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Nor does it disturb our argument to confess, I to the teat of its dam; that birds build their nests, that crtain species of animals are in motion and brood with so much patience upon their eggs; during the night, and at rest in the day. With that insects which do not sit upon their eggs, derespect even to them, it is still true, that there is a posit them in those particular situations, in which change of condition in the animal, and an exter- the young, when hatched, find their appropriate nal change corresponding with it. There is still food; that it is instinct which carries the salmon, the relation, though inverted. The fact is, that and some other fish, out of the sea into rivers, for the repose of other animals sets these at liberty, the purpose of shedding their spawn in fresh and invites them to their food or their sport. water.
If the relation of sleep to night, and in some We may select out of this catalogue the incuinstances, its converse, be real, we cannot reflect bation of eggs. I entertain no doubt, but that a without amazement upon the extent to which it couple of sparrows hatched in an oven, and kept carries us. Day and night are things close to us; separate from the rest of their species, would prothe change applies immediately to our sensations; ceed as other sparrows do, in every office which of all the phenomena of nature, it is the most ob-related to the production and preservation of their vious and the most familiar to our experience: but, brood. Assuming this fact, the thing is inexpliin its cause, it belongs to the great motions which cable upon any other hypothesis than that of an are passing in the heavens. Whilst the earth instinct, impressed upon the constitution of the glides round her axle, she ministers to the alter- animal.' For, first, what should induce the female nate necessities of the animals dwelling upon her bird to prepare a nest before she lays her eggs? surface, at the same time that she obeys the influ- It is in vain to suppose her to be possessed of the ence of those attractions which regulate the order faculty of reasoning: for, no reasoning will reach of many thousand worlds. The relation, there the case. The fulness or distension which she fore, of sleep to night, is the relation of the inha- might feel in a particular part of her body, from bitants of the earth to the rotation of their globe; the growth and solidity of the egg within her, probably it is more; it is a relation to the system, could not possibly inform her, that she was about of which that globe is a part; and, still farther, to to produce something, which, when produced, was the congregation of systems, of which theirs is to be preserved and taken care of. Prior to expeonly one. If this account be true, it connects the rience, there was nothing to lead to this infer, meanest individual with the universe itself; a ence, or to this suspicion. The analogy was all chicken roosting upon its perch, with the spheres against it: for in every other instance, what issued revolving in the firmament.
from the body was cast out and rejected. VIII. But if any one object to our representa But, secondly, let us suppose the egg to be protion, that the succession of day and night, or the duced into day; how should birds know that their rotation of the earth upon which it depends, is eggs contain their young ?. There is nothing, not resolvable into central attraction, we will refer either in the aspect or in the internal composition him to that which certainly is, to the change of of an egg, which could lead even the most daring the seasons. Now the constitution of animals imagination to conjecture, that it was hereafter to susceptible of torpor, bears a relation to winter, turn out from under its shell, a living, perfect similar to that which sleep bears to night. Against bird. The form of the egg bears not the rudiments not only the cold, but the want of food, which the of a resemblance to that of the bird. Inspecting approach of winter induces, the Preserver of the its contents, we find still less reason, if possible, world has provided in many animals by migration, to look for the result which actually takes place. in many others by torpor. As one example out If we should go so far, as, from the appearance of of a thousand; the bat, if it did not sleep through order and distinction in the disposition of the liquid the winter, must have starved, as the moths and substances which we noticed in the egg, to guess flying insects upon which it feeds disappear. But that it might be designed for the abode and nutrithe transition from summer to winter carries us ment of an animal, which would be a very bold into the very midst of physical astronomy; that is hypothesis,) we should expect a tadpole dabbling
say, into the midst of those laws which govern in the slime, much rather than a dry, winged, the solar system at least, and probably all the feathered creature; a compound of parts and proheavenly bodies.
perties impossible to be used in a state of confinement in the egg, and bearing no conceivable relation, either in quality or material, to any thing
observed in it. From the white of an egg, would CHAPTER XVIII.
any one look for the feather of a goldtinch? or
expect from a simple uniform mucilage, the most Instincts.
