near, and carnassus, permitting the Jews to build oratories; took him, and commanded him to be bound with a part of which decree runs thus:-“We ordain two chains, and demanded, who he was, and that the Jews who are willing, men and women, what he had done; and some cried one thing, and do observe the sabbaths, and perform sacred rites some another, among the multitude: and, when according to the Jewish laws, and build oratories he could not know the certainty for the tumult, by the sea-side.”+ he commanded him to be carried into the castle. Tertullian, among other Jewish rites and cus And when he came upon the stairs, so it was, toms, such as feasts, sabbaths, fasts, and unleaventhat he was borne of the soldiers for the violence ed bread, mentions“ orationes litorales ;" that is, of the people.”
prayers by the river-side. In this quotation, we have the band of Roman XV. [p. 255.) Acts xxvi. 5. "After the most soldiers at Jerusalem, their office (to suppress tu: straitest sect of our religion, I lived a Pharisee." mults,) the castle, the stairs, both, as it should Joseph. de Bell. lib. i. c. 5. sect. 2. “The Phaseem, adjoining to the temple. Let us inquire risees were reckoned the most religious of any of whether we can find these particulars in any the Jews, and to be the most exact and skilful in other record of that age and place.
explaining the laws." Joseph. de Bell. lib. v. c. 5. sect. 8. “Antonia In the original, there is an agreement not only was situated at the angle of the western and north- in the sense, but in the expression, it being the ern porticoes of the outer temple. It was built same Greek adjective, which is rendered “ strait" upon a rock fifty cubits high, steep on all sides.- in the Acts, and "exact” in Josephus. On that side where it joined to the porticoes of XVI. [p. 255.) Mark vii. 3, 4. “ The Pharithe temple, there were stairs reaching to each sees and all the Jews, except they wash, eat not, portico, by which the guard descended; for there holding the tradition of the elders; and many was always lodged here a Roman legion, and other things there be which they have received to posting themselves in their armour in several hold." places in the porticoes, they kept a watch on the Joseph. Antiq. lib. xiii. c. 10. sect. 6. "The people on the feast days to prevent all disorders; Pharisees have delivered to the people many instifor as the temple was a guard to the city, so was tutions, as received from the fathers, which are Antonia to the temple."
not written in the law of Moses." XII. (p. 224.) Acts iv. 1. "And as they spake XVII. [p. 259.) Acts xxüi. 8. “For the Sad. unto the people, the priests, and the captain of. ducees say, that there is no resurrection, neither the temple, and the Sadducees, came upon them." angel, nor spirit : but the Pharisees confess both. Here we have a public officer, under the title of Joseph. de Bell. lib. i. c. 8. sect. 14. “ They captain of the temple, and he probably a Jew, as the Pharisees) believe every soul to be immortal, he accompanied the priests and Sadducees in ap- but that the soul of the good only passes into anprehending the apostles.
other body, and that the soul of the wicked is Joseph. de Bell. lib. ii. c. 17. sect. 2. “And at punished with eternal punishment." On the the temple
, Eleazar, the son of Ananias, the high- other hand, (Antiq. lib. xvii. c. 1. sect. 4,) " It priest, a young man of a bold and resolute dispo- is the opinion of the Sadducees, that souls perish sition, then captain, persuaded those who per- with the bodies.” formed the sacred ministrations not to receive the
XVIII. [p. 268.] Acts v. 17. “Then the highgift or sacrifice of any stranger."
priest rose up, and all they that were with him XIII. [p. 225.) Acts xxv. 12. “Then Festus, which is the sect of the Sadducees,) and were when he had conferred with the council, answer- filled with indignation.” Saint Luke here intied, Hast thou appealed unto Cæsar ? unto Cæsar mates, that the high-priest was a Sadducee; which shalt thou go." That it was usual for the Ro- is a character one would not have expected to man presidents to have a council, consisting of meet with in that station. The circumstance, retheir friends, and other chief Romans in the pro
Philo. in Flacc. p. 382. * Antiq. lib. XX. c. 8. sect. 5; c. 1. sect. 2.
