« السابقةمتابعة »
leis army in person in eight general engagements,* | fishermen, with a conqueror at the head of his and undertook, by himself or his lieutenants, army. We compare Jesus without force, without fifty military enterprises.
power, without support, without one external cirFrom this time we have nothing left to account cumstance of attraction or influence, prevailing for, but that Mahomet should collect an army, against the prejudices, the learning, the hierarchy, that his army should conquer, and that his religion of his country; against the ancient religious opishould proceed together with his conquests. The nions, the pompous religious rites, the philosophy, ordinary experience of human affairs, leaves us the wisdom, the authority of the Roman empire, little to wonder at, in any of these effects: and in the most polished and enlightened period of its they were likewise each assisted by peculiar faci- existence; with Mahomet making his way amongst lities. From all sides, the roving Arabs crowded Arabs; collecting followers in the midst of conround the standard of religion and plunder, of quests and triumphs, in the darkest ages and counfreedom and victory, of arms and rapine. Beside tries of the world, and when success in arms not the highly painted joys of a carnal paradise, Ma- only operated by that command of men's wills and homet rewarded his followers in this world with persons which attends prosperous undertakings, a liberal division of the spoils, and with the per- but was considered as a sure testimony of divine sons of their female captives. The condition of approbation. That multitudes, persuaded by this Arabia, occupied by small independent tribes, argument, should join the train of a victorious exposed it to the impression, and yielded to the chief; that still greater multitudes should, without progress, of a firm and resolute army: After the any argument, bow down before irresistible power; reduction of his native peninsula, the weakness is a conduct in which we cannot see much to suralso of the Roman provinces on the north and prise us; in which we can see nothing that rethe west, as well as the distracted state of the sembles the causes by which the establishment of Persian empire on the east, facilitated the suc- Christianity was effected. cessful invasion of neighbouring countries. That The success, therefore, of Mahometanism, Mahomet's conquests should carry his religion stands not in the way of this important conclusion; along with them, will excite little surprise, when that the propagation of Christianity, in the manwe know the conditions which he proposed to the ner and under the circumstances in which it was vanquished. Death or conversion was the only propagated, is a unique in the history of the spechoice offered to idolaters. "Strike off their cies. A Jewish peasant overthrew the religion of heads! strike off all the ends of their fingers !t the world. kill the idolaters wheresoever ye shall find I have, nevertheless, placed the prevalency of them !''S To the Jews and Christians was left the religion amongst the auxiliary arguments of "the somewhat milder alternative of subjection and its truth; because, whether it had prevailed or not, tribute, if they persisted in their own religion, or or whether its prevalency can or cannot be acof an equal participation in the rights and liberties, counted for, the direct argument remains still. It the honours and privileges, of the faithful, if they is still true that a great number of men upon the embraced the religion of their conquerors. “Ye spot, personally connected with the history and with Christian dogs, you know your option, the Koran, the author of the religion, were induced by what the tribute, or the sword.”ll "The corrupted they heard, and saw, and knew, not only to change state of Christianity in the seventh century, their former opinions, but to give up their time, and the contentions of its sects, unhappily so and sacrifice their ease, to traverse seas and kingfell in with men's care of their safety, or their doms without rest and without weariness, to comfortunes, as to induce many to forsake its pro- mit themselves to extreme dangers, to undertake 'fession. Add to all which, that Mahomet's incessant toils, to undergo grievous sufferings, and victories not only operated by the natural effect of all this, solely in consequence, and in support, of conquest, but that they were constantly repre- their belief of facts, which, if true, establish the sented, both to his friends and enemies, as divine truth of the religion, which, if false, they must declarations in his favour. Success was evidence. have known to be so. Prosperity carried with it, not only influence, but proof. “Ye have already (says he, after the battle of Bedr) had a miracle shown you, in two armies which attacked each other; one army
PART III. fought for God's true religion, but the other were infidels.'T Again; “ Ye slew not those who were slain at Bedr, but God slew them.-If ye desire a decision of the matter between us, now hath a decision come unto you."
