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be restored to her personal integrity, and to all the cause, or for what causes, appears to have been advantages of her virgin estate ; the power of controverted amongst the interpreters of those divorce might be deposited in the hands of the times. Christ, the precepts of whose religion husband, with less danger of abuse or inconve- were calculated for more general use and observaniencỳ. But constituted as mankind are, and tion, revokes this permission (as given to the injured as the repudiated wife generally must be, Jews, “ for the hardness of their hearts, ") and it is necessary to add a stability to the condition promulges a law which was thenceforward to of nar:ied women, more secure than the con- confine divorces to the single case of adultery in tinuance of their husbands' affection; and to the wife. And I see no sufficient reason to desupply to both sides, by a sense of duty and of part from the plain and strict meaning of Christ's obligation, what satiety has impaired of passion words. The rule was new. It both surprised and and of personal attachment. Upon the whole, the offended his disciples; yet Christ added nothing power of divorce is evidently and greatly to the to relax or explain it. disadvantage of the woman: and the only question Inferior causes may justify the separation of appears to be whether the real and permanent husband and wife, although they will not auhappiness of one half of the species should be sur-thorise such a dissolution of the marriage conrendered to the caprice and voluptuousness of the tract as would leave either party at liberty to other?

marry again: for it is that liberty, in which the We have considered divorces as depending danger and mischief of divorces principally conupon the will of the husband, because that is the sist. If the care of children does not require that way in which they have actually obtained in they should live together, and it is become, in the many parts of the world: but the same objections serious judgment of both, necessary for their muapply, in a great degree, to divorces by mutual tual happiness that they should separate, let them consent; especially when we consider the indeli- separate by consent. Nevertheless, this necessity cate situation and small prospect of happiness, can hardly exist, without guilt and misconduct on which remains to the party who opposed his or one side or both. Moreover, cruelty, ill-usage, exher dissent to the liberty and desire of the other. treme violence, or moroseness of temper, or other

The law of nature admits of an exception in great and continued provocations, make it lawful favour of the injured party, in cases of adultery, for the party aggrieved to withdraw from the soof obstinate desertion, of attempts upon life, of ciety of the offender without his or her consent. outrageous cruelty, of incurable madness, and The law which imposes the marriage-vow, whereperhaps of personal imbecility; but by no means by the parties promise to " keep to each other," or indulges the same privilege to mere dislike, to op- in other words, to live together, must be underposition of humours and inclination, to contrariety stood to impose it with a silent reservation of these of taste and temper, to complaints of coldness, cases ; because the same law has constituted a juneglect, severity, peevishness, jealousy: not that dicial relief from the tyranny of the husband, by these reasons are trivial, but because such objec- the divorce a mensa et toro, and by the provision tions may always be alleged, and are impossible which it makes for the separate maintenance of by testimony to be ascertained; so that to allow the injured wife. St. Paul likewise distinguishes implicit credit to them, and to dissolve marriages between a wife's merely separating herself from whenever either party thought fit to pretend the family of her husband, and her marrying them, would lead in its effect to all the licentious- again :-"Let not the wife depart from her hus ness of arbitrary divorces.

band: but and if she do depart, let her remain Milton's story is well known. Upon a quar- unmarried.” rel with his wife, he paid his addresses to another The law of this country, in conformity to our woman, and set forth a public vindication of his Saviour's injunction, confines the dissolution of conduct, by attempting to prove, that confirmed the marriage-contract to the single case of aduldislike was as just a foundation for dissolving the tery in the wife ; and a divorce, even in that case, marriage-contract, as adultery: to which position, can only be brought about by the operation of an and to all the arguments by which it can be sup- act of parliament, founded upon a previous senported, the above consideration affords a sufficient tence in the ecclesiastical court, and a verdict

And if a married pair, in actual and ir- against the adulterer at common law: which proreconcileable discord, complain that their happi- ceedings taken together, compose as complete an ness would be better consulted, by permitting investigation of the complaint as a cause can rethem to determine a connexion which is becoine ceive. It has lately been proposed to the legislaodious to both, it may be told them, that the same ture to annex a clause to these acts, restraining permission, as a general rule, would produce liber- the offending party from marrying with the comtinism, dissension, and misery, amongst thousands, panion of her crime, who, by the course of prowho are now virtuous, and quiet, and happy in ceeding, is always known and convicted: for there their condition: and it ought to satisfy them to is reason to fear, that adulterous connexions are reflect, that when their happiness is sacrificed to often formed with the prospect of bringing them the operation of an unrelenting rule, it is sacri- to this conclusion; at least, when the seducer has ficed to the happiness of the community: once captivated the affection of a married woman,

