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two minute orifices, from which orifices, in the into moths and fies, is an astonishing process. A act of stinging, and, as it should seem, after the hairy caterpillar is transformed into a butterfly. point of the main sting has buried itself in the Observe the change. We have four beautiful flesh, are launched out two subtile rays, which wings, where there were none before; a tubular may be called the true or proper stings, as being proboscis, in the place of a mouth with jaws and those through which the poison is infused into teeth ; six long legs, instead of fourteen feet. In the puncture already made by the exterior sting another case, we see a white, smooth, soft worm, I have said that chymistry and mechanism are turned into a black, hard, crustaceous beetle, with here united: by which observation I meant, that gauze wings. These, as I said, are astonishing all this machinery would have been useless, telum processes, and must require, as it should seem, a imbelle, if a supply of poison, intense in quality, proportionably artificial apparatus. The hypoin proportion to the smallness of the drop, had thesis which appears to me most probable is, that, not been furnished to it by the chymical elaboration in the grub, there exist at the same time three which was carried on in the insect's body; and animals, one within another, all nourished by the that, on the other hand, the poison, the result of same digestion, and by a communicating circulathis process, could not have attained its effect, or tion; but in different stages of maturity. The reached its enemy, if, when it was collected at the latest discoveries made by naturalists, seem to faextremity of the abdomen, it had not found there vour this supposition. The insect already equipa machinery, fitted to conduct it to the external ped with wings, is described under the memsituations in which it was to operate, viz. an awl branes both of the worm and nymph. In some to bore a hole, and a syringe to inject the fluid. species, the proboscis, the antenna, the limbs, Yet these attributes, though combined in their and wings, of the fly, have been observed to be action, are independent in their origin. The folded up within the body of the caterpillar; and venom does not breed the sting; nor does the with such nicety as to occupy a small space only sting concoct the venom.
under the two first wings. This being so, the IV. The proboscis, with which many insects are outermost animal, which, besides its own proper endowed, comes next in order to be considered. It character, serves as an integument to the other is a tube attached to the head of the animal. In two, being the farthest advanced, dies, as we sup the bee, it is composed of two pieces, connected pose, and drops off first. The second, the pupa, by a joint; for, if it were constantly extended, it or chrysalis, then offers itself to observation. This would be too much exposed to accidental injuries; also, in its turn, dies; its dead and brittle husk therefore, in its indolent state, it is doubled up by falls to pieces, and makes way for the appearance means of the joint, and in that position lies se- of the fly or moth. Now, if this be the case, or cure under a scaly penthouse. In many species indeed whatever explication be adopted, we have of the butterfly, the proboscis, when not in use, is a prospective contrivance of the most curious kind: coiled up like a watch-spring. In the same bee, we have organizations three deep; yet a vascular the proboscis serves the office of the mouth, the system, which supplies nutrition, growth, and life, insect having no other: and how much better to all of them together. adapted it is, than a mouth would be, for the col VI. Almost all insects are oviparous. Nature lecting of the proper nourishment of the animal, keeps her butterflies, moths, and caterpillars, lockis sufficiently evident. The food of the bee is the ed up during the winter in their egg state; and nectar of flowers; a drop of syrup, lodged deep in we have to admire the various devices to which, if the bottom of the corollæ, in the recesses of the we may so speak, the same nature hath resorted, petals, or down the neck of a monopetalous glove. for the security of the egg. Many insects enclose Into these cells the bee thrusts its long narrow their eggs in a silken web; others cover therm pump, through the cavity of which it sucks up with a coat of hair, torn from their own bodies; This precious fluid, inaccessible to every other ap- some glue them together; and others, like the proach. It is observable also, that the plant is not moth of the silkworm, glue them to the leaves the worse for what the bee does to it. The harm- upon which they are deposited, that they may not less plunderer rifies the sweets, but leaves the be shaken off by the wind, or washed away by flower uninjured. The ringlets of which the rain : some again make incisions into leaves, and proboscis of the bee is composed, the muscles by hide an egg in each incision; whilst some envelop which it is extended and contracted, form so many their eggs with a soft substance, which forms the microscopical wonders. The agility also with first aliment of the young animal: and some again which it is moved, can hardly fail to excite admi- make a hole in the earth, and, having stored it ration. But it is enough for our purpose to observe, with a quantity of proper food, deposit their eggs in general, the suitableness of the structure to the in it. In all which we are to observe, that the exuse, of the means to the end, and especially the pedient depends, not so much upon the address of wisdom by which nature has departed from its the animal, as upon the physical resources of his most general analogy (for, animals being furnish- constitution. ed with mouths are such,) when the purpose The art also with which the young insect is could be better answered by the deviation. coiled up in the egg, presents, where it can be
In some insects, the proboscis, or tongue, or examined, a subject of great curiosity. The intrunk, is shut up in a sharp-pointed sheath: which sect, furnished with all the members which it sheath, being of a much firmer texture than the ought to have, is rolled up into a form which proboscis itself, as well as sharpened at the point, seems to contract it into the least possible space; pierces the substance which contains the food, by which contraction, notwithstanding the smalland then opens within the wound, to allow the ness of the egg, it has room enough in its apartenclosed tube, through which the juice is extract- ment, and to spare. This folding of the limbs ed, to perform its office. Can any mechanism be appears to me to indicate a special direction; for, plainer than this is; or surpass this?
