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first of these suppositions, if the duration of the Deity, it is true, is the object of none of our world had been long enough to allow of it, all its senses: but reflect what limited capacities animal parts, all the great bodies of which it is composed, senses are. Many animals seem to have but one must have been gathered together in a heap round sense, or perhaps two at the most; touch and this point. No changes however which have taste. Ought such an animal to conclude against been observed, afford us the smallest reason for the existence of odours, sounds, and colours? To believing, that either the one supposition or the another species is given the sense of smelling. other is true; and then it will follow, that attrac- This is an advance in the knowledge of the pow. tion itself is controlled or suspended by a superior ers and properties of nature : but, if this favoureu agent; that there is a power above the highest of animal should infer from its superiority over the the powers of material nature; a will which re- class last described, that it perceived every thing strains and circumscribes the operations of the which was perceptible in nature, it is known to us, most extensive.*
though perhaps not suspected by the animal itself, that it proceeded upon a false and presumptuous estimate of its faculties. To another is added the
sense of hearing; which lets in a class of sensaCHAPTER XXIII.
tions entirely unconceived by the animal before Of the Personality of the Deity.
spoken of; not only distinct, but remote from any
which it had ever experienced, and greatly supoContrivance, if established, appears to me rior to them. Yet this last animal has no more to prove every thing which we wish to prove. ground for believing, that its senses comprehend all Amongst other things, it proves the personality of things, and all properties of things which exist, than the Deity, as distinguished from what is sometimes might have been claimed by the tribes of animals becalled nature, sometimes called a principle: which neath it; for we know, that it is still possible to posterms, in the mouths of those who use them philoso-sess another sense, that of sight, which shall disclose phically, seem to be intended, to admit and to express to the percipient a new world. This fifth sense an efficacy, but to exclude and to deny a personal makes the animal what the human animal is ; but agent. Now that which can contrive, which can to infer, that possibility stops here; that either this design, must be a person. These capacities con- fifth sense is the last sense, or that the five comstitute personality, for they imply consciousness prehend all existence; is just as unwarrantable a and thought. They require that which can per- conclusion, as that which might have been made ceive an end or purpose; as well as the power of by any of the different species which possessed providing means, and of directing them to their end.t fewer, or even by that, if such there be, which They require a centre in which perceptions unite, possessed only one. The conclusion of the oneand from which volitions flow, which is mind! sense animal, and the conclusion of the five-sense The acts of a mind prove the existence of a mind; animal, stand upon the same authority. There and in whatever a mind resides, is a person. The may be more and other senses than those which seat of intellect is a person. We have no autho we have. There may be senses suited to the perrity to limit the properties of mind to any corpo- ception of the powers, properties, and substance, real form, or to any particular circumscription of of spirits. These may belong to higher orders of space. These properties subsist, in created na- rational agents; for there is not the smallest reature, under a great variety of sensible forms. son for supposing that we are the highest, or that Also every animated being has its sensorium; the scale of creation stops with us. that is, a certain portion of space, within which The great energies of nature are known to us perception and volition are exerted. This sphere only by their effects. The substances which pro may be enlarged to an indefinite extent; may duce them, are as much concealed from our sense comprehend the universe; and, being so imagined, as the divine essence itself. Gravitation, though may serve to furnish us with as good a notion, as constantly present, though constantly exerting its we are capable of forming, of the immensity of influence, though every where around us, near us, the Divine Nature, i. e. of a Being, infinite, as and within us; though diffused throughout ali well in essence as in power; yet nevertheless a space, and penetrating the texture of all bodies person.
with which we are acquainted, depends, if upon "No man hath seen God at any time.” And a fluid, upon a fluid which, though both powerful this, I believe, makes the great difficulty. Now and universal in its operation, is no object of sense it is a difficulty which chiefly arises from our not to us; if upon any other kind of substance or acduly estimating the state of our faculties. The tion, upon a substance and action, from which we
receive no distinguishable impressions. Is it then • It must here however be stated, that many astrono.