The Scriptures seem to have drawn the obliga- he may avail himself of this tempting argument tion tighter than the law of nature left it. "Who- to subdue her scruples, and complete his victory; soever," saith Christ, “shall put away his wife, ex. and the legislature, as the business is managed at cept it be for fornication, and shall marry another, present, assists by its interposition the criminal committeth adultery; and whoso marrieth her design of the offenders, and confers a privilege which is put away, doth commit adultery.” where it ought to inflict a punishment. The proMatt. xix. 9. The law of Moses, for reasons of posal deserved an experiment: but something local expediency, permitted the Jewish husband more penal will, I apprehend, be found necessary to put away his wife: but whether for every to check the progress of this alarming depravitý.


Whether a law might not be framed directing though marriage, in its own nature, and abstractthe fortune of the adulteress to descend as ir ed from the rules and declarations which the Jewease of her natural death; reserving, however, ish and Christian Scriptures deliver concerning a certain proportion of the produce of it, by way it, be properly a civil contract, and nothing more. of annuity, for her subsistence (such annuity, in With respect to one main article in matrimonial no case, wo exceed a fixed sum,) and also so far alliances, a total alteration has taken place in the euspending the estate in the hands of the heir as fashion of the world; the wite now brings money to preserve the inheritance to any children she to her husband, whereas anciently the husband might bear to a second marriage, in case there paid money to the family of the wife; as was the was none to succeed in the place of their mother case among the Jerish patriarchs, the Greeks, by the first; whether, I say, such a law would not and the old inhabitants of Germany.* This alrender female virtue in higher life less vincible, as teration has proved of no small advantage to the well as the seducers of that virtue less urgent in female sex: for their importance in point of fortheir suit, we recommend to the deliberation of tune procures to them, in modern times, that asthose who are willing to attempt the reformation siduity and respect, which are always wanted to of this important, but most incorrigible, class of compensate for the inferiority of their strength; the community. 'A passion for splendor, for ex- but which their personal attractions would not pensive amusements and distinction is commonly always secure. found, in that description of women who would Our business is with marriage, as it is estabecome the objects of such a law, not less inordi- blished in this country. And in treating thereof, mate than their other appetites. A severity of the it will be necessary to state the terms of the markind we propose, applies immediately to that pas- riage vow, in order to discover:sion. And there is no roon for any complaint of 1. What duties this vow creates. injustice, since the provisions above stated, with 2. What a situation of mind at the time is inothers which might be contrived, confine the consistent with it. punishment, so far as it is possible, to the person 3. By what subsequent behaviour it is violated. of the offender; suffering the estate to remain to The husband promises on his part, “to love, the heir, or within the family, of the ancestor comfort, honour, and keep, his wife :" the wife on from whom it came, or to attend the appointments hers, “to obey, serve, love, honour, and keep, her of his will.

husband;" in every variety of health, fortune, and Sentences of the ecclesiastical courts, which condition: and both stipulate “ to forsake all release the parties a rinculo matrimonii by rea- others, and to keep only unto one another, so long son of impuberty, frigidity, consanguinity within as they both shall live.”. This promise is called the prohibited degrees, prior marriage, or want of the marriage vow; is witnessed before God and the requisite consent of parents and guardians, the congregation; accompanied with prayers to are not dissolutions of the marriage-contract, but Almighty God for his blessing upon it; and atjudicial declarations that there never was any tended with such circumstances of devotion and marriage ; such impediment subsisting at the time, solemnity as place the obligation of it, and the as rendered the celebration of the marriage-rite a guilt of violating it, nearly upon the same founmere nullity. And the rite itself contains an ex-dation with that of oaths. ception of these impediments. The man and wo The parties by this vow engage their personal man to be married are charged, “if they know any fidelity expressly and specifically; they engage impediment why they may not be lawfully joined likewise to consult and promote each other's haptogether, to confessit;" and assured that so piness; the wife, moreover, promises obedience to many as are coupled together, otherwise than God's her husband. Nature may have made and left the word doth allow, are not joined together by God, sexes of the human species nearly equal in their neither is their matrimony lawful;" all which is faculties, and perfectly so in their rights; but to intended by way of solemn notice to the parties, guard against those competitions which equality, or that the vow they are about to make will bind a contested superiority, is almost sure to produce, their consciences and authorise their cohabitation, the Christian Scriptures enjoin upon the wife only upon the supposition that no legal impedi- that obedience which she here promises, and in ment exists.

terms so peremptory and absolute, that it seems to extend to every thing not criminal, or not entirely inconsistent with the woman's happiness.