complicated of all machines; the most diversified
of all collections of substances? Nor would the The order may not be very obvious, by which process of incubation, for some time at least, lead I place instincts next to relation. But I consider us to suspect the event. Who that saw red streaks, them as a species of relations. They contribute, shooting in the fine membrane which divides the along with the animal organization, to a joint ef- white from the yolk, would suppose that these fect, in which view they are related to that organ- were about to become bones and limbs? Who ization. In many cases, they refer from one ani- that espied two discoloured points first making mal to another animal; and, when this is the case, their appearance in the cicatrix, would have had become strictly relations in a second point of view the courage to predict, that these points were to
An INSTINCT is a propensity prior to experi- grow into the heart and head of a bird ? It is difence, and independent of instruction. We con- ficult to strip the mind of its experience. It is tend, that it is by instinct that the sexes of ani- difficult to resuscitate surprise, when familiarity mals seek each other ; that animals cherish their has once laid the sentiment asleep. But could offspring; that the young quadruped is directed I we forget all we know, and which our sparrows
never knew, about oviparous generation; could " the preparation of the nest before the laying of we divest ourselves of every information, but what the egg:' This she could not gain from observawe derived from reasoning upon the appearances tion in her infancy. or quality discovered in the objects presented to It is remarkable also, that the hen sits upon us; I am convinced thatHarlequin coming out of eggs which she has laid without any communicaan egg upon the stage, is not more astonishing to tion with the male ; and which are therefore no a child, than the hatching of a chicken both would cessarily unfruitful. That secret she is not let be, and ought to be, to a philosopher.
into. Yet if incubation had been a subject of But admit the sparrow by some means to know, instruction or of tradition, it should seem that this that within that egg was concealed the principle of distinction would have formed part of the lesson: a future bird: from what chymist was she to learn, whereas the instinct of nature is calculated for a that warmth was necessary to bring it to maturity, state of nature: the exception here alluded to, or that the degree of warmth, imparted by the taking place chiefly, if not solely, amongst domes temperature of her own body, was the degree re- ticated fowls, in which nature is forced out of her quired ?
To suppose, therefore, that the female bird acts There is another case of oviparous economy, in this process from a sagacity and reason of her which is still less likely to be the effect of educaown, is to suppose her to arrive at conclusions tion than it is even in birds, namely that of moths which there are no premises to justify. If our and butterflies, which deposit their eggs in the sparrow, sitting upon her eggs, expect young precise substance, that of a cabbage for example, sparrows to come out of them, she forms, I will from which, not the butterfly herself
, but the caterventure to say, a wild and extravagant expecta- pillar which is to issue from her egg, draws its tion, in opposition to present appearances, and to appropriate food. The butterfly cannot taste the probability. She must have penetrated into the cabbage. Cabbage is no food for her: yet in the order of nature, farther than any faculties of ours cabbage, not by chance, but studiously and elecwill carry us: and it hath been well observed, that tively, she lays her egys. There are, amongst this deep sagacity, if it be sagacity, subsists in many other kinds, the willow-caterpillar and the conjunction with great stupidity, even in relation cabbage-caterpillar: but we never find upon a wilto the same subject. "A chymical operation," low the caterpillar which eats the cabbage; nor says Addison, "could not be followed with greater the converse. This choice, as appears to me, art or diligence, than is seen in hatching a chicken: cannot in the butterfly proceed from instruction yet is the process carried on without the least glim- She had no teacher in her caterpillar state. She mering of thought or common sense. The hen never knew her parent. I do not see, therefore, will mistake a piece of chalk for an egg; is insen- how knowledge acquired by experience, if it ever sible of the increase or diminution of their number; were such, could be transmitted from one generadoes not distinguish between her own and those tion to another. There is no opportunity either of another species; is frightened when her sup- for instruction or imitation. The parent race is posititious breed of ducklings take the water.” gone, before the new brood is hatched. And if it
But it will be said, that what reason could not be original reasoning in the butterfly, it is prodo for the bird, observation, or instruction, or tra- found reasoning indeed. She must remember her dition, might. Now if it be true, that a couple of caterpillar state, its tastes and habits : of which sparrows, brought up from the first in a state of memory she shows no signs whatever. She must separation from all other birds, would build their conclude from analogy (for here her recollection nest, and brood upon their eggs, then there is an cannot serve her,) that the little round body which end to this solution. What can be the tradition-drops from her abdomen, will at a future period ary knowledge of a chicken hatched in an produce a living creature, not like herself, but like oven ?