Many more passages might be collected out of the Koran to the same effect. But they are unne
CHAPTER I. cessary. The success of Mahometanism during this, and indeed, every future period of its history, The Discrepancies between the several Gospels. bears so little resemblance to the early propagation of Christianity, that no inference whatever can I know not a more rash or unphilosophical conjustly be drawn from it to the prejudice of the duct of the understanding, than to reject the subChristian argument. For, what are we compar- stance of a story, by reason of some diversity in ing? A Galilean peasant accompanied by a few the circumstances with which it is related. The
usual character of human testimony is substantial • Mod. Univ. Hist. vol. i. p. 255.
truth under circumstantial variety. This is what Gibbon, vol. ix. p. 255. Sale's Koran, c. viii. p. 140.
the daily experience of courts of justice teaches.
$ Ib. c. ix. p. 149. TGibbon, vol. ix. p. 337. 1 Sale's Koran, c. iii. p. 36. When accounts of a transaction come from the ** Ib. viii. p. 141.
mouths of different witnesses, it is seldom that it
A BRIEF CONSIDERATION OF SOME POPULAR
is not possible to pick out apparent or real in- | respective credit of their histories. We have in consistencies between them. These inconsisten- our own times, if there were not something indecies are studiously displayed by an adverse corous in the comparison, the life of an eminent pleader, but oftentimes with litile impression person, written by three of his friends, in which upon the minds of the judges. On the contrary, there is very great variety in the incidents selected a close and minute agreement induces the suspi- by them; some apparent, and perhaps some real cion of confederacy and fraud. When written contradictions; yet without any impeachment of histories touch upon the same scenes of action, the the substantial truth of their accounts, of the aucomparison almost always affords ground for a thenticity of the books, of the competent informalike reflection. Numerous, and sometimes import- ation or general fidelity of the writers. ant, variations present themselves; not seldom But these discrepancies will be still more nualso, absolute and final contradictions; yet neither merous, when men do not write histories, but one nor the other, are deemed sufficient to shake memoirs ; which is perhaps the true name and the credibility of the main fact. The embassy of proper description of our Gospels: that is, when the Jews to deprecate the execution of Claudian's they do not undertake, or ever meant, to deliorder to place his statue in their temple, Philo ver, in order of time, a regular and complete acplaces in harvest, Josephus in seed-time ; both count of all the things of importance, which the contemporary writers. No reader is led by this person, who is the subject of their history, did or inconsistency to doubt, whether such an embassy said; but only, out of many similar ones, to give was sent, or whether such an order was given. such passages, or such actions and discourses, as Our own history supplies examples of the same offered themselves more immediately to their atkind. In the account of the Marquis of Argyle's tention, came in the way of their inquiries, ocdeath, in the reign of Charles the Second, we have curred to their recollection, or were suggested by a very remarkable contradiction. Lord Claren- their particular design at the time of writing. don relates that he was condemned to be hanged, This particular design may appear sometimes, which was performed the same day; on the con- but not always, nor often. Thus I think that the trary, Burnet, Woodrow, Heath, Échard, concur particular design which Saint Matthew had in in stating that he was beheaded ; and that he was view whilst he was writing the history of the recondemned upon the Saturday, and executed upon surrection, was to attest the faithful performance the Monday.* Was any reader of English his- of Christ's promise to his disciples to go before tory ever sceptic enough to raise from hence a them into Galilee; because he alone, except Mark, question, whether the Marquis of Argyle was who seems to have taken it from him, has recordexecuted or not? Yet this ought to be left in uned this promise, and he alone has contined his certainty, according to the principles upon which narrative to that single appearance to the disciples the Christian history has sometimes been attacked. which fulfilled it. It was the preconcerted, the Dr. Middleton contended, that the different hours great and most public manifestation of our Lord's of the day assigned to the crucifixion of Christ, person. It was the thing which dwelt upon Saint by John and by the other evangelists, did not ad. Matthew's mind, and he adapted his narrative to it. mit of the reconcilement which learned men had But, that there is nothing in Saint Matthew's lanproposed; and then concludes the discussion with guage, which negatives other appearances, or which this hard remark: “We must be forced, with seve- imports that this his appearance to his disciples in ral of the critics, to leave the difficulty just as we Galilee in pursuance of his promise, was his first found it, chargeable with all the consequences of or only appearance, is made pretty evident by manifest inconsistency.”+ But what are these con Saint Mark's Gospel, which uses the same terms sequences ? By no means the discrediting of the concerning the appearance in Galilee as Saint history as to the principal fact, by a repugnancy Matthew uses, yet itself records two other appear(even supposing that repugnancy be not resolva- ances prior to this: "Go your way, tell his discible into different modes of computation) in the ples and Peter, that he goeth before you into Ga time of the day in which it is said to have taken lilee: there shall ye see him as he said unto you.” place.