"Let the wife,” says St. Paul, “ be subject to her CHAPTER VIII.

husband in every thing.”—“The ornament of a

meek and quiet spirit," says the same apostle, Marriage.

speaking of the duty of wives, “ is, in the sight Whether it hath grown out of some tradition of God, of great price.". No words ever expressed of the Divine appointment of marriage in the the true merit of the female character so well as persons of our first parents, or merely from a de- these. sign to impress the obligation of the marriage-con

The condition of human life will not permit us tract with a solemnity suited to its importance, to say, that no one can conscientiously marry, the marriage-rite, in almost all countries of the who does not prefer the person at the altar to all world, has been made a religious ceremony;* al- other men or women in the world: but we can

have no difficulty in pronouncing (whether we . It was not, however, in Christian countries re. respect the end of the institution, or the plain quired that marriages should be celebrated in churches, till the thirteenth century of the Christian æra. Mar. nager in England during the U'surpation, were so. * The ancient Assyrians sold their beautics by an an. maized before justices of the peace : but for what pur. nual auction. The prices were applied by way of por. prise line novelty was introduced, except to degrade the tions to the more homely. By this contrivance, all of Cergy, does not appear.

both sorts were disposed of in marriage.

terms in which the contract is conceived,) that happiness and misery so much in our power, or whoever is conscious, at the time of his marriage, liable to be so affected by our conduct, as in our of such a dislike to the woman he is about to mar- own families? It will also be acknowledged that ry, or of such a subsisting attachment to some the good order and happiness of the world are betother woman, that he cannot reasonably, nor does ter upholden whilst each man applies himself to in fact, expect ever to entertain an affection for his own concerns and the care of his own his future wife, is guilty, when he pronounces the family, to which he is present, than if every man, marriage vow, of a direct and deliberate prevarica- from an excess of mistaken generosity, should tion; and that, too, aggravated by the presence of leave his own business, to undertake his neighthose ideas of religion, and of the Supreme Being, bour's, which he must always manage with less which the place, the ritual, and the solemnity of the knowledge, conveniency, and success. If thereoccasion, cannot fail of bringing to his thoughts. fore, the low estimation of these virtues be well The same likewise of the woman. This charge founded, it must be owing, not to their inferior must be imputed to all who, from mercenary mo- importance, but to some defect or impurity in the tives, marry the objects of their aversion and dis- motive. And indeed it cannot be denied, that it gust; and likewise to those who desert, from any is in the power of association so to unite our motive whatever, the object of their affection, and, children's interest with our own, as that we shall without being able to subdue that affection, marry often pursue both from the same motive, place another.

both in the same object, and with as little sense The crime of falsehood is also incurred by the of duty in one pursuit as in the other. Where man who intends, at the time of his marriage, to this is the case, the judgment above stated is not commence, renew, or continue a personal com- far from the truth. And so often as we find a somerce with any other woman. And the parity of licitous care of a man's own family, in a total abreason, if a wife be capable of so much guilt, ex sence or extreme penury of every other virtue, or tends to her.

interfering with other duties, or directing its The marriage-vow is violated,

operation solely to the temporal happiness of the I. By adultery.

children, placing that happiness in amusement II. By any behaviour which, knowingly, ren- and indulgence whilst they are young, or in adders the life of the other miserable; as desertion, vancement of fortune when they grow up, there neglect, prodigality, drunkenness, peevishness, is reason to believe that this is the case. In this penuriousness, jealousy, or any levity of conduct way, the cominon opinion concerning these duties which administers occasion of jealousy.