to be wondered at, that it should, in some meamers deny that any of the heavenly bodies are absolute. sure, be the same with the Divine nature ? ly stationary. Some of the brightest of the fixed stars Of this however we are certain, that whatever have certainly small motions, and of the rest the dis. the Deity be, neither the universe, nor any part of tance is too great, and the intervals of our observation it which we see, can be He. The universe itself too short, to enable us to pronounce with certainty that they may not have the saine. The motions in the fixed is merely a collective name: its parts are all which stars which have been observed, are considered either are real; or which are things. Now inert matas proper to each of them, or as compounded of the mo. ter is out of the question: and organized subtion of our system, and of motions proper to each star. By a comparison of these motions, a motion in our
stances include marks of contrivance. But whatsystem is supposed to be discovered. By continuing ever includes marks of contrivance, whatever, in this analogy to other, and to all systems, it is possible its constitution, testifies design, necessarily carries to suppose that attraction is unlimited, and that the whole material universe is revolving round some fixed to a designer prior to, and out of, itself
. No ani
us to something beyond itself, to some other being, | Priestley's Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever, mal for instance, can have contrived its own limbs P. 153. ed. 2
and senses; can have been the author to itself of
the design with which they were constructed. I would be sufficient to prove it; that no contriThat supposition involves all the absurdity of self- vance, were it ever so mechanical, ever so precise, creation, i. e. of acting without existing. Nothing ever so clear, ever so perfectly like those which we can be God, which is ordered by a wisdom and à ourselves employ, would support this conclusion. will, which itself is void of; which is indebted for A doctrine, to which, I conceive, no sound mind any of its properties to contrivance ab extra. The can assent. not having that in his nature which requires the The force however of the reasoning is someerertion of another prior being (which property times sunk by our taking up with mere names. is sometimes called self-sufficiency, and sometimes we have already noticed, and we must here self-comprehension,) appertains to the Deity, as notice again, the misapplication of the term “law," his essential distinction, and removes his nature and the mistake concerning the idea which that from that of all things which we see. Which term expresses in physics, whenever such idea is consideration contains the answer to a question made to take the place of power, and still more of that has sometimes been asked, namely, Why, an intelligent power, and, as such, to be assigned since something or other must have existed from for the cause of any thing, or of any property of eternity, may not the present universe be that any thing, that exists. I'his is what we are sesomething? The contrivance perceived in it, cretly apt to do, when we speak of organized proves that to be impossible. Nothing contrived, bodies (plants for instance, or animals, owing can, in a strict and proper sense, be eternal, foras- their production, their form, their growth, their much as the contriver must have existed before qualities, their beauty, their use, to any law or the contrivance.
laws of nature; and when we are contented to sit Wherever we see marks of contrivance, we are down with that answer to our inquiries concerning led for its cause to an intelligent author. And them. I say once more, that it is a perversion of this transition of the understanding is founded language to assign any law, as the efficient operaupon uniform experience. We see intelligence tive cause of any thing. A law presupposes an constantly contriving ; that is, we see intelligence agent, for it is only the mode according to which constantly producing effects, marked and distin- an agent proceeds; it implies a power, for it is the guished by certain properties; not certain parti- order according to which that power acts. Withcular properties, but by a kind and class of pro- out this agent, without this power, which are perties, such as relation to an end, relation of parts both distinct from itself, the “law” does nothing; to one another, and to a common purpose. We is nothing. see, wherever we are witnesses to the actual form What has been said concerning “law,” holds ation of things, nothing except intelligence pro- true of mechanism. Mechanism is not itself ducing effects so marked and distinguished. Fur- power. Mechanism, without power, can do no nished with this experience, we view the produc- thing. Let a watch be contrived and constructed tions of nature. We observe them also marked ever so ingeniously; be its parts ever so many, and distinguished in the same manner. We wish ever so complicated, ever so finely wrought or arto account for their origin. Our experience sug- tificially put together, it cannot go without a gests a cause perfectly adequate to this account. weight or spring, i. e. without a force independent No experience, no single instance or example, of, and ulterior to, its mechanism. The spring can be offered in favour of any other. In this acting at the centre, will produce different motions cause therefore we ought to rest; in this cause the and different results, according to the variety of common sense of mankind has, in fact, rested, the intermediate mechanism. One and the selfbecause it agrees with that, which, in all cases, is same spring, acting in one and the same manner, the foundation of knowledge,--the undeviating viz. by simply expanding itself, may be the cause course of their experience. The reasoning is the of a hundred different and all useful movements, same as