† Joseph. Antiq. lib. xiv. c. 10. sect. 94. † Joseph, de Bell. lib. xi. c. 13. sect. 1, 3, 4.
| Tertul. ad Nat. lib. i. c. 13.
markable as it is, was not however without exam- | brethren, that he was the high-priest.” Now, upples.
on inquiry into the history of the age, it turns out, Joseph. Antiq. lib. xiii. c. 10. sect. 6, 7. “ John that Ananias, of whom this is spoken, was, in Hyrcanus, high-priest of the Jews, forsook the truth, not the high-priest, though he was sitting Pharisees upon a disgust, and joined himself to in judgment in that assumed capacity. The case the party of the Sadducees." This high-priest was, that he had formerly holden the office, and died one hundred and seven years before the Chris- had been deposed; that the person who succeeded tian era.
him had been murdered; that another was not yet Again, (Antiq. lib. xx. c. 8. sect. 1.) “This appointed to the station, and that, during the vaAnanus the younger, who, as we have said just cancy, he had, of his own authority, taken upon now, had received the high-priesthood, was fierce himself the discharge of the office. This singular and haughty in his behaviour, and, above all men, situation of the high-priesthood took place during bold and daring, and, moreover, wus of the sect of the interval between ihe death of Jonathan, who the Sadducees.” This high-priest lived little more was murdered by order of Felix, and the accession than twenty years after the transaction in the Acts. of Ishmael who was invested with the high-priest
XIX. (p. 282.) Luke ix. 51. “And it came to hood by Agrippa ; and precisely in this interval it pass, when the time was come that he should be happened that Saint Paul was apprehended, and received up, he steadfastly set his face to go to brought before the Jewish council. Jerusalem, and sent messengers before his face. XXIII. [p. 323.] Matt. xxvi. 59. “Now the And they went, and entered into a village of the chief priests and elders, and all the council, sought Samaritans, to make ready for him. And they false witness against him.” did not receive him, because his face was as though Joseph. Antiq. lib. xviii. c. 15. sect. 3, 4. “Then he would go to Jerusalem."
might be seen the high-priests themselres, with Joseph. Antiq. lib. xx. c.5. sect. 1. "It was the ashes on their heads, and their breasts naked.” custom of the Galileans, who went up to the holy The agreement here consists in speaking of the city at the feasts, to travel through the country of high-priests or chief priests (for the name in the Samaria. As they were in their journey, some original is the same) in the plural number, when, inhabitants of the village called Ginæa, which lies in strictness, there was only one high-priest: on the borders of Samaria and the great plain, which may be considered as a proof, that the falling upon them, killed a great many of them." evangelists were habituated to the manner of
XX. (p. 278.] John iv. 20. “Our fathers,” speaking then in use, because they retain it when said the Samaritan woman, “worshipped in this it is neither accurate nor just. For the sake of mountain ; and ye say, that Jerusalem is the brevity, I have put down, from Josephus, only a place where men ought to worship."
single example of the application of this title in Joseph. Antiq. lib. xviii. c. 5. sect. 1. “Com- the plural number ; but it is his usual style. manding them to meet him at mount Gerizim, Ib. (p. 871.) Luke iii. 1. “Now in the fifteenth which is by them (the Samaritans) esteemed the year of the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, Pontius Pimost sacred of all mountains."
late being governor of Judea, and Herod being XXI. [p. 312.] Matt. xxvi. 3. “Then assem- tetrarch of Galilee, Annas and Caiaphas being bled together the chief priests, and the elders of the high-priests, the word of God came unto the people, unto the palace of the high-priest, who John.” There is a passage in Josephus very rearwas called Caiaphas." That Caiaphas was high- ly parallel to this, and which may at least serve :o priest, and high-priest throughout the president- vindicate the evangelists from objection, with reship of Pontius Pilate, and consequently at this spect to his giving the title of high-priest specs time, appears from the following account:–He fically to two persons at the same time: “Quadiawas made high-priest by Valerius Gratus, prede- tus sent two others of the most powerful men of cessor of Pontius Pilate, and was removed from the Jews, as also the high-priests Jonathan an! his office by Vitellius, president of Syria, after Ananias."'+ That Annas was a person in an emaiPilate was sent away out of the province of Judea. nent station, and possessed an authority co-ordiJosephus relates the adrancement of Caiaphas to nate with, or next to that of the high-priest prothe high-priesthood in this manner: “Gratus gave perly so called, may be inferred from Saint John's the high-priesthood to Simon, the son of Camithus. Gospel, which, in the history of Christ's cruciHe, having enjoyed this honour not above a year, fixion, relates that “the soldiers led him away to was succeeded by Joseph, who is also called Čaia- | Annas first." And this might be noticeá a: an phas* After this, Gratus went away for Rome, example of undesigned coincidence in the two having been eleven years in Judea ; and Pontius evangelists. Pilate came thither as his successor." Of the re Again, (p. 870.] Acts iv. 6, Annas is called moral of Caiaphas from his office, Josephus, like the high-priest, though Caiaphas was in the offive wise, afterward informs us; and connects it with of the high-priesthood. In like manner, in Josea circumstance which fixes the time to a date sub- phus,s " Joseph, the son of Gorion, and the bighsequent to the determination of Pilate's govern. priest Ananus, were chosen to be supreme goment—"Vitellius," he tells us,"ordered Pilate to vernors of all things in the city.” Yet Ananus, * repair to Rome; and after that, went up him though here called the high-priest Ananus, was
self to Jerusalem, and then gave directions con not then in the office of the high-priesthood. The cerning several matters. And having done these truth is, there is an indeterminateness in the use things, he took away the priesthood from the of this title in the Gospel: sometimes it is applied high-priest Joseph, who is called Caiaphas.”+ exclusively to the person who held the ofhce at
XXII. (Michaelis, c. xi. sect. 11.) Acts xxiii. the time; sometimes to one or two more, who 4. “And they that stood by, said, Revilest thou probably shared with him some of the powers or God's high-priest? Then said Paul, I wist not,
* Antiq. I. xx. c. 5. sect. 2; c 9. rect. 2.