if it were merely the effect of compression, the V. The metamorphosis of insects from grubs collpcation of the parts would be more various
than it is. In the same species, I believe, it is less degree of heat than what takes p.ace in a always the same.
hive. This may be reckoned a nicety: but indeThese observations belong to the whole insect pendently of any nicety in the matter, I would tribe, or to a great part of them. Other observ- ask, what could the bee do with the honey, if it ations are limited to a fewer species; but not, per- had not the wax ? how, at least, could it store it haps, less important or satisfactory.
up for winter? The wax, therefore, answers a 1. The organization in the abdomen of the silk-purpose with respect to the honey; and the honey worm, or spider, whereby these insects form constitutes that purpose with respect to the wax. their thread, is as incontestably mechanical as a | This is the relation between them. But the two wire-drawer's mill. In the body of the silkworm substances, though, together, of the greatest use, are two bags, remarkable for their form, position, and, without each other, of little, come from a dif and use. They wind round the intestine; when ferent origin. The bee finds the honey but makes drawn out, they are ten inches in length, though the wax. The honey is lodged in the nectaria of the animal itself be only two. Within these bags, flowers, and probably undergoes little alteration; is collected a glue; and communicating with the is merely collected: whereas the wax is a ductile, bags, are two paps or outlets, perforated, like a tenacious paste, made out of a dry powder, not grater, by a number of small holes. The glue or simply by kneading it with a liquid, but by a digum, being passed through these minute apertures, gestive process in the body of the bee. What acforms hairs of almost imperceptible fineness; and count can be rendered of facts so circumstanced, these hairs, when joined, compose the silk which but that the animal, being intended to feed upon we wind off from the cone, in which the silkworm honey, was, by a peculiar external configuration, has wrapped itself up: in the spider, the web is enabled to procure it? That, moreover, wanting formed from this thread. In both cases, the ex- the honey when it could not be procured at all, it tremity of the thread, by means of its adhesive was farther endued with the no less necessary faquality, is first attached by the animal to some culty of constructing repositories for its preserva external hold; and the end being now fastened to tion? Which faculty, it is evident, must depend, a point, the insect, by turning round its body, or primarily, upon the capacity of providing suitable by receding from that point, draws out the thread materials. Two distinct functions go to make up through the holes above described, by an opera- the ability. First, the power in the bee, with retion, as hath been observed, exactly similar to the spect to wax, of loading the farina of flowers upon drawing of a wire. The thread, like the wire, is its thighs. Microscopic observers speak of the formed by the hole through which it passes. In spoon-shaped appendages with which the thighs one respect there is a difference. The wire is the of bees are beset for this very purpose ; but, in as metal unaltered, except in figure. In the animal much as the art and will of the bee may be sup process, the nature of the substance is somewhat posed to be concerned in this operation, there is, changed, as well as the form; for, as it exists secondly, that which doth not rest in art or will, within the insect, it is a soft, clammy gum, or -a digestive faculty which converts the loose glue. The thread acquires, it is probable, its powder into a stiff substance. This is a just acfirmness and tenacity from the action of the air count of the honey, and the honey-comb; and upon its surface, in the moment of exposure; and this account, through every part, carries a creative a thread so fine is almost all surface. This intelligence along with it. property, however, of the paste, is part of the con The sting also of the bee has this relation to trivance.