that, by which we conclude any ancient if a hundred different and well-devised sets of appearances to have been the effects of volcanoes wheels be placed between it and the tinal effect; or inundations; namely, because they resemble e. g. may point out the hour of the day, the day the effects which fire and water produce before our of the month, the age of the moon, the position of eyes; and because we have never known these ef- the planets, the cycle of the years, and many fects to result from any other operation. And this other serviceable notices; and these movements resemblance may subsist in so many circum- may fulfil their purposes with more or less perstances, as not to leave us under the smallest doubt fection, according as the mechanism is better jr in forming our opinion. Men are not deceived by worse contrived, or better or worse executed, or this reasoning: for whenever it happens, as it somé- in a better or worse state of repair: but in all times does happen, that the truth comes to be known cases, it is necessary that the spring act at the by direct information, it turns out to be what was centre. The course of our reasoning upon such a expected. In like manner, and upon the same foun- subject would be this: By inspecting the watch, dation, (which in truth is that of experience.) we even when standing still, we get a proof of conconclude that the works of nature proceed from trivance, and of a contriving mind, having been intelligence and design; because in the properties employed about it. In the form and obvious relaof relation to a purpose, subserviency to a use, tion of its parts, we see enough to convince us of they resemble what intelligence and design are this. If we pull the works in pieces, for the constantly producing, and what nothing except purpose of a closer examination, we are still more intelligence and design ever produce at all. Of fully convinced. But, when we see the watch every argument, which would raise a question as going, we see proof of another point, viz. that to the safety of this reasoning, it may be observed, there is a power somewhere, and somehow or that if such argument be listened to, it leads to other, applied to it; a power in action ;-that the inference, not only that the present order of there is more in the subject than the mere wheels nature is insufficient to prove the existence of an intelligent Creator, but that no imaginable order
Ch. I. sect. vii.
of the machine;--that there is a secret spring, or, motions in each case: or they may be the result a gravitating plummet;- in a word, that there is of trains of mechanical dispositions, fixed beforeforce, and energy, as well as mechanism. hand by an intelligent appointment, and kept in
So then, the watch in motion establishes to the action by a power at the centre. But, in either observer two conclusions: One; that thought, case, there must be intelligence, contrivance, and design have been employed in The minds of most men are fond of what they the forming, proportioning, and arranging of its call a principle, and of the appearance of simpliparts; and that whoever or wherever he be, or city, in accounting for phenomena. Yet this were, such a contriver there is, or was: The principle, this simplicity, resides merely in the other; that force or power, distinct from mecha- name; which name, after all, comprises, perhaps, nism, is, at this present time, acting upon it. If I under it a diversified, multifarious, or progressive saw a handmill even at rest, I should see contri- operation, distinguishable into parts. The power vance: but if I saw it grinding, I should be as- in organized bodies, of producing bodies like themsured that a hand was at the windlass, though in selves, is one of these principles. Give a philosoanother room. It is the same in nature. In the pher this, and he can get on. But he does not works of nature we trace mechanism ; and this reflect, what this mode of production, this princialone proves contrivance : but living, active, mov- ple (if' such he choose to call it) requires; how ing, productive nature, proves also the exertion of much it presupposes; what an apparatus of ina power at the centre; for, wherever the power struments, some of which are strictly mechanical, resides may be denominated the centre.
is necessary to its success; what a train it includes The intervention and disposition of what are of operations and changes, one succeeding another, called "second causes," fall under the same observ- one related to another, one ministering to another; ation. This disposition is or is not mechanism, all advancing, by intermediate, and, frequently, according as we can or cannot trace it by our by sensible steps to their ultimate result! Yet, senses and means of examination. That is all the because the whole of this complicated action is difference there is; and it is a difference which wrapped-up in a single term, generation, we are respects our faculties, not the things themselves. to set it down as an elementary principle; and to Now where the order of second causes is mecha- suppose, that when we have resolved the things nical, what is here said of mechanism strictly ap- which we see in this principle, we have sufficientplies to it. But it would be always mechanism ly accounted for their origin, without the neces(natural chymistry, for instance, would be mecha- sity of a designing, intelligent Creator. The nism,) if our senses were acute enough to descry truth is, generation is not a principle but a process. it. Neither mechanism, therefore, in the works We might as well call the casting of metals a prinof nature, nor the intervention of what are called ciple; we might, so far as appears to me, as well second causes, (for I think that they are the same call spinning and weaving principles: and, then, thing,) excuses the necessity of an agent distinct referring the texture of cloths, the fabric of musfrom both.