the caterpillar which she remembers herself once Of young birds taken in their nests, a few spe- to have been. Under the influence of these recies breed, when kept in cages; and they wbích flections, she goes about to make provision for an do so, build their nests nearly in the same manner oriler of things, which she concludes will
, some as in the wild state, and sit upon their eggs. This time or other, take place. And it is to be observed, is sufficient to prove an instinct, without having that not a few out of many, but that all butterrecourse to experiments upon birds hatched by flies argue thus; all draw this conclusion; all act artificial heat, and deprived, from their birth, of upon it. all communication with their species: for we can But suppose the address, and the selection, and hardly bring ourselves to believe, that the parent the plan, which we perceive in the preparations bird informed her unfledged pupil of the history which many irrational animals make for their of her gestation, her timely preparation of a nest, young, to be traced to some probable origin; still her exclusion of the eggs, her long incubation, and there is left to be accounted for, that which is the of the joyful eruption at last of her expected off source and foundation of these phenomena, that spring, all which the bird in the cage must have which sets the whole at work, the oropyn, the palearnt in her infancy, if we resol her conduct rental affection, which I contend to be inexplicainto institution.
ble upon any other hypothesis than that of inUnless we will rather suppose, that she remem- stinct. bers her own escape from the egg; had attentively For we shall hardly, I imagine, in brutes, refer cbserved the conformation of the nest in which their conduct towards their ofispring to a sense of she was nurtured; and had treasured up her re- duty, or of decency, a care of reputation, a commarks for future imitation: which is not only ex- pliance with public manners, with public laws, or tremely improbable, (for who, that sees a brood of with rules of life built upon a long experience of callow birds in their nest, can believe that they are their utility. And all attempts to account for the taking a plan of their habitation ?) but leaves un- parental affection from association, I think, fail. accounted for, one principal part of the difficulty, I With what is it associated? Most immediately
with the throes of parturition, that is, with pain | flock.* I believe the same thing is true of all greand terror and disease. The more reinote, but garious quadrupeds. not less strong association, that which depends In this part of the case, the variety of resources, upon analogy, is all against it. Every thing else expedients, and materials, which animals of the which proceeds from the body, is cast away, and same species are said to have recourse to, under rejected. In birds, is it the egg which the hen different circumstances, and when differently sup loves ? or is it the expectation which she cherishes plied, makes nothing against the doctrine of inof a future progeny, that keeps her upon her nest ? stincts. The thing which we want to account What cause has she to expect delight from her for, is the propensity. The propensity being there, progeny? Can any rational answer be given to it is probable enough that it may put the animal the question, why, prior to experience, the brood- upon different actions, according to different exiing hen should look for pleasure from her chick- gencies. And this adaptation of resources may ens? It does not, I think, appear, that the cuckoo look like the effect of art and consideration, rather ever knows her young: yet, in her way, she is than of instinct : but still the propensity is inas careful in making provision for them, as any stinctive. For instance, suppose what is related other bird. She does not leave her egg in every of the woodpecker to be true, that in Europe she hole.
deposits her eggs in cavities, which she scoops out The salmon suffers no surmountable obstacle to in the trunks of soft or decayed trees, and in which oppose her progress up the stream of fresh rivers. cavities the eggs lie concealed from the eye, and And what does she do there? She sheds a spawn, in some sort safe from the hand of man: but that which she immediately quits, in order to return in the forests of Guinea and the Brazils, which to the sea : and this issue of her body, she never man seldom frequents, the same bird hangs her afterward recognises in any shape whatever. nest to the twigs of tall trees; thereby placing Where shall we find a motive for her efforts and them out of the reach of monkeys and snakes; her perseverance ? Shall we seek it in argument- i. e. that in each situation she prepares against ation, or in instinct? The violet crab of Jamaica the danger which she has most occasion to apperforms a fatiguing march of some months' con- prehend: suppose, I say, this to be true, and to tinuance, from the mountains to the sea side. be alleged, on the part of the bird that builds these When she reaches the coast, she casts her spawn nests, as evidence of a reasoning and distinguishinto the open sea; and sets out upon her return ing precaution ; still the question returns, whence home.
