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J. Haddon, Printer, Castle Street, London.

THE

LONDON ENCYCLOPÆDIA,

OR

UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY

OF

SCIENCE, ART, LITERATURE, AND PRACTICAL MECHANICS,

COMPRISING A

POPULAR VIEW OF THE PRESENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE.

ILLUSTRATED BY

NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS, A GENERAL ATLAS,

AND APPROPRIATE DIAGRAMS.

Ske oportet ad librum, presertim miscellanei generis, legendum accedere lectorem, ut solet ad convivium conviva civilis.
Coarivator annititur omnibus satisfacere; et tamen si quid apponitur, quod hujus aut illius palato non respondeat, et hic et ille
urbane dissimulant, et alia fercula probant, ne quid contristent convivatorem.

Erasmus.
A reader should dt down to a book, especially of the miscellaneous kind, as a well-behaved visitor does to a banquet. The
master of the feast exerts himself to satisfy his guests; but if, after all his care and pains, something should appear on the table
that does not suit this or that person's taste, they politely pass it over without notice, and commend other dishes, that they may not
distress a kind horl.

Translation.

BY THE ORIGINAL EDITOR OF THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA METROPOLITANA,

ASSISTED BY EMINENT PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER GENTLEMEN,

IN TWENTY-TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. XII.

LONDON :

PRINTED FOR THOMAS TEGG, 73, CHEAPSIDE ;
SOLD BY N. HAILES, PICCADILLY; E. WILSON, ROYAL EXCHANGE ; J. MASON, CITY ROAD;

BOWDERY & KERBY, OXFORD STREET :
GRIFFIN & co. GLASGOW: J. CUMMING, DUBLIN: M. BAUDRY, PARIS : F. FLEISCHER, LEIPSIC :
AND WHIPPLE & LAWRENCE, SALEM, NORTH AMERICA.

1829.

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THE

1111 - JOMFP

LONDON ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

INFANTICIDE, the murder of infants, although The following is a translation of this most one of the most horrible and unnatural of crimes, curious instrument. has, (to the disgrace of our species), been found • Whereas the Honorable English Company to exist as a regular and systematic custom among and Anand Rao Gaikawar Sena Khasil Shumwbole tribes of the eastern nations. The expo sher Bahader, having set forth to us the dictates sure of deformed children among the Spartans, of the Sastras, and the true faith of the Hinindeed, the sacrifices to Moloch among the Am- doos; as well as that the Brahmavaiverkeka Pumonites, the 300 young nobles to Saturn at Car- rana declares the killing of children to be a heinous thage, and various other similar occurrences are sin, it being written, that it is as great an offence abundant evidences of the existence of infanticide to kill an embryo as a Brahmin; that to kill one in the ancient world. But it was reserved for woman is as great a sin as a hundred Brahmins : the discoveries of modern times to find tribes of that to put one child to death is as great a sin as to human beings regularly destroying all their female kill a hundred women; and that the perpetrators of children, the mothers themselves being gene- this sin shall be damned to the hell Kulesoothela, rally their executioners.

where he shall be infested with as many maggots Some years ago it was reported by Mr. Dun- as he may have hairs on his body; be born can, then resident at Benares, that a sect of again a leper, and debilitated in all his members. Hindoos in that neighbourhood, called Ràj We, Jarejah Dewaji, and Koer Nuthu, zaninkumars, were in the habit of destroying all their ders of Gondar (the custom of female infanticide female infants. Mr. Duncan at length succeeded having long prevailed in our caste) do hereby agree in persuading this deluded tribe to relinquish for ourselves, and for our offspring, as also we bind their barbarous habit; and so effectually that no onrselves in behalf of our relations and their offinstance has since been discovered of an in- spring for ever, for the sake of our own prosperity, fringement of the written penal obligation that and the credit of the Hindoo faith, that we shali the chiefs and other individuals of that tribe from this day renounce this practice; and that in then voluntarily entered into. As well as the default of this, we acknowledge ourselves ofRàj-kùmàrs, other sects of Hindoos, in the vi- fenders against the Sirkars. Moreover, should cinity of Benares, were found to have been in any one in future commit this offence, we will similar habits, though to a less extent, and they expel him from our caste, and he shall be puexecuted a similar deed of renunciation. nished according to the pleasure of the two

Among the military tribe of Jàrejàhs infanti- governments, and the rule of the Sastras.' cide was found so common, that a Jarejàh female This was readily signed by all the chiefs exwas very rarely seen or heard of. The men of cept one, who at length also consented. this tribe procured wives from others who reared INFANTRY. This word is said to take its their daughters. The number of infants, thus origin from one of the infantas of Spain, who, sacrificed, amounted, by one computation, to finding that the army commanded by the king, 30,000 annually, in the peninsula of Guzerat her father, had been defeated by the Moors, asalone: but this colonel Walker deemed an ex- sembled a body of foot soldiers, and with them aggeration; they commonly confessed that they engaged and totally routed the enemy. In put all daughters to death, and without delicacy memory of this event, and to honor the foot or pain ; but were more reserved on the mode soldiers, who were not before held in much conof their execution. They appeared at first un- sideration, they received the name of infantry. willing to be questioned on the subject, and Dr. Robertson, however, well observes in his usually replied, it was an affair of the women- View of the State of Europe prefixed to the it belonged to the nursery, and made no part of History of Charles V., that it is to the Swiss the business of men. What trouble in blasting discipline, that Europe is indebted for the early a flower !' said one of them significantly. They establishment of infantry in her armies. The at last, however, threw off their reserve, and it arms and discipline of the Swiss, he observes, appeared that the most frequent methods were were different from those of other European nato drown them in milk, or put opium into their tions. During their long and violent struggles mouths; but no particular manner was laid down, in defence of their liberties against the house of except that they were to be despatched immedi- Austria, whose armies, like those of other conately. To render the deed more horrible, the siderable princes, consisted chiefly of heavymother was commonly the executioner of her armed cavalry, the Swiss found that their poverty, own offspring; for, although women of rank had and the small number of gentlemen residing in attendants and slaves to perform the office, the their country, at that time barren and ill cultifar greater number executed it with their own vated, put it out of their power to bring into the hands. Colonel Walker at length, however, pre- field any body of horse capable of facing the vailed on this tribe formally to relinquish and enemy. Necessity compelled them to place all cenounce by deed the practice of infanticide. their confidence in infantry; and, in order to Vol. XII.-PART 1.