lins and calicoes, the patterns of diapers and If, in tracing these causes, it be said, that we damasks, to these, as principles, pretend to disfind certain general properties of matter which pense with intention, thought, and contrivance, have nothing in them that bespeaks intelligence, on the part of the artist; or to dispense, indeed, I answer, that
, the managing of these pro with the necessity of any artist at all, either in the perties, the pointing and directing them to the uses manufacturing of the article, or in the fabrication which we see made of them, demands intelligence of the machinery by which the manufacture was in the highest degree. For example : suppose carried on. animal secretions to be elective attractions, and And, after all, how, or in what sense, is it true, that such and such attractions universally belong that animals produce their like? A butterfly, to such and such substances; in all which there is with a proboscis instead of a mouth, with four no intellect concerned; still the choice and colloca- wings and six legs, produces a hairy caterpillar, tion of these substances, the fixing upon right sub- with jaws and teeth, and fourteen feet. A frog stances, and disposing them in right places, must produces a tadpole. A black beetle, with gauze be an act of intelligence. What mischief would wings, and a crusty covering, produces a white, follow, were there a single transposition of the smooth, soft worm; an ephemeron fly, a cod-bait secretory organs; a single mistake in arranging maggot. These, by a progress through different the glands which compose them!
stages of life, and action, and enjoyment, (and, in There may be many second causes, and many each state, provided with implements and organs courses of second causes, one behind another, appropriated to the temporary nature which they between what we observe of nature, and the Deity: bear,) arrive at last at the form and fashion of the but there must be intelligence somewhere; there parent animal. But all this is process, not prin. must be more in nature than what we see; and, ciple; and proves, moreover, that the property of amongst the things unseen, there must be an in- animated bodies, of producing their like, belongs telligent, designing author. The philosopher be- to them not as a primordial property, not by any holds with astonishment the production of things blind necessity in the nature of things, but as the around him. Unconscious particles of matter effect of economy, wisdom, and design; because take their stations, and severally range themselves the property itself assumes diversities, and submits in an order, so as to become collectively plants or to deviations dictated by intelligible utilities, and animals, i. e. organized bodies, with parts bearing serving distinct purposes of animal happiness. strict and evident relation to one another, and to The opinion, which would consider" generathe utility of the whole: and it should seem that tion" as a principle in nature; and which would these particles could not move in any other way assign this principle as the cause, or endeavour to than as they do; for they testify not the smallest satisfy our minds with such a cause, of the exist. sign of choice, or liberty, or discretion. There ence of organized bodies; is confuted, in my judgmay be particular intelligent beings, guiding these ment, not only by every mark of contrivance dis
coverable in those bodies, for which it gives us no invention and originality, feel a resistless inclinacontriver, offers no account whatever ; but also by tion to strike off into other solutions and other the farther consideration, that things generated, expositions. The truth is, that many minds are possess a clear relation to things not generated. not so indisposed to any thing which can be offerIf it were merely one part of a generated body ed to them, as they are to the flatness of being bearing a relation to another part of the same content with common reasons: and, what is most body; as the mouth of an animal to the throat, the to be lamented, minds conscious of superiority, throat to the stomach, the stomach to the intes- are the most liable to this repugnancy. tines, those to the recruiting of the blood, and, by The "suppositions” here alluded to, all agree means of the blood, to the nourishment of the in one character: they all endeavour to dispense whole frame: or if it were only one generated with the necessity in nature, of a particular, perbody bearing a relation to another generated body; sonal intelligence; that is to say, with the exeras the sexes of the same species to each other, tion of an intending, contriving mind, in the animals of prey to their prey, herbivorous and structure and formation of the organized constitugranivorous animals to the plants or seeds upon tions which the world contains. They would rewhich they feed; it might be contended, that the solve all productions into unconscious energies, of whole of this correspondency was attributable to a like kind, in that respect, with attraction, maggeneration, the common origin from which these netism, electricity, &c.; without any thing farther. substances proceeded. But what shall we say to In this, the old system of atheism and the new agreements which exist between things generated agree. And I much doubt, whether the new and things not generated? Can it be doubted, schemes have advanced any thing upon the old, was it ever doubted, but that the lungs of animals or done more than changed the terms of the nobear a relation to the air, as a permanently elastic menclature. For instance, I could never see the fluid? They act in it and by it; they cannot act difference between the antiquated system of atoms, without it. Now, if generation produced the ani- and Buffon's organic molecules. This philosomal, it did not produce the air: yet their properties pher, having made a planet by knocking off from correspond. The eye is made for light, and light the sun a piece of melted glass, in consequence of for the eye. The eye would be of no use without the stroke of a comet; and having set it in motion, light, and light perhaps of little without eyes; yet hy the same stroke, both round its own axis and one is produced by generation, the other not. The the sun ; finds his next difficulty to be, how to ear depends upon undulations of air. Here are bring plants and animals upon it. In order to two sets of motions: first, of the pulses of the air; solve this difficulty, we are to suppose the unisecondly, of the drum, bones, and nerves of the verse replenished with particles, endowed with ear; sets of motions bearing an evident reference life, but without organization or senses of their to each other: yet the one, and the apparatus for own; and endowed also with a tendency to marthe one, produced by the intervention of genera- shal themselves into organized forms. The contion; the other altogether independent of it