the propensity to build at all ? Moths and butterflies, as hath already been ob Nor does parental affection accompany generaserved, seek out for their eggs those precise situa- tion by any universal law of animal organizations and substances in which the offspring cater- tion, if such a thing were intelligible. Some anipillar will find its appropriate food. ' That dear mals cherish their progeny with the most ardent caterpillar, the parent butterfly must never see. fondness, and the most assiduous attention ; others There are no experiments to prove that she would entirely neglect them: and this distinction always retain any knowledge of it, if she did. How shall meets the constitution of the young animal, with we account for her conduct? I do not mean for respect to its wants and capacities. In many, the her art and judgment in selecting and securing a parental care extends to the young animal; in maintenance for her young, but for the impulse others, as in all oviparous fish, it is confined to upon which she acts. What should induce her the egg, and even, as to that, to the disposal of it to exert any art, or judgment, or choice, about in its proper element. Also, as there is generathe matter? The undisclosed grub, the animal tion without parental affection, so is there parental which she is destined not to know, can hardly be instinct, or what exactly resembles it, without the object of a particular affection, if we deny the generation. In the bee tribe, the grub is nurtured influence of instinct. There is nothing, therefore, neither by the father nor the mother, but by the left to her, but that of which her nature seems in- neutral bee. Probably the case is the same with capable, an abstract anxiety for the general preserv- ants. ation of the species; a kind of patriotism; a solici I am not ignorant of the theory which resolves tude lest the butterfly race should cease from the instinct into sensation ; which asserts, that what creation.
appears to have a view and relation to the future, Lastly; the principle of association will not ex- is the result only of the present disposition of the plain the discontinuance of the affection when the animal's body, and of pleasure or pain experienced young animal is grown up. Association, ope- at the time. Thus the incubation of eggs is acrating in its usual way, would rather produce a counted for by the pleasure which the bird is sup contrary effect. The object would become more posed to receive from the pressure of the smooth necessary, by habits of society: whereas birds convex surface of the shells against the abdomen, and beasts, after a certain time, banish their off- or by the relief which the mild temperature of spring; disown their acquaintance; seem to have the egg may afford to the heat of the lower part even no knowledge of the objects which so lately of the body, which is observed at this time to be engrossed the attention of their minds, and occu- increased beyond its usual state.
This present pied the industry and labour of their bodies. This gratification is the only motive with the hen for change, in different animals, takes place at differ- sitting upon her nest; the hatching of the chickent distances of time from the birth: but the time ens is, with respect to her, an accidental conse always corresponds with the ability of the young quence. The affection of viviparous animals for animal to maintain itself; never anticipates it. In their young is, in like manner, solved by the rethe sparrow tribe, when it is perceived that the lief, and perhaps the pleasure, which they receive young brood can fly, and shift for themselves, then from giving suck. The young animal's seeking, ihe parents forsake them for ever; and, though in so many instances, the teat of its dam, is exthey continue to live together, pay them no more attention than they do to other birds in the same * Goldsmith's Nat. His. vol. iv. p. 244.
plained from its sense of smell, which is attracted sparrow world, could have produced. But how by the odour of milk. The salmon's urging its do these consequences ensue? The sensations, and way up the stream of fresh water rivers, is attri- the constitution upon which they depend, are as buted to some gratification or refreshment, which, manifestly directed to the purpose which we see in this particular state of the fish's body, she re fulfilled by them; and the train of intermediate ceives from the change of element. Now of this effects, as manifestly laid and planned with a view theory, it may be said,
to that purpose: that is to say, design is as comFirst, that of the cases which require solution, pletely evinced by the phenomena, as it would there are few to which it can be applied with to- even if we suppose the operations to begin, or to Jerable probability; that there are none to which be carried on, from what some will allow to be it can be applied without strong objections, fur- alone properly called instincts, that is, from denished by the circumstances of the case. The sires directed to a future end, and having no acattention of the cow to its calf, and of the ewe to complishment or gratification distinct from the atits lamb, appear to be prior to their sucking. The tainment of that end. attraction of the calf or lamb to the teat of the In a word; I should say to the patrons of this dam, is not explained by simply referring it to the opinion, Be it so: be it, that those actions of anisense of smell. What made the scent of milk so mals which we refer to instinct, are not gone agreeable to the lamb, that it should follow it up about with any view to their consequences, but with its nose, or seek with its mouth the place that they are attended in the animal with a prefrom which