may be accounted for and defended. If we look to A late regulation in the law of marriages, in the subject of them, we perceive them to be inthis country, has made the consent of the father, dispensable. If we regard the motive, we find if he be living, of the mother, if she survive the them often not very meritorious. Wherefore, alfather, and remain unmarried, or of guardians, if though a man seldoin rises high in our esteem who both parents be dead, necessary to the marriage of has nothing to recommend him beside the care of a person under twenty-one years of age. By the his own family, yet we always condemn the neRoman law, the consent et avi et patris was re- glect of this duty with the utmost severity; both quired so long as they lived. In France, the con- by reason of the manifest and immediate mischief sent of parents is necessary to the marriage of which we see arising from this neglect, and besons, until they attain to thirty years of age; of cause it argues a want not only of parental afdaughters, until twenty-five. In Holland, för sons fection, but of those moral principles which ought till twenty-five; for daughters till twenty. And to come in aid of that affection where it is wantthis distinction between the sexes appears to be ing. And if, on the other hand, our praise and well founded; for a woman is usually as properly esteem of these duties be not proportioned to the qualified for the domestic and interior duties of a good they produce, or to the indignation with wife or mother at eighteen, as a man is for the which we resent the absence of them, it is for business of the world, and the more arduous care this reason, that virtue is the most valuable, not of providing for a family, at twenty-one.

where it produces the most good, but where it is The constitution also of the human species in the most wanted: which is not the case here; bedicates the same distinction.*

cause its place is often supplied by instincts, or involuntary associations. Nevertheless, the offices of a parent may be discharged from a conscious

ness of their obligation, as well as other duties; CHAPTER IX.

and a sense of this obligation is sometimes neces

sary to assist the stimulus of parental affection; Of the Duty of Parents.

especially in stations of life in which the wants of That virtue, which confines its beneficence a family cannot be supplied without the continual within the walls of a man's own house, we have hard labour of the father, and without his rebeen accustomed to consider as little better than fraining from many indulgences and recreations a more refined selfishness; and yet it will be con- which unmarried men of like condition are able to fessed, that the subject and matter of this class purchase. Where the parental aflection is sufof duties are inferior to none in utility and im- ficiently strong, or has fewer difficulties to surportance: and where, it may be asked, is virtue, mount, a principle of duty may still be wanted to the most valuable, but where it does the most direct and regulate its exertions: for otherwise it good ? What duty is the most obligatory, but that is apt to spend and waste itself in a womanish on which the most depends ? And where have we fondness for the person of the child; an impro

vident attention to his present ease and gratifica* Cum vis prolem procreandi diutius hæreat in mare tion; a pernicious facility and compliance with quam in femina populi numerus nequaquam minuetur, his humours; an excessive and supertuous care si serius venerem colere inceperint viri.

to provide the externals of happiness, with little

or no attention to the internal sources of virtue, the community. So that to send an uneducated ani satisfaction. Universally, wherever a parent's child into the world, is injurious to the rest of conduct is prompted or directed by a sense of duty, mankind; it is little better than to turn out a there is so much virtue.

mad dog or a wild beast into the streets. Having premised thus much concerning the In the inferior classes of the community, this place which parental duties hold in the scale of principle condemns the neglect of parents, who human virtues, we proceed to state and explain do not inure their children betimes to labour and the duties themselves.

restraint, by providing them with apprenticeships, When moralists tell us, that parents are bound services, or other regular employment, but who to do all they can for their children, they tell us suffer them to waste their youth' in idleness and more than is true; for, at that rate, every expense vagrancy, or to betake themselves to some lazy, which might have been spared, and every profit trilling, and precarious calling; for the conseonitted which might have been made, would be quence of having thus tasted the sweets of nacriminal.

tural liberty, at an age when their passion and The duty of parents has its limits, like other relish for it are at the highest, is, that they become duties; and admits, if not of perfect precision, at incapable, for the remainder of their lives, of conleast of rules definite enough for application. tinued industry, or of persevering attention to any

These rules may be explained under the several thing; spend their time in a miserable struggle heads of maintenance, education, and a reasonable between the importunity of want, and the irk. provision for the child's happiness in respect of someness of regular application; and are preoutward condition.

pared to embrace every expedient, which presents I. Maintenance.