. course of these particles, by virtue of this tendency, If'it be said that the air, the light, the elements
, but without intelligence, will, or direction, (for” 1 the world itself, is generated ; I answer, that I do not find that any of these qualities are ascribed do not comprehend the proposition. If the term to them,) has produced the living forms which we mean any thing similar to what it means when now see. applied to plants or animals, the proposition is Very few of the conjectures which philosophers certainly without proof; and, I think, draws as hazard upon these subjects, have more of pretennear to absurdity, as any proposition can do, which sion in them, than the challenging you to show does not include a contradiction in its terms. I the direct impossibility of the hypothesis. In the am at a loss to conceive, how the formation of the present example, there seemed to be a positive world can be compared to the generation of an objection to the whole scheme upon the very face animal. If the term generation signify something of it; which was that, if the case were as here requite different from what it signifies on ordinary presented, new combinations ought to be perpetuoccasions, it may, by the same latitude, signify ally taking place; new plants and animals, or any thing. In which case, a word or phrase organized bodies which were neither, ought to be taken from the language of Otaheite, would con- starting up before our eyes every day. For this, vey as much theory concerning the origin of the however, our philosopher has an answer. Whilst universe, as it does to talk of its being generated. so many forms of plants and animals are already
We know a cause (intelligence) adequate to in existence, and, consequently, so many “inter, the appearances which we wish to account for: nal moulds," as he calls them, are prepared and we have this cause continually producing similar at hand, the organic particles run into these appearances : yet, rejecting this cause, the suffi- moulds, and are employed in supplying an accesciency of which we know, and the action of which sion of substance to them, as well for their growth is constantly before our eyes, we are invited to re as for their propagation. By which means, sort to suppositions destitute of a single fact for things keep their ancient course. But, says the their support, and confirmed by no analogy with same philosopher, should any general loss or dewhich we are acquainted. Were it necessary to struction of the present constitution of organized inquire into the motives of men's opinions, I mean bodies take place, the particles, for want of their motives separate from their arguments; I moulds” into which they might enter, would run should almost suspect, that, because the proof of a into different combinations, and replenish the Deity drawn from the constitution of nature is not waste with new species of organized substances. only popular but vulgar, (which may arise from Is there any history to countenance this notion ? the cogency of the proof, and be indeed its highest Is it known, that any destruction has been so rerecommendation,) and because it is a species al paired ? any desert thus re-peopled ? most of puerility to take up with it; for these So far as I remember, the only natural appearreasons, minds, which are habitually in search of ance mentioned by our author, by way of fact
whereon to build his hypothesis, is the formation of animated matter, for example, that was endued of vorms in the intestines of animals, which is with a propensity to fly, though ever so shapeless, here ascribed to the coalition of superabundant though no other we will suppose than a 'round organic particles, floating about in the first pas-ball to begin with, would, in a course of ages, if sages; and which have combined themselves into not in a million of years, perhaps in a hundred these simple animal forms, for want of internal millions of years (for our theorists, baving eternity moulds, or of vacancies in those moulds, into to dispose of, are never sparing in time,) acquire which they might be received. The thing referred wings. The same tendency to locomotion in an to, is rather a species of facts, than a single fact; / aquatic animal, or rather in an animated lump as some other cases may, with equal reason, be which might happen to be surrounded by water, included under it. But to make it a fact at all
, would end in the production of fins : in a living or, in any sort, applicable to the question, we must substance, confined to the solid earth, would put begin with asserting an equivocal generation, con- out legs and feet; or, if it took a different turn, trary to analogy, and without necessity : contrary would break the body into ringlets, and conclude to an analogy, which accompanies us to the very by crawling upon the ground. limits of our knowledge or inquiries; for wherever, Although I have introduced the mention of this either in plants or animals, we are able to examine theory into this place, I am unwilling to give to the subject, we find procreation from a parent it the name of an atheistic scheme, for iwo reasons: form: without necessity; for I apprehend that it first, because, so far as I am able to understand it, is seldom difficult to suggest methods, by which the original propensities and the numberless vathe eggs, or spawn, or yet invisible rudiments of rieties of them (so different, in thit respect, from these vermin, may have obtained a passage into the laws of mechanical nature, which are few and the cavities in which they are found.* Add to simple,) are, in the plan itself, attributed to the this, that their constancy to their species, which, ordination and appointment of an intelligent and I believe, is as regular in these as in the other designing Creator: secondly, because, likewise, vermes, decides the question against our philoso- that large postulatum, which is all along assumed pher, if, in truth, any question remained upon the and presupposed, the faculty in living bodies of subject.