it proceeded? No observation, no ex- sent gratification, and are pursued for the sake of perience, no argument, could teach the new drop- that gratification alone; what does all this prove, ped animal, that the substance from which the but that the prospection, which must be somescent issued was the material of its food. It had where, is not in the animal, but in the Creator ? never tasted milk before its birth. None of the In treating of the parental affection in brutes, animals which are not designed for that nourish- our business lies rather with the origin of the ment, ever offer to suck, or to seek out any such principle, than with the effects and expressions of food.' What is the conclusion, but that the su- it. Writers recount these with pleasure and adgescent parts of animals are fitted for their use, miration. The conduct of many kinds of animals and the knowledge of that use put into them? towards their young, has escaped no observer, no
We assert, secondly, that, even as to the cases historian of nature. "How will they caress in which the hypothesis has the fairest claim to them,” says Derham, “with their affectionate consideration, it does not at all lessen the force of notes ; lull and quiet them with their tender pathe argument for intention and design. The doc- rental voice; put food into their mouths; cherish trine of instinct is that of appetencies, superadded and keep them warm; teach them to pick, and eat, to the constitution of an animal, for the effectu- and gather food for themselves; and, in a word, ating of a purpose beneficial to the species. The perform the part of so many nurses, deputed by above stated solution would derive these appeten- the Sovereign Lord and Preserver of the world, cies from organization; but then this organization to help such young and shiftless creatures !'' is not less specifically, not less precisely, and, Neither ought it, under this head, to be forgotten, therefore, not less evidently, adapted to the same how much the instinct costs the animal which ends, than the appetencies themselves would be feels it; how much a bird, for example, gives up, upon the old hypothesis. In this way of consi- by sitting upon her nest; how repugnant it is to dering the subject, sensation supplies the place of her organization, her habits, and her pleasures. foresight: but this is the effect of contrivance on An animal, formed for liberty, submits to confinethe part of the Creator. Let it be allowed, for ment, in the very season when every thing invites example, that the hen is induced to brood upon her abroad: what is more; an animal delighting her eggs by the enjoyment or relief, which, in the in motion, made for motion, all whose motions are heated state of her abdomen, she experiences from so easy and so free, hardly a moment, at other the pressure of round smooth surfaces, or from times, at rest, is, for many hours of many days the application of a temperate warmth: How together, fixed to her nest, as close as if her limbs cornes this extraordinary heat or itching, or call it were tied down by pins and wires. For my part, what you will, which you suppose to be the cause I never see a bird in that situation, but I recog of the bird's inclination, to be felt, just at the time nise an invisible hand, detaining the contented when the inclination itself is wanted; when it prisoner from her fields and groves, for the purtallies so exactly with the internal constitution of pose, as the event proves, the inost worthy of the the egg, and with the help which that constitution sacrifice, the most important, the most beneficial. requires in order to bring it to maturity? In my But the loss of liberty is not the whole of what opinion, this solution, if it be accepted as to the the procreant bird suffers. Harvey tells us, that fact
, ought to increase, rather than otherwise, our he has often found the female wasted to skin and admiration of the contrivance. A gardener light-bone by sitting upon her eggs. ing up his stoves, just when he wants to force his One observation more, and I will dismiss the fruit, and when his trees require the heat, gives subject. The pairing of birds, and the nonnot a more certain evidence of design. So again; pairing of beasts, forms a distinction between the when a male and female sparrow come together, two classes, which shows, that the conjugal inthey do not meet to confer upon the expediency stinct is modified with a reference to utility of perpetuating their species. As an abstract founded on the condition of the offspring. In proposition, they care not the value of a barley- quadrupeds, the young animal draws its nutricorn, whether the species be perpetuated, or not : ment from the body of the dam. The male
they follow their sensations; and all those conse parent neither does nor can contribute any part •quences ensue, which the wisest counsels could io its sustentation. In the winged race, the young have dictated, which the most solicitous care of bird is supplied by an importation of food, to profuturity, which the most anxious concern for the cure and bring home which in a sufficient quan
tity for the demand of a numerous brood, requires them; or to expand again their folds, when wanted the industry of both parents. In this difference, we for action. see a reason for the vagrant instinct of the quadru In some insects, the elytra cover the whole body; ped, and for the faithful love of the feathered mate. in others, half; in others, only a small part of its
but in all, they completely hide and cover the trus wings. Also,
Many or most of the beetle species lodge in CHAPTER XIX.
holes in the earth, environed by hard, rough sub
stances, and have frequently to squeeze their way Of Insects.