a hope of supplying their necessities without conThe wants of children make it necessary that fining them to the plough, the loom, the shop, or some person maintain them: and, as no one has the counting-house. a right to burthen others by his act, it follows, In the middle orders of society, those parents that the parents are bound to undertake this are most reprehensible, who neither qualify their charge themselves. Beside this plain inference, children for a profession, nor enable them to live the affection of parents to their children, if it be without one;and those in the highest, who, from instinctive, and the provision which nature has indolence, indulgence, or avarice, omit to procure prepared in the person of the mother for the sus- their children those liberal attainments which are tentation of the infant, concerning the existence necessary to make them useful in the stations to and design of which there can be no doubt, are which they are destined. A man of fortune, who manifest indications of the Divine will.

permits his son to consume the season of educaHence we learn the guilt of those who run tion in hunting, shooting, or in frequenting horseaway from their families, or (what is much the races, assemblies, or other unedifying, if not visame,) in consequence of idleness or drunkenness, cious, diversions, defrauds the community of a throw them upon a parish ; or who leave them benefactor, and bequeaths them a nuisance. destitute at their death, when, by diligence and Some, though not the same, preparation for the frugality, they might have laid up a provision for sequel of their lives, is necessary for youth of every their support: also of those who refuse or neglect description; and therefore for bastards, as well as the care of their bastard offspring, abandoning for children of better expectations. Consequently, them to a condition in which they must either they who leave the education of their bastards to perish or become burthensome to others; for the chance, contenting themselves with making produty of maintenance, like the reason upon which vision for their subsistence, desert half their duty. it is founded, extends to bastards, as well as to III. A reasonable provision for the happiness legitimate children.

of a child, in respect of outward condition, reThe Christian Scriptures, although they con- quires three things: a situation suited to his hacern themselves little with maxims of prudence bits and reasonable expectations; a competent or economy, and much less authorize worldly- provision for the exigencies of that situation; and mindedness or avarice, have yet declared in ex- a probable security for his virtue. plicit terins their judgment of the obligation of this The first two articles will vary with the conduty: “ If any provide not for his own, especially dition of the parent. A situation somewhat apfor those of his own household, he hath denied the proaching in rank and condition to the parent's faith, and is worse than an infidel,” (1 Tim, v. 8.;) own; or, where that is not practicable, similar to he hath disgraced the Christian profession, and what other parents of like condition provide for fallen short in a duty which even infidels acknow their children; bounds the reasonable, as well as ledge.

(generally speaking) the actual, expectations of II. Education.

the child, and therefore contains the extent of the Education, in the most extensive sense of the parent's obligation. word, may comprehend every preparation that is Hence, a peasant satisfies his duty, who sends made in our youth for the sequel of our lives; and out his children, properly instructed for their ocin this sense I use it. Some such preparation is cupation, to husbandry or to any branch of manunecessary for children of all conditions, because facture. Clergymen, lawyers, physicians, officers without it they must be miserable, and probably in the army or navy, gentlemen possessing mowill be vicious, when they grow up, either from derate fortunes of inheritance, or exercising trade want of the means of subsistence, or from want of in a large or liberal way, are required by the same rational and inoffensive occupation. In civilized rule to provide their sons with learned professions, life, every thing is effected by art and skill. Whence a person who is provided with neither (and neither can be acquired without exercise and his child into a way of getting a livelihood, the child

Amongst the Athenians, if the parent did not put instruction) will be useless, and he that is useless was not bound 10 make provision for the parent when will generally be at the same tim» mischievous to old and necessitous.


commissions in the army or navy, places in public, the standard which custom has established: for offices, or reputable branches of merchandise. there is a certain appearance, attendance, estab. Providing a child with a situation, includes a lishment, and mode of living, which custom has competent supply for the expenses of that situa- annexed to the several ranks and orders of civil tion, until the profits of it enables the child to sup-life (and which compose what is called decency,) port himself. Noblemen and gentlemen of high together with a certain society, and particular rank and fortune may be bound to transmit an pleasures, belonging to each class: and a young inheritance to the representatives of their family, person who is withheld from sharing in these for sufficient for their support without the aid of a want of fortune, can scarcely be said to have a trade or profession, to which there is little hope fair chance for happiness; the indignity and morthat a youth, who has been flattered with other tification of such a seclusion being what few expectations, will apply himself with diligence or tempers can bear, or bear with contentment. And success. In these parts of the world, public opinion as to the second consideration, of what a child may has assorted the members of the community into reasonably expect from his parent, he will expect four or five general classes, each class comprising what he sees all or most others in similar circuma great variety of employments and professions, stances receive; and we can hardly call expectathe choice of which must be committed to the tions unreasonable, which it is impossible to supe private discretion of the parent.* All that can be press. expected from parents as a duty, and therefore By virtue of this rule, a parent is justified in the only rule which a moralist can deliver upon making a difference between his children accordthe subject, is, that they endeavour to preserve ing. they stand in greater or less need of the their children in the class in which they are born, assistance of his fortune, in consequence of the that is to say, in which others of similar expecta- difference of their age or sex, or of the situations tions are accustomed to be placed; and that they in which they are placed, or the various success be careful to contine their hopes and habits of in- which they have met with. dulgence to objects which will continue to be at On account of the few lucrative employments tainable.