the honey, that it is necessary for the protection The mechanism itself consists of the bags, or of a treasure which invites so many robbers. reservoirs, into which the glue is collected, and of III. Our business is with mechanism. In the the external holes communicating with these bags: panorpa tribe of insects, there is a forceps in the and the action of the machine is seen in the form- tail of the male insect, with which he catches and ing of a thread, as wire is formed, by forcing the holds the female. Are a pair of pincers more mematerial already prepared through holes of proper chanical than this provision in its structure ? or is dimensions. The secretion is an act too subtile any structure more clear and certain in its design? for our discernment, except as we perceive it by IV. St. Pierre tells us,* that in a fly with six the produce. But one thing answers to another; feet, (I do not remember that he describes the spethe secretory glands to the quality and consistence cies,) the pair next the head and the pair next the required in the secreted substance; the bag to its tail, have brushes at their extremities, with which reception: the outlets and orifices are constructed, the fly dresses, as there may be occasion, the annot merely for relieving the reservoirs of their terior or the posterior part of its body; but that burden, but for manufacturing the contents into the middle pair have no such brushes, the situaa form and texture, of great external use, or rather tion of these legs not admitting of the brushes, indeed of future necessity, to the life and func- if they were there, being converted to the same tions of the insect.
use. This is a very exact mechanical distinction. II. Bees, under one character or other, have V. If the reader, looking to our distributions of furnished every naturalist with a set of observa- science, wish to contemplate the chymistry, as tions. I shall
, in this place, confine myself to one; well as the mechanism, of nature, the insect creand that is the relation which obtains between ation will afford him an example. I refer to the the wax and the honey. No person, who has in light in the tail of a glow-worm. Two points spected a bee-hive, can forbear remarking how seem to be agreed upon by naturalists concerning commodiously the honey is bestowed in the comb; it; first, that it is phosphoric; secondly, that its and, amongst other advantages, how effectually use is to attract the male insect. The only thing the fermentation of the honey is prevented by dis- to be inquired after, is the singularity, if any such tributing it into small cells. The fact is, that when there be, in the natural history of this animal, the honey is separated from the comb, and put into jars, it runs into fermentation, with a much
• Vol. i. p 342
which should render a provision of this kind more is a gratifying spectacle, to see this insect wafted necessary for it, than for other insects. That sin- on her thread, sustained by a levity not her own, gularity seems to be the difference which subsists and traversing regions, which, if we examined between the male and the female; which differ- only the body of the animal, might seem to have ence is greater than what we find in any other been forbidden to its nature. species of animal whatever. The glow-worm is a female caterpillar; the male of which is a fly; lively, comparatively small, dissimilar to the fe I must now crave the reader's permission to male in appearance, probably also as distinguish- introduce into this place, for want of a better, an ed from her in habits, pursuits, and manners, as observation or two upon the tribe of animals, whehe is unlike in form and external constitution. ther belonging to land or water, which are covered Here then is the adversity of the case. The cater- by shells. pillar cannot meet her companion in the air. The I. The shells of snails are a wonderful, a mewinged rover disdains the ground. They might chanical, and, if one might so speak concerning never, therefore, be brought together, did not this the works of nature, an original contrivance. radiant torch direct the volatile mate to his seden- Other animals have their proper retreats, their tary female.
hybernacula also, or winter-quarters, but the snail In this example, we also see the resources of carries these about with him. He travels with art anticipated. One grand operation of chymis- his tent; and this tent, though, as was necessary, try is the making of phosphorus: and it was both light and thin, is completely impervious thought an ingenious device, to make phosphoric either to moisture or air. The young snail comes matches supply the place of lighted tapers. Now out of its egg with the shell upon its back ; and this very thing is done in the body of the glow- the gradual enlargement which the shell receives, worm. The phosphorus is not only made, but is derived from the slime excreted by the animal's kindled; and caused to emit a steady and genial skin. Now the aptness of this excretion to the beam, for the purpose which is here stated, and purpose, its property of hardening into a shell, which I believe to be the true one.