(xvi. 7.). We might be apt to infer from these A great deal of the discrepancy observable in words, that this was the first time they were to the Gospel, arises from omission; from a fact or see him: at least, we might infer it, with as much a passage of Christ's life being noticed by one reason as we draw the inference from the same writer, which is unnoticed by another. Now, words in Matthew: yet the historian himself did omission is at all times a very uncertain ground not perceive that he was leading his readers to of objection. We perceive it, not only in the com- any such conclusion; for in the twelfth and two parison of different writers, but even in the same following verses of this chapter, he informs us of writer when compared with himself. There are two appearances, which, by comparing the order a great many particulars, and some of them of im- of events, are shown to have been prior to the apportance, mentioned by Josephus in his Antiqui- pearance in Galilee. “He appeared in another ties, which, as we should have supposed, ought to form unto two of them, as they walked, and went have been put down by him in their place in the into the country: and they went and told it unto Jewish wars. Suetonius, Tacitus, Dio Cassius, the residue, neither believed they them: afterward have, all three, written of the reign of Tiberius. he appeared unto the eleven, as they sat at meat, Each has mentioned many things omitted by the and upbraided them with their unbelief, because rest, yet no objection is from thence taken to the they believed not them that had seen him after he
was risen." * See Biog. Britann.
Probably the same observation, concerning the † Middleton's Reflections answered by Benson. Hist. Christ. vol. ini. p. 50.
particular design which guided the historian. I Lardner, Cred. part i. vol. ii. p. 735, &c.
may be of use in comparing many other passages $ Ibid. p. 743.
of the Gospels.
possess enables us now to perceive. To those
who think that the Scriptures lead us to believe, Erroneous Opinions imputed to the Apostles. that the early Christians, and even the apostles,
expected the approach of the day of judgment in A SPECIES of candour which is shown towards their own times, the same reflection will occur, as every other book, is sometimes refused to the that which we have made with respect to the more Scriptures; and that is, the placing of a distinction partial, perhaps, and temporary, but still no less between judgment and testimony. We do not ancient error concerning the duration of St. John's usually question the credit of a writer, by reason life. It was an error, it may be likewise said, of an opinion he may have delivered upon subjects which would effectually hinder those who enterunconnected with his evidence: and even upon tained it from acting the part of impostors. subjects connected with his account, or mixed The difficulty which attends the subject of the with it in the same discourse or writing, we natu- present chapter, is contained in this question; If rally separate facts from opinions, testimony from we once admit the fallibility of the apostolic judg. observation, narrative from argument.
ment, where are we to stop, or in what can we To apply this equitable consideration to the rely upon it? To which question, as arguing with Christian records, much controversy and much unbelievers, and as arguing for the substantial objection has been raised concerning the quota truth of the Christian history, and for that alone, tions of the Old Testament found in the New; it is competent to the advocate of Christianity to some of which quotations, it is said, are applied in reply, Give me the apostles' testimony, and I do a sense, and to events, apparently different from not stand in need of their judgment; give me the that which they bear, and from those to which facts, and I have complete security for every conthey belong, in the original. It is probable to my clusion I want. apprehension, that many of those quotations were But although I think that it is competent to the intended by the writers of the New Testament as Christian apologist to return this answer; I do nothing more than accommodations. They quoted not think that it is the only answer which the ob passages of their Scripture, which suited, and fell jection is capable of receiving. The two following in with, the occasion before them, without always cautions, founded, I apprehend, in the most reaundertaking to assert, that the occasion was in sonable distinctions, will exclude all uncertainty the view of the author of the words. Such ac- upon this head which can be attended with dancommodations of passages from old authors, from ger. books especially which are in every one's hands, First, to separate what was the object of tho are common with writers of all countries; but apostolic mission, and declared by them to be so, in none, perhaps, were more to be expected from what was extraneous to it, or only incidentthan in the writings of the Jews, whose litera-ally connected with it. Of points clearly extrature was almost entirely confined to their Scrip-neous to the religion, nothing need be said. Of tores. Those prophecies which are alleged with points incidentally connected with it, something more solemnity, and which are accompanied may be added. Demoniacal possession is one of with a precise declaration, that they originally these points: concerning the reality of which, as respected the event then related, are, I think, truly this place will not admit the examination, or even alleged., But were it otherwise; is the judg- the production of the argument on either side of ment of the writers of the New Testament, in in the question, it would be arrogance in me to deliterpreting passages of the Old, or sometimes, per- ver any judgment. And it is unnecessary. For haps, in receiving established interpretations, so what I am concerned to observe is, that even they connected either with their veracity, or with their who think it was a general, but erroneous opinion, means of information concerning what was passing of those times; and that the writers of the New in their own times, as that a critical mistake, even Testament, in common with other Jewish writers were it clearly made out, should overthrow their of that age, fell into the manner of speaking and historical credit ?- Does it diminish it? Has it of thinking upon the subject, which then univerany thing to do with it?