which are left to the female sex, and by conseIt is an ill-judged thrift, in some rich parents, quence the little opportunity they have of adding to bring up their sons to mean employments, for to their income, daughters ought to be the parthe sake of saving the charge of a more expensive ticular objects of a parent's care and foresight; education: for these sons, when they become mas- and as an option of marriage, from which they ters of their liberty and fortune, will hardly con can reasonably expect happiness, is not presented tinue in occupations by which they think them- to every woman who deserves it, especially in selves degraded, and are seldom qualified for any times in which a licentious celibacy is in fashion thing better.

with the men, a father should endeavour to enable An attention, in the first place, to the exigen- his daughters to lead a single lise with independence cies of the children's respective conditions in the and decorum, even though he subtract more for world; and a regard, in the second place, to their that purpose from the portions of his sons than is reasonable expectations, always postponing the agreeable to modern usage, or than they expect. expectations to the exigencies when both cannot But when the exigencies of their several situabe satisfied, ought to guide parents in the disposal tions are provided for, and not before, a parent of their fortunes after their death. And these ought to admit the second consideration, the satisexigencies and expectations must be measured by faction of his children's expectations; and upon

that principle to prefer the eldest son to the rest, * The health and virtue of a child's future life ate and sons to daughters: which constitutes the right, considerations so superior to all others, that whatever and the whole right, of primogeniture, as well as is likely to have the smallest influence upon these, de. the only reason for the preference of one sex to serves ihe parent's first attention. In respect of health, the other. The preference, indeed, of the firstagriculture, and all active, rural, and out-of-door em. ployments, are to be preferred to manufactures and se.

born, has one public good effect, that if the estate dentary occupations. In respect of virtue, a course of

were divided equally amongst the sons, it would dealings in which the advantage is mutual, in which probably make them all idle; whereas, by the the profit on one side is connected with the benefit of present rule of descent, it makes only one so; the other (which is the case in trade, and all serviceable which is the less evil of the two. And it must art or labour,) is more favourable to the moral charac. ter, than callings in which one man's gain is another further be observed on the part of the sons, that man's loss; in which what you acquire, is acquired if the rest of the coinmunity make it a rule to prewithout equivalent, and parted with in distress; as in fer sons to daughters, an individual of that comgaming, and whatever partakes of gaming, and in the munity ought to guide himself by the same rule, also deserve notice: A business, like a retail trade, in upon principles of mere equality. For, as the son which the profits are small and frequent, and accruing suffers by the rule, in the fortune he may expect from the employınent, furnishes a moderate and con. in marriage, it is but reasonable that he should stant engageinent of the mind, and, so far, suits better receive the advantage of it in his own inheritance. sions which are supported by ti xed salaries, as stations Indeed, whatever the rule be, as to the preference in the church, army, navy, revenue, public otfices, &c. of one sex to the other, marriage restores the or wherein the protits are made in large sums, by a few equality. And as money is generally more congreat concerns, or fortunate adventures; as in many vertible to protit, and more likely to promote inwhich the occupation is neither so constant. nor the dustry, in the hands of men than of women, the activity so kepi alive by immediate encouragement. custom of this country may properly be complied For security, inanual arts exceed merchandise, and with, when it does not interfere with the weightier such as supply the wants of inankind are better than those which minister to their pleasure. Situations

reason explained in the last paragraph. which promise an early settlement in marriage, are on

The point of the children's actual expectations, many accounts to be chosen before those which require together with the expediency of subjecting the il& longer waiting for a larger establishunent.

licit commerce of the sexes to every discourage

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