and the action, whatever it be, of the animal, VI. Nor is the last the only instance that en- whereby it avails itself of its gifts, and of the contomology affords, in which our discoveries, or ra- stitution of its glands, (to say nothing of the work ther our projects, turn out to be imitations of na- being commenced before the animal is born,) are ture. Some years ago, a plan was suggested, of things which can, with no probability, be referred producing propulsion by reaction in this way: by to any other cause than to express design; and the force of a steam-engine, a stream of water was that not on the part of the animal alone, in which to be shot out of the stern of a boat; the impulse design, though it might build the house, could of which stream upon the water in the river, was not have supplied the material. The will of the to push the boat itself forward; it is, in truth, the animal could not determine the quality of the exprinciple by which sky-rockets ascend in the air. cretion. Add to which, that the shell of a snail, or the use or practicability of the plan, I am not with its pillar and convolution, is a very artificial speaking; nor is it my concern to praise its inge- fabric; whilst a snail, as it should seem, is the nuity: but it is certainly a contrivance. Now, if most numb and unprovided of all artificers. In the naturalists are to be believed, it is exactly the de- midst of variety, there is likewise a regularity, vice which nature has made use of, for the motion which would hardly be expected. In the same of some species of aquatic insects. The larva of species of snail, the number of turns is usually, if the dragon-fly, according to Adams, swims by not always, the same. The sealing up of the ejecting water from its tail; is driven forward by mouth of the shell by the snail, is also well calcuthe reaction of water in the pool upon the current lated for its warmth and security; but the cerate issuing in a direction backward from its body. is not of the same substance with the shell.
VII. Again: Europe has lately been surprised II. Much of what has been observed of snails, by the elevation of bodies in the air by means of belongs to shell-fish, and their shells, particularly a balloon. The discovery consisted in finding out to those of the univalve kind; with the addition a manageable substance, which was, bulk for bulk, of two remarks: one of which is upon the great lighter than air; and the application of the disco strength and hardness of most of these shells. I do very was, to make a body composed of this sub- not know whether, the weight being given, art can stance bear up, along with its own weight, some produce so strong a case as are some of these heavier body which was attached to it. This ex- shells. Which defensive strength suits well with pedient, so new to us, proves to be no other than the life of an animal, that has often to sustain the what the Author of nature has employed in the dangers of a stormy element, and a rocky bottom, gossamer spider. We frequently see this spider's as well as the attacks of voracious fish. The thread floating in the air, and extended from other remark is, upon the property, in the animal hedge to hedge across a road or brook of four or excretion, not only of congealing, but of congealfive yards width. The animal which forins the ing, or, as a builder would call it, setting in water, thread, has no wings wherewith to fly from one and into a cretaceous substance, firm and hard. extremity to the other of this line; nor muscles to This property is much more extraordinary, and, enable it to spring or dart to so great a distance: chymically speaking, more specific, than that of yet its Creator hath laid for it a path in the atmo- hardening in the air, which may be reckoned a sphere; and after this manner. Though the ani- kind of exsiccation, like the drying of clay into mal itself be heavier than air, the thread which bricks. it spins from its bowels is specifically lighter. III. In the biralne order of shell-fish, cockles This is its balloon. The spider, left to itself, muscles, oysters, &c. what contrivance can be so would drop to the ground; but being tied to its simple or so clear, as the insertion, at the back, of thread, both are supported.' We have here a very a tough tendinous substance, that becomes at peculiar provision: and to a contemplative eye it once the ligament which binds the two shells
together, and the hinge upon which they open | or rather of the studiously diversified methods, by and shut ?
which one and the same purpose is attained. In IV. The shell of a lobster's tail, in its articula- the article of breathing, for example, which was tions and overlappings, represents the jointed to be provided for in some way or other, besides part of a coat of mail; or rather, which I believe the ordinary varieties of lungs, gills, and breathto be the truth, a coat of mail is an imitation of a ing holes (for insects in general respire, not by lobster's shell.' The same end is to be answered the mouth, but through holes in the sides,) the . by both; the same properties, therefore, are re- nymphæ of gnats have an apparatus to raise their quired in both, namely, hardness and flexibility, backs to the top of the water, and so take breath. a covering which may guard the part without The hydrocanthari do the like by thrusting their obstructing its motion. For this double purpose, tails out of the water. The maggot of the eruca the art of man, expressly exercised upon the sub- labra has a long tail, one part sheathed within ject, has not been able to devise any thing better another (but which it can draw out at pleasure,) than what nature presents to his observation. Is with a starry-tuft at the end, by which tuft, not this therefore mechanism, which the mechanic, when expanded upon the surface, the insect both having a similar purpose in view, adopts. Is supports itself in the water and draws in the air the structure of a coat of mail to be referred to which is necessary.