sally prevailed, need not be alarmed by the conAnother error imputed to the first Christians, cession, as though they had any thing to fear from was the expected approach of the day of judgment. it, for the truth of Christianity. The doctrine I would introduce this objection by a remark upon was not what Christ brought into the world. It what appears to me a somewhat similar example. appears in the Christian records, incidentally and Our Saviour, speaking to Peter of John, said, accidentally, as being the subsisting opinion of the "If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to age and country in which his ministry was exerthee ?** These words, we find, had been so mis- cised. It was no part of the object of his revelaconstrued, as that a report from thence “ went tion, to regulate men's opinions concerning the ahroad among the brethren, that that disciple action of spiritual substances upon animal bodies. should not die." Suppose that this had come down At any rate it is unconnected with testimony. If to us amongst the prevailing opinions of the early a dumh person was by a word restored to the use Christians, and that the particular circumstance, of his speech, it signifies little to what cause the from which the mistake sprang, had been lost dumbness was ascribed; and the like of every (which, humanly speaking, was most likely to other cure wrought upon those who are said to have been the case,) some, at this day, would have have been possessed. The malady was real, the been ready to regard and quote the error, as an cure was real, whether the popular explication of impeachment of the whole Christian system. Yet the cause was well founded, or not. The matter with how little justice such a conclusion would of fact, the change, so far as it was an oluject of have been drawn, or rather such a presumption sense, or of testimony, was in either case the same. taken up, the information which we happen to Secon«lly, that, in reading the apostolic writ.
ings, we distinguish between their doctrines and * John xxi. 22.
their arguments. Their doctrines came to them
by revelation properly so called; yet in propound- | Christianity answerable with its life, for the ciring these doctrines in their writings or discourses, cumstantial truth of each separate passage of the they were wont to illustrate, support, and enforce Old Testament, the genuineness of every book, them, by such analogies, arguments, and consider the information, fidelity, and judgment of every ations, as their own thoughts suggested. Thus writer in it, is to bring, I will not say great, but the call of the Gentiles, that is, the admission of unnecessary difficulties, into the whole system, the Gentiles to the Christian profession without a These books were universally read and received previous subjection to the law of Moses, was im- by the Jews of our Saviour's time. He and his parted to the apostles by revelation, and was at- apostles, in common with all other Jews, referred tested by the miracles which attended the Chris- to them, alluded to them, used them. Yet, except tian ministry among them. The apostles' own where he expressly ascribes a divine authority io assurance of the matter rested upon this founda- particular predictions, I do not know that we can tion. Nevertheless, Saint Paul, when treating strictly draw any conclusion from the books beof the subject, offers a great variety of topics in its ing so used and applied, beside the proof, which proof and vindication. The doctrine itself must it unquestionably is, of their notoriety, and recepbe received: but it is not necessary, in order to tion at that time. In this view, our Scriptures defend Christianity, to defend the propriety of afford a valuable testimony to those of the Jews. every comparison, or the validity of every argu- But the nature of this testimony ought to be unment, which the apostle has brought into the dis- derstood. It is surely very different from what it cussion. The same observation applies to some is sometimes represented to be, a specific ratificaother instances; and is, in my opinion, very well tion of each particular fact and opinion; and not founded; “When divine writers argue upon any only of each particular fact, but of the motives aspoint, we are always bound to believe the conclu- signed for every action, together with the judgsions that their reasonings end in, as parts of di- ment of praise or dispraise bestowed upon them. vine revelation : but we are not bound to be able Saint James, in his Epistle,* says, “ Ye have to make out, or even to assent to, all the premises heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the made use of by them, in their whole extent, un- end of the Lord.” Notwithstanding this text, the less it appear plainly, that they affirm the pre- reality of Job's history, and even the existence of mises as expressly as they do the conclusions such a person, has been always deemed a fair proved by them."*
subject of inquiry and discussion amongst Chris
tian divines. Saint James's authority is consider" G
ed as good evidence of the existence of the book
of Job at that time, and of its reception by the CHAPTER III.