I sviii. 13 • Antiq. lib. xviii. c. 2. sect. 2. Ib. lxvii. c. 5. sect. 3
& Lib. ii. c. 20. sect. 3.
the Bell. lib. ix. c. 12. sect. 6.
functions of the office; and, sometimes, to such legs: "Eò pius, ut etiam vetus veterrimumque of the priests as were eminent by their station or supplicium, patibulum, et cruribus suffringendis, character;* and there is the very same indetermi- primus removerit.”-Aur. Vict. Ces. cap. xli. nateness in Josephus.
XXVIII. [p. 457.) Acts iii. 1. “Now Peter and XXIV. (p. 347.) John xix. 19, 20. “And Pi- John went up together into the temple, at the Jate wrote a title, and put it on the cross." That hour of prayer, being the ninth hour.” such was the custom of the Romans on these oc Joseph. Antiq. lib. xv. c. 7. sect. 8. "Twice casions, appears from passages of Suetonius and every day, in the morning and at the ninth hour, Dio Cassius: "Patrem familias—canibus objecit, the priests perform their duty at the altar." cum hoc titulo, Impiè locutus parmularius.” Suet. XXIX. [p. 462.) Acts xv. 21. “For Moses, of Domit. cap. x. And in Dio Cassius we have the old time, hath, in every city, them that preach following: "Having led him through the midst him, being read in the synagogues erery sabbathof the court or assembly, with a writing signify day." ing the cause of his death, and afterward crucify Joseph. contra Ap. I. ii. "He (Moses) gave us ing him."-Book liv.
the law, the most excellent of all institutions; nor Ib. "And it was written in Hebrew, Greek, did he appoint that it should be heard once only, and Latin.” That it was also usual about this or twice, or often, but that laying aside all other time, in Jerusalem, to set up advertisements in works, we should meet together every week to different languages, is gathered from the account hear it read, and gain a perfect understanding of which Josephus gives of an expostulatory message it.”. from Titus to the Jews, when the city was almost XXX. [p. 465.] Acts xxi. 23. “We have foar in his hands; in which he says, Did ye not erect men, which have a vow on them; them take, and pillars with inscriptions on them, in the Greek purify thyself with them, that they may share and in our language, “Let no one pass beyond their heads.". these bounds ?"
Joseph. de Bell. l. xi. c. 15. “It is customary XXV. (p. 352.) Matt. xxvi. 26. “When he for those who have been afflicted with some dishad scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be cru- temper, or have laboured under any other difficulcified,"
ties, to make a dou thirty days before they offer The following passages occur in Josephus: sacrifices, to abstain from wine, and share the "Being beaten, they were crucified opposite to hair of their heads." the citadel."'t
Ib. v. 24. “ Them take, and purify thyself with "Whom, having first scourged with whips, he them, and be at charges with them, ihat they may crucified."I
share their heads." "He was burnt alive, having been first beaten." Joseph. Antiq. l. xix. c. 6. "He (Herod Agrip.