In the article of natural art? Is the same structure of the lobster, conclothing, we have the skins of animals invested ducing to the same use, to be referred to any thing with scales, hair, feathers, mucus, froth; or itless than art?
self turned into a shell or crust : in the no less Some, who may acknowledge the imitation, necessary article of offence and defence, we have and assent to the inference which we draw from teeth, talons, beaks, horns, stings, prickles, with it, in the instance before us, may be disposed, (the most singular expedient for the same purpose) possibly, to ask, why such imitations are not more the power of giving ihe electric shock, and, as is frequent than they are, if it be true, as we allege, credibly related of some animals, of driving away that the same principle of intelligence, design, their pursuers by an intolerable fætor, or of blackand mechanical contrivance was exerted in the ening the water through which they are pursued. formation of natural bodies, as we employ in the The consideration of these appearances might making of the various instruments by which our induce us to believe, that variety itself, distinct purposes are served? The answers to this ques- from every other reason, was a motive in the tion are, first, that it seldom happens, that pre- mind of the Creator, or with the agents of his cisely the same purpose, and no other, is pursued will. in any work which we compare, of nature and of To this great variety in organized life, the art; secondly, that it still more seldom happens, Deity has given, or perhaps there arises out of it, that we can imitate nature, if we would. Our a corresponding variety of animal appetites. For materials and our workmanship are equally defi- the final cause of this, we have not far to seek. cient. Springs and wires, and cork and leather, Did all animals covet the same element, retreat, produce a poor substitute for an arm or a hand or food, it is evident how much fewer could be In the example which we have selected, I mean supplied and accommodated, than what at prea lobster's shell compared with a coat of mail, sent live conveniently together, and find a plentithese difficulties stand less in the way, than in ful subsistence. What one nature rejects, another alınost any other that can be assigned: and the delights in. Food which is nauseous to one tribe consequence is, as we have seen, that art gladly of animals, becomes, by that very property which borrows from nature her contrivance, and imitates makes it nauseous, an alluring dainty to another it closely.
tribe. Carrion is a treat to dogs, ravens, vultures, fish. The exhalations of corrupted sub
stances, attract flies by crowds. Maggots revel But to return to insects. I think it is in this in putrefaction. class of animals above all others, especially when we take in the multitude of species which the microscope discovers, that we are struck with what Cicero has called “the insatiable variety of
CHAPTER XX, nature." There are said to be six thousand species of Aies; seven hundred and sixty butter
Of Plants, flies; each different from all the rest. (St. Pierre.) The same writer tells us, from his own observa I think a designed and studied mechanism to tion, that thirty-seven species of winged insects, be, in general, more evident in animals than in with distinctions well expressed, visited a single plants : and it is unnecessary to dwell upon a strawberry-plant in the course of three weeks.* weaker argument, where a stronger is at hand. Ray observed, within the compass of a mile or There are, however, a few observations upon two of his own house, two hundred kinds of but- the vegetable kingdom, which lie so directly in terflies, nocturnal and diurnal. He likewise, our way, that it would be improper to pass by asserts, but, I think, without any grounds of them without notice. exact computation, that the number of species of The one great intention of nature in the strucinsects, reckoning all sorts of them, may not be ture of plants seems to be the perfecting of the short of ten thousand. And in this vast variety seed ; and, what is part of the same intention, of animal forms (for the observation is not con- the preserving of it until it be perfected. This fined to insects, though more applicable perhaps intention shows itself, in the first place, by the to them than to any other class,) we are some care which appears to be taken, to protect and times led to take notice of the different methods, ripen, by every advantage which can be given to
• Vol. i. p. 3.
| Wisd. of God, p. 23.
* Dorbam, p. 7.