Jews; and of nothing more. Saint Paul, in his The Connexion of Christianity with the Jewish " Now, as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses,
second Epistle to Timothy,t has this similitude : History.
so do these also resist the truth.” These names UNDOUBTEDLY our Saviour assumes the divine are not found in the Old Testament. And it is origin of the Mosaic institution: and, independ- uncertain, whether Saint Paul took them from ently of his authority, I conceive it to be very dif- some apocryphal writing then extant, or from traficult to assign any other cause for the commence- dition. But no one ever imagined, that Saint Paul ment or existence of that institution; especially is here asserting the authority of the writing, if it for the singular circumstance of the Jews' ad- was a written account which he quoted, or making hering to the unity, when every other people slid himself answerable for the authenticity of the trainto polytheism; for their being men in religion, dition; much less, that he so involves himself with children in every thing else ; behind other nations either of these questions, as that the credit of his in the arts of peace and war, superior to the most own history and mission should depend upon the improved in their sentiments and doctrines re- fact, whether Jannes and Jambres withstood Mo lating to the Deity. Undoubtedly, also, our Sa- ses, or not. For what reason a more rigorous inviour recognizes the prophetic character of many terpretation should be put upon other references, of their ancient writers. So far, therefore, we it is difficult to know. I do not mean, that other are bound as Christians to go. But to make passages of the Jewish history stand upon no bet.
ter evidence than the history of Job, or of Jannes * Burnet's Expos. art. 6.
and Jambres, (I think much otherwise ;) but I " In the doctrine, for example, of the unity, the mean, that a reference in the New Testament, to eternity, the omnipotence, the omniscience, the omni: a passage in the Old, does not so fix its authority, presence, the wisdom, and the goodness of God; in as to exclude all inquiry into its credibility, or inpreservation, and governinent of the world." Campbell to the separate reasons upon which that credibilion Mir. p. 207. To which we may add, in the acts of ty is founded; and that it is an unwarrantable, as their religion not being accompanied either with cruel. well as unsafe rule to lay down concerning the ties or impurities : in the religion itself being free from Jewish history, what was never laid down con. the popular religions of the ancient world, and which is cerning any other, that either every particular of to be found perhaps in all religions that have their ori. it must be true, or the whole false. gin in human artifice and credulity, viz. fanciful con: I have thought it necessary to state this point exnexions between certain appearances and actions, and plicitly, because a fashion, revived by Voltaire, and ceits rested the whole train of aliguries and auspices, pursued by the disciples of his school, seems to have which formed so much even of the serious part of the much prevailed of late, of attacking Christianity religions of Greece and Rome, and of the charins and through the sides of Judaism. Some objections of incantations which were practised in those countries this class are founded in misconstruction, some in the religion of the Jews, and the Jewg alone, was free. exaggeration ; but all proceed upon a supposition, -Vide Priestley's Lectures on the Truth of the Jewish and Christian Revelation, 1794.
* Chap. v. 11
Chap. iii. &
which has not been made out by argument, viz. salem, Is not this he whom they seek to kill 3 that the attestation, which the Author and first But, lo, he speaketh boldly, and they say nothing teachers of Christianity gave to the divine mission to him: do the rulers know indeed that this is the of Moses and the prophets, extends to every point very Christ? Houbeit we know this man, whence and portion of the Jewish history: and so extends he is, but when Christ cometh, no man knoweth as to make Christianity responsible in its own ) whence he is. Then cried Jesus in the temple as credibility, for the circumstantial truth (I had al- he taught, saying, Ye both know me, and yo most said for the critical exactness) of every nar- know whence I am: and I am not cone of my. rative contained in the Old Testament.
self, but he that sent me is true, whom ye know
But I knov; him, for I am from him, and he hath sent me. Then they sought to take him:
but no man laid hands on him, because his hour CHAPTER IV,
was not yet come. And many of the people beRejection of Christianity.