through narrow passages; in which situation,
wings so tender, and so large, could scarcely bave We are not writing a system of natural histo- escaped injury, without both a firm covering to ry; therefore we have not attended to the classes, defend them, and the capacity of collecting them into which the subjects of that science are distri- selves up under its protection. buted. What we had to observe concerning dif II. Another contrivance, equally mechanical, ferent species of animals, fell easily, for the most and equally clear, is the awl, or borer, fixed at the part, within the divisions which the course of our tails of various species of flies; and with which argument led us to adopt. There remain, how they pierce, in some cases, plants; in others, ever, some remarks upon the insect tribe, which wood; in others, the skin and flesh of animals; could not properly be introduced under any of in others, the coat of the chrysalis of insects of a these heads; and which therefore we have col- different species from their own; and in others, lected into a chapter by themselves.
even lime, mortar, and stone. I need not add, The structure, and the use of the parts, of that having pierced the substance, they deposit insects, are less understood than that of quadru- their eggs in the hole. The descriptions which peds and birds, not only by reason of their mi- naturalists give of this organ, are such as the folnuteness, or the minuteness of their parts (for lowing: It is a sharp-pointed instrument, which, that minuteness we can, in some measure, follow in its inactive state, lies concealed in the extremi with glasses,) but also by reason of the remote- ty of the abdomen, and which the animal draws ness of their manners and modes of life from out at pleasure, for the purpose of making a puncthose of larger animals. For instance: insects, ture in the leaves, stem, or bark, of the particular under all their varieties of form, are endowed with plant which is suited to the nourishment of its antennæ, which is the name given to those long young. In a sheath, which divides and opens feelers that rise from each side of the head; but whenever the organ is used, there is enclosed a to what common use or want of the insect compact, solid, dendated stem, along which runs kind, a provision so universal is subservient, has a gutter or groove, by which groove, after the not yet been ascertained, and it has not been penetration is effected, the egg, assisted, in some ascertained, because it admits not of a clear, cases by a peristaltic motion, passes to its destined or very probable, comparison, with any organs lodgement. In the æstrum or gad-fly, the wimble which we possess ourselves, or with the organs draus out like the pieces of a spy-glass; the last of animals' which resemblé ourselves in their piece is armed with three hooks, and is able to functions and faculties, or with which we are bore through the hide of an ox. 'Can any thing better acquainted, than we are with insects. We more be necessary to display the mechanism, than want a ground of analogy. This difficulty stands to relate the fact ? in our way as to some particulars in the insect III. The stings of insects, though for a diffeconstitution, which we might wish to be acquaint- rent purpose, are, in their structure, not unlike ed with. Nevertheless, there are many contri- the piercer. The sharpness to which the point in vances in the bodies of insects, neither dubious in all of them is wrought; the temper and firmness their use, nor obscure in their structure, and most of the substance of which it is composed; the properly mechanical. These form parts of our strength of the muscles by which it is darted out, argument.
compared with the smallness and weakness of 1. The elytra, or scaly wings of the genus of the insect, and with the soft and friable texture of scarabæus or beetle, furnish an example of this the rest of the body, are properties of the sting to kind. The true wing of the animal' is a light, be noticed, and not a little to be admired. The transparent membrane, finer than the finest sting of a bee will pierce through a goat-skin glove. gauze, and not unlike it. It is also, when ex- It penetrates the human flesh more readily than panded, in proportion to the size of the animal, the finest point of a needle. The action of the very large. In order to protect this delicate struc- sting affords an example of the union of chymistry ture, and, perhaps, also to preserve it in a due and mechanism, such as, if it be not a proof of state of suppleness and humidity, a strong, hard contrivance, nothing is. First, as to the chycase is given to it, in the shape of the horny wing mistry; how highly concentrated must be the which we call the elytron. When the animal is venom, which, in so small a quantity, can produce at rest, the gauze wings lie folded up under this such powerful effects! And in the bee we may impenetrable shield. When the beetle prepares observe, that this venom is made from honey, the for flying, he raises the integument, and spreads only food of the insect, but the last material from out his thin membrane to the air. And it cannot which I should have expected that an exalted be observed without admiration what a tissue of poison could, by any process or digestion whatsocordage, i. e. of muscular tendons, must run in ever, have been prepared. In the next place, various and complicated, but determinate direc- with respect to the mechanism, the sting is not a tions, along this tine surface, in order to enable simple, but a compound instrument. The visible the animal
, either to gather it up into a certain sting, though drawn to a point exquisitely sharp, precise form, whenever it desires to place its wings is in strictness only a sheath; for, near to the under the shelter which nature hath given to extremity, may be perreived by the microscope