B

render it capable of withstanding the shock of only been in use since the middle of the sevencavalry, they gave the soldiers breast-plates and teenth century. They have no camp equipage to helmets, as defensive armour, together with long carry, and their arms and accoutrements are much spears, halberts, and heavy swords, as weapons lighter than those of the infantry. Light infantry of offence. They formed them into large bat are the eyes of a general, and wherever there is talions, ranged in deep and close array, so that found light cavalry, there should be light inthey might present on every side a formidable fantry. They should be accustomed to the pace front to the enemy. The men at arms could of four miles an hour, as their usual marching make no impression on the solid strength of such pace, and be able to march at five miles an a body. It repulsed the Austrians in all their hour upon particular occasions. Every regiment attempts to conquer Switzerland. It broke the has a company of light infantry, whose station is Burgundian gendarmerie, which was scarcely on the left of the regiment, the right being ocinferior to that of France, either in number or cupied by the grenadiers. reputation; and, when first called to act in İNFARCTION, n. s. Lat. in and farcio. Italy, it bore down, by its irresistible force, Stuffing; constipation. every enemy that attempted to oppose it. These An hypochondriack consumption is occasioned by repeated proofs of the decisive effects of infantry, an infarction and obstruction of the spleen. exhibited on such conspicuous occasions, restored

Harvey. that service to reputation, and gradually re-esta

INFATUATE, adj. ? Lat. infatuo, from in blished the opinion which had been long ex

Infatua'tion, n. s. I and fatuus; Fr. infaploded, of its superior importance in the opera- tuer. To strike with folly; to deprive of undertions of war.

But, the glory the Swiss' had standing; deprivation of reason. acquired having inspired them with such high had long overspread the infatuated, gentile world :

It is the reforming of the vices and sottishness that ideas of their own prowess and consequence as frequently rendered them mutinous and insolent, disciples.

a prime branch of that design of Christ's sending his

Hammond. the princes who employed them became weary

Where men give themselves over to the defence of of depending on the caprice of foreign merce- wicked interests, and false propositions, it is just naries, and began to turn their attention towards with God to smite the greatest abilities with the the improvement of their national infantry.

greatest infatuations.

South. The German powers, having the command of The people are so universally infatuated with the men whom nature has endowed with that steady notion, that, if a cow falls sick, it is ten to one but an courage and persevering strength which form old woman is clapt up in prison for it. them to be soldiers, soon modelled their troops

Addison on Italy. in such a manner, that they vied with the Swiss The carriage of our atheists or dei ts is amazing : both in discipline and valor.

no dotage so infatuate, no phrensy so extravagant as

theirs. The French monarchs, though more slowly

Bentley.

All are the sons of circumstance; awayand with greater difficulty, accustomed the im

Let's seek out, or prepare to be petuous spirit of their people to subordination

Tortured for his infatuation, and and discipline; and were at such pains to render

Condemned without a crime. their national infantry respectable, that, as early

Byron. Sardanapalus. as the reign of Louis XII., several gentlemen of INFAUST’ING, n. s. Lat. infaustus. The high rank had so far abandoned their ancient act of making unlucky. An odd and inelegant ideas as to condescend to enter into their ser- word. vice.

As the king did in some part remove the envy The Spaniards, whose situation made it diffi- from himself, so he did not observe, that he did cult to employ any other than their national withal bring a kind of malediction and infausting troops in the southern parts of Italy, which was upon the marriage, as an ill prognostick. Bacon. the chief scene of their operations in that coun INFEA'SIBLE, adj. In and feasible. Imtry, not only adopted the Swiss discipline, but practicable; not to be done. improved upon it, by mingling a proper number This is so difficult and infeasible, that it may well

Glanville. of soldiers, armed with heavy muskets, in their drive modesty to despair of science. battalions; and thus formed that famous body

INFECT", ".a.

Fr. infecter; Lat. inof infantry, which, during a century and a half,

INFECTION, n.s. fectus. Tó act upon was the admiration and terror of all Europe.

Infectious, adj.

by contagion; to affect The Italian states gradually diminished the

INFECTIOUSLY, adv. with communicated number of their cavalry, and, in imitation of

INFEC'TIOUSNESS, n. S. qualities; to hurt by their more powerful neighbours, brought the

InfecʻTIVE, adj. contagion; to taint; strength of their armies to consist in foot-soldiers. to poison; to pollute; to fill with something From this period the nations of Europe have contagious. Infection, taint; poison; morbid carried on war with forces more adapted to

miasma. Infectious, influencing by communi

every species of service, more capable of acting in cation. Infective, having the quality of acting every country, and better fitted both for making by contagion. conquests, and for preserving them.

But wel wote I, my lady graunted me INPANTRY, HEAVY-ARMED, among the an

Truly to be my woundes remedy ;

Hire gentilnesse may not infected be cients, were such as wore a complete suit of ar

With doublenesse : thus, trust I til I die mour, and engaged with broad shields and long

So cast 1 Voide Dispaires compary, spears. They were the flower and strength of

And taken Hope to council and to frende. the Grecian armies, and, had the highest rank of

Chaucer