To which may be added one from Livy, lib. xi. pa) coming to Jerusalem, offered up sacrifices of c. 5. “Productique omnes, virgisque cæsi, ac se- thanksgiving, and omitted nothing that was precuri percussi."
scribed by the law. For which reason he also orA modern example may illustrate the use we dered a good number of Nazarites to be shared." make of this instance. The preceding of a capi. We here find that it was an act of piety amongst tal execution by the corporal punishment of the the Jews, to defray for those who were under the sufferer, is a practice unknown in England, but Nazarite vow the expenses which attended its retained, in some instances at least, as appears by completion; and that the phrase was, “that they the late execution of a regicide, in Sweden. This might be shaved.” The custom and the expression circumstance, therefore, in the account of an Eng- are both remarkable, and both in close conformity lish execution, purporting to come from an Eng- with the Scripture account. lish writer, would not only bring a suspicion upon XXXI. [p. 474.12 Cor. xi. 24. “Of the Jews, the truth of the account, but would, in a consider-five times received I forty stripes, sate one." able degree, impeach its pretensions of having Joseph. Antiq. iv. c. 8. sect. 21. “He that acts been written by the author whose name it bore. contrary hereto, let him receive forty stripes, Whereas the same circumstance, in the account wanting one, from the public officer." of a Swedish execution, would verify the account, The coincidence here is singular, because the and support the authenticity of the book in which law allowed forty stripes :-"Forty stripes he may it was found; of, at least, would prove that the give him, and not exceed." Deut. xxv. 3. It author, whoever he was, possessed the information proves that the author of the Epistle to the Corinand the knowledge which he ought to possess. ihians was guided, not by books, but by facts;
XXVI. [p. 353.) John xix. 16. "And they because this statement agrees with the actual custook Jesus, and led him away; and he, bearing tom, even when that custom deviated from the his cross, went forth."
written law, and from what he must have learnt Plutarch, De iis qui serò puniuntur, p. 554: à by consulting the Jewish code, as set forth in the Paris, 1624. “Every kind of wickedness produces Old Testament. its own particular torment, just as every malefac XXXII. [p. 490.) Luke iii. 12. “Then came tor, when he is brought forth to execution, carries also publicans to be baptised.” From this quotahis own cross."
tion, as well as from the history of Levi or MatXXVII. John xix. 32. “Then came the sol-thew,(Luke v. 29,) and of Zaccheus, (Luke xix. diers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the 2) it appears, that the publicans or tax-gatherers other which was crucified with him."
were, frequently at least, if not always, Jews: Constantine abolished the punishment of the which, as the country was then under a Roman cross; in commending which edict, a heathen wri- government, and the taxes were paid to the Ro ter notices this very circumstance of breaking the mans, was a circumstance not to be expected,
That it was the truth however of the case, appears, * Mark xiv. 53. † P. 1247, edit. 24. Huds.
from a short passage of Josephus. I P. 1080, edit. 45. § P. 1327, edit. 43.
De Bell. lib. i. c. 14. sect. 45. “But, Florus not
restraining these practices by his authority, the XXXVII. [p. 539.] Acts xl. 27. 'And ir chief men of the Jews, among whom was John these days came prophets from Jerusalem unto the publican, not knowing well what course to Antioch; and there stood up one of them named take, wait upon Florus, and give him eight ta- Agabus, and signified by the spirit that there lents of silver to stop the building."
should be a great dearth throughout all the world XXXIII. (p. 496.) Acts xxii. 25. “And as (or all the country); which came to pass in the they bound him with thongs, Paul said unto the days of Claudius Cæsar." centurion that stood by, Is it lawful for you to Joseph. Antiq. I. xx. c. 4. sect. 2. “In their scourge i man that is a Roman, and uncon-time (i. e. about the fifth or sixth year of Claudemned ?"
dius) a great dearth happened in Judea.” "Facinus est vinciri civem Romanum; scelus XXXVIII. [p. 555.] Acts xviii. 1, 2. verberari.”-Cic. in Verr.
cause that Claudius had commanded all Jews to “ Cædebatur virgis, in medio foro Messanæ, ci-depart from Rome." vis Romanus, Judices : cùm intereà nullus gemi Suet. Claud.c. xxv. “Judæos, impulsore Chrestus, nulla vox alia, istius miseri inter dolorem to assiduè tumultuantes, Româ expulit." crepitumque plagarum audiebatur, nisi hæc, Civis XXXIX. [p. 661.) Acts v. 37. “ After this Romanus sum.