lieved on him, and said, When Christ cometh,
will he do more miracles than those which this We acknowledge that the Christian religion, man hath done ?". although it converted great numbers, did not pro
is very observable. It exhibits duce a universal, or even a general conviction in the reasoning of different sorts of persons upon the minds of men, of the age and countries in the occasion of a miracle, which persons of all which it appeared. And this want of a more com- sorts are represented to have acknowledged as plete and extensive success, is called the rejection rea One sort of men thought, that there was of the Christian history and miracles; and has something very extraordinary in all this; but that been thought by some to form a strong objection still Jesus could not be the Christ, because there to the reality of the facts which the history con was a circumstance in his appearance which militains.
tated with an opinion concerning Christ, in which The matter of the objection divides itself into they had been brought up, and of the truth of two parts; as it relates to the Jews, and as it re- which, it is probable, they had never entertained lates to Heathen nations: because the minds of a particle of doubt, viz. that "When Christ these two descriptions of men may have been, cometh, no man knoweth whence he is.” Another with respect to Christianity, under the influence sort were inclined to believe him to the Mesof very different causes. The case of the Jews, siah. But even these did not argue as we should; inasmuch as our Saviour's ministry was original- did not consider the miracle as of itself decisive of ly addressed to them, offers itself first to our con- the question; as what, if once allowed, excluded sideration.
all farther debate upon the subject; but founded “Now, upon the subject of the truth of the their opinion upon a kind of comparative reasonChristian religion; with us, there is but one ques- ing, "When Christ cometh, will he do more tion, riz. whether the miracles were actually miracles than those which this man hath done ?" wrought? From acknowledging the miracles, Another passage in the same evangelist, and we pass instantaneously to the acknowledgment observable for the same purpose, is that in which of the whole. No doubt lies between the premises he relates the resurrection of Lazarus : "Jesus,” and the conclusion. If we believe the works, or he tells us (xi. 43, 44,)“when he had thus spoken, any one of them, we believe in Jesus. And this cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth: and order of reasoning is become so universal and fa- he that was dead came forth, bound hand and miliar, that we do not readily apprehend how it foot with grave-clothes, and his face was bound could ever have been otherwise. Yet it appears about with a napkin. Jesus said unto them, to me perfectly certain, that the state of thought, Loose him, and let him go.” One might have in the mind of a Jew of our Saviour's age, was suspected, that at least all those who stood by the totally different from this. After allowing the sepulchre, when Lazarus was raised, would have reality of the miracle, he had a great deal to do to believed in Jesus. Yet the evangelist does not so persuade himself that Jesus was the Messiah. represent it :-" Then many of the Jews which This is clearly intimated by various passages of came to Mary, and had seen the things which the Gospel history. It appears that, in the ap- Jesus did, believed on him; but some of theni prehension of the writers of the New Testament, went their ways to the Pharisees, and told theni the miracles did not irresistibly carry, even those what things Jesus had done." We cannot supwho saw them, to the conclusion intended to be pose that the evangelist meant by this account, to drawn from them; or so compel assent, as to leave leave his readers to imagine, that any of the specno room for suspense, for the exercise of candour, tators doubted about the truth of the miracle. Far or the effects of prejudice. And to this point, at from Unquestionably he states the miracle to least, the evangelists may be allowed to be good have been fully allowed : yet the persons who witnesses; because it is a point, in which exag- allowed it, were, according to his representation, geration or disguise would have been the other capable of retaining hostile sentiments towards way. Their accounts, if they could be suspected Jesus. “Believing in Jesus” was not only to beof falsehood, would rather have magnified, than lieve that he wrought miracles, but that he was diminished, the effects of the miracles.
the Messiah. With us there is no difference John vii. 21-31. “Jesus answered, and said between these two things: with them, there was unto them, I have done one work, and ye all mar- the greatest ; and the difference is apparent in vel.-If a man on the sabbath day receive circum- this transaction. If Saint John has represented cision, that the law of Moses should not be broken; the conduct of the Jews upon this occasion truly are ye angry at me, because I have made a man (and why he should not I cannot tell, for it rather every whit whole on the sabbath-day ? Judge makes against him than for him), it shows clearly not according to the appearance, but judge righte- the principles upon which their judgment proous judgment. Then said some of them of Jeru- ceeded. Whether he has related the matter truly