producing other bodies organized like themselves, Lastly: These wonder-working instruments, seems to be referred to the same cause ; at least is these "internal moulds,” what are they after all ? not attempted to be accounted for by any other. what, when examined, but a name without sig- In one important respect, however, the theory nification; unintelligible, if not self-contradictory; before us coincides with atheistic systems, viz. in at the best, differing in nothing from the "essen- that, in the formation of plants and animals, in tial forms" of the Greek philosophy ? One short the structure and use of their parts, it does away sentence of Buffon's work exhibits his scheme as final causes. Instead of the parts of a plant or follows: “When this nutritious and prolific animal, or the particular structure of the parts, matter, which is diffused throughout all nature, having been intended for the action or the use to passes through the internal mould of an animal which we see them applied; according to this or vegetable, and finds a proper matrix, or recep theory, they have themselves grown out of that tacle, it gives rise to an animal or vegetable of the action, sprung from that use. The theory theresame species.” Does any reader annex a mean- fore dispenses with that which we insist upon, ing to the expression "internal mould,” in this the necessity, in each particular case, of an intelsentence ? Ought it then to be said, that, though ligent, designing mind, for the contriving and dewe have little notion of an internal mould, we termining of the forms which organized bodies have not much more of a designing mind? The bear. Give our philosopher these appetencies; very contrary of this assertion is the truth. When give him a portion of living irritable matter (a we speak of an artificer or an architect, we talk nerve, or the clipping of a nerve,) to work upon; of what is comprehensible to our understanding, give also to his incipient or progressive forms, the and familiar to our experience. We use no other power, in every stage of their alteration, of propaterms than what refer us for their meaning to gating their like; and, if he is to be believed, he our consciousness and observation; what express could replenish the world with all the vegetable the constant objects of both: whereas names like and animal productions which we at present see that we have mentioned, refer us to nothing; in it. excite no idea ; convey a sound to the ear, but I The scheme under consideration is open to the think do no more.
same objection with other conjectures of a similar Another system which has lately been brought tendency, viz. a total defect of evidence. No forward, and with much ingenuity, is that of ap- changes, like those which the theory requires, petencies. The principle, and the short account have ever been observed. All the changes in of the theory, is this. Pieces of soft, ductile matter, Ovid's Metamorphoses might have been effected being endued with propensities or appetencies for by these appetencies, if the theory were true: yet particular actions, would, by continual endeavours, not an example, nor the pretence of an example, carried on through a long series of generations, is offered of a single change being known to have work themselves gradually into suitable forms; taken place. Nor is the order of generation obeand, at length, acquire, though perhaps by ob- dient to the principle upon which this theory is scare and almost imperceptible improvements, an built. The mammæt of the male have not vanished organization fitted to the action which their respective propensities led them to exert.
A piece * I confess myself totally at a loss to guess at the
reason, either final or efficient, for this part of the aniI trust I may be excused, for not citing, as another mal frame; unless there be some foundation for an fact which is to confirm the hypothesis, a grave assertion opinion, of which I draw the hint from a paper of Mr. of this writer, that the branches of trees upon which Everard Home, (Phil. Transaci. 1799, p. 2.) riz, tha: the the slag feeds, break out again in his horns. Such facts mammæ of the fætus may be formed, before the ser is merit no discussion,