man, rose up Judas of Galilee, in the days of the XXXIV. [p. 513.) Acts xxii. 27. "Then the taxing, and drew away much people after him." chief captain came, and said unto him (Paul), Tell Joseph. de Bell. I. vii. “He (viz. the person me, art thou a Roman? He said, Yea."" The who in another place is called, by Josephus, Judas circumstance here to be noticed is, that a Jew was the Galilean, or Judas of Galilee) persuaded not a a Roman citizen.
few not to enroll themselves, when Cyrenius the Joseph. Aniiq. lib. xiv. c. 10. sect. 13. “Lucius censor was sent into Judea." Lentulus, the consul, declared, I have dismissed XL. (p. 942.) Acts xxi. 38. “Art not thor from the service the Jewish Roman citizens, who that Egyptian which, before these days, mades! observe the rights of the Jewish religion at Ephe- an uproar, and leddest out into the wilderness fous
thousand men that were murderers ?" Ib. ver. 28. “And the chief captain answered, Joseph. de Bell. I. ii. c. 13. sect. 5. “But the With a great sum obtained I this
freedom." Egyptian false prophet brought a yet heavier dis. Dio Cassius, lib. lx." This privilege, which aster upon the Jews; for this impostor, coming had been bought formerly at a great price, be- into the country, and gaining the reputation of a came so cheap, that it was commonly said, a man prophet, gathered together thirty thousand men, might be made a Roman citizen for a few pieces who were deceived by him. Having brought of broken glass."
them round out of the wilderness, up to the mount XXXV. (p. 521.) Acts xxviii. 16. “And of Olives, he intended from thence to make his when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered attack upon Jerusalem; but Felix, coming sudthe prisoners to the captain of the guard; but denly upon him with the Roman soldiers, prePaul was suffered to dwell by himself, with a sol. vented the attack."- A great number, or (as it dier that kept him.”
should rather be rendered) the greatest part, of With which join ver 20. “For the hope of Is- those that were with him, were either slain or rael, I am bound with this chain."
taken prisoners. “Quemadmodùm eadem catena et custodiam In these two passages, the designation of this et militem copulat; sic ista, quæ tam dissimilia impostor, an Egyptian,” without the proper sunt, pariter incedunt.”-Seneca, Ep. v.
namc; “the wilderness ;" his escape, though his “Proconsul æstimare solet, utrùm in carcerem followers were destroyed; the time of the transacrecipienda sit persona, an militi tradenda.”—Ul- tion, in the presidentship of Felix, which could pian. I. i. sect. De Custod. et Exhib. Reor. not be any long time before the words in Luke
In the confinement of Agrippa by the order of are supposed to have been spoken; are circumTiberius, Antonia managed, that the centurion stances of close correspondency. There is one, who presided over the guards, and the soldier to and only one, point of disagreement, and that is, whom Agrippa was to be bound, might be men of in the number of his followers, which in the Acts mild character. (Joseph. Antiq. lib. xviii. c. 7. are called four thousand, and by Josephus thirty sect. 5.). After the accession of Caligula, Agrip- thousand: but, beside that the names of numbers, pa also, like Paul, was suffered to dwell, yet as a more than any other words, are liable to the errors prisoner, in his own house.
of transcribers, we are, in the present instance, XXXVI. [p. 531.) Acts xxvii. 1. “And when under the less concern to reconcile the evangelist it was determined that we should sail into Italy, with Josephus, as Josephus is not, in this point, they delivered Paul, and certain other prisoners, consistent with himself. For whereas, in the pasunto one named Július." Since not only Paul sage here quoted, he calls the number thirty thou. but certain other prisoners were sent by the same sand, and tells us that the greatest part, or a great ship into Italy, the text must be considered as number (according as his words are rendered) of carrying with it an intimation, that the sending those that were with him, were destroyed; in his of persons from Judea to be tried at Rome, was Antiquities, he represents four hundred to have an ordinary practice. That in truth it was so, is i been killed upon this occasion, and two hundred made out by a variety of examples which the taken prisoners :* which certainly was not the writings of Josephus furnish; and, amongst others,“ greatest part," nor “a great part,” nor "& great by the following, which comes near both to the time number,” out of thirty thousand.' I: is probable and the subject of the instance in the Acts. “Fe- also, that Lysias and Josephus spoke of the expelix, for some slight offence, bound and sent to dition in its different stages : Lysias, of those who Rome several priests of his acquaintance, and very followed the Egyptian out of Jerusalem: Josephus, good and honest men, to answer for themselves to Cæsar.” – Joseph. in Vit. sect. 3.
* Lib. 20. a 7. sect. &