"them of situation in the plant, those parts which therefore to be gotten over. Now what we are to most immediately contribute to fructification, viz. remark is, how nature has prepared for the trials the antheræ, the stamina, and the stigmata. and severities of that season. These tender emThese parts are usually lodged in the centre, the bryos are, in the first place, wrapped up with a recesses, or the labyrinths of the flower; during compactness, which no art can imitate: in which their tender and immature state, are shut up state, they compose what we call the bud. This in the stalk, or sheltered in the bud: as soon as is not all. The bud itself is enclosed in scales; they have acquired firmness of texture sufficient which scales are formed from the remains of past to bear exposure, and are ready to perform the leaves, and the rudiments of future ones. Neiimportant office which is assigned to them, they ther is this the whole. In the coldest climates, a are disclosed to the light and air, by the bursting third preservative is added, by the bud having a of the stem, or the expansion of the petals; after coat of gum or resin, which, being congealed, rewhich they have, in many cases, by the very form sists the strongest frosts. "On the approach of of the flower during its blow, the light and warmth warm weather, this gum is softened, and ceases reflected upon them from the concave side of the to be a hindrance to the expansion of the leaves cup. What is called also the sleep of plants, is and flowers. All this care is part of that system the leaves or petals disposing themselves in such of provisions which has for its object and consuma manner as to shelter the young stems, buds, or mation, the production and perfecting of the seeds. fruit. They turn up, or they fall down, accord The seeds themselves are packed up in a caping as this purpose renders either change of posi sule, a vessel composed of coats, which, compared tion requisite. In the growth of corn, whenever with the rest of the flower, are strong and tough. the plant begins to shoot, the two upper leaves of From this vessel projects a tube, through which the stalk join together, embrace the ear, and pro- tube the farina, or some subtile fecundating efflutect it till the pulp has acquired a certain degree vium that issues from it, is admitted to the seed. of consistency. In some water-plants, the flower- And here also occurs á mechanical variety, acing and fecundation are carried on within the commodated to the different circumstances under stem, which afterward opens to let loose the im- which the same purpose is to be accomplished. pregnated seed.* The pea or papilionaceous In flowers which are erect, the pistil is shorter tribe, enclose the parts of fructification within a than the stamina; and the pollen, shed from the beautiful folding of the internal blossom, some- antheræ into the cup of the flower, is caught in times called, from its shape, the boat or keel; its descent, by the head of the pistil
, called the itself also protected under a penthouse formed by stigma. But how is this managed when the the external petals. This structure is very arti- flowers hang down (as does the crown-imperial
, ficial; and, what adds to the value of it, though for instance,) and in which position, the farina in it may diminish the curiosity, very general. It its fall, would be carried from the stigma, and not has also this farther advantage (and it is an ad- towards it? The relative length of the parts is vantage strictly mechanical,) that all the blossoms now inverted. The pistil in these flowers is usuturn their backs to the wind, whenever the gale ally longer, instead of shorter, than the stamina, blows strong enough to endanger the delicate that its protruding summit may receive the pollen parts upon which the seed depends. I have as it drops to the ground. In some cases, (as in observed this a hundred times in a field of peas the nigella,) where the shafts of the pistils or in blossom. It is an aptitude which results from stiles are disproportionably long, they bend down the figure of the flower, and, as we have said, is their extremities upon the antheræ, that the nestrictly mechanical; as much so, as the turning cessary approximation may be effected. of a weather-board or tin cap upon the top of a But (to pursue this great work in its progress) chimney. Of the poppy, and of many similar the impregnation, to which all this machinery réspecies of flowers, the head, while it is growing, lates, being completed, the other parts of the flower hangs down, a rigid curvature in the upper part fade and drop off whilst the gravid seed-ressel, on of the stem giving to it that position; and in that the contrary, proceeds to increase its bulk, always position it is impenetrable by rain or moisture. to a great, and in some species (in the gourd, for When the head has acquired its size, and is ready example, and melon,) to a surprising comparative to open, the stalk erects itself, for the purpose, as size; assuming in different plants an incalculable it should seem, of presenting the flower, and with variety of forms, but all evidently conducing to the flower, the instruments of fructification, to the security of the seed. By virtue of this process, the genial influence of the sun's rays. This so necessary, but so diversified, we have the seed, always struck me as a curious property; and at length, in stone-fruits and nuts, incased in a specifically, as well as originally, provided for in strong shell, the shell itself enclosed in a pulp or the constitution of the plant : for, if the stem be husk, by which the seed within is, or hath been, only bent by the weight of the head, how comes fed; or, more generally, (as in grapes, oranges, it to straighten itself when the head is the heavi- and the numerous kinds of berries,) plunged overest? These instances show the attention of head in a glutinous syrup, contained within a nature to this principal object, the safety and skin or bladder: at other times (as in apples and maturation of the parts upon which the seed pears) imbedded in the heart of a firm fleshy subdepends.
stance; or (as in strawberries) pricked into the In trees, especially in those which are natives surface of a soft pulp. of colder climates, this point is taken up earlier. These and many more varieties exist in what Many of these trees (observe in particular the ash we call fruits.* In pulse, and grain, and grasses; and the horse-chesnut) produce the embryos of the leaves and flowers in one year, and bring them to * From the conformation of fruits alone, one might perfection the following. There is a winter be led, even without experience, to suppose, that part
of this provision was destined for the utilities of ani.
mals. As limited to the plant, the provision itself • Philos. Transact. art ii. 1796, p. 502. seems to go beyond its object. The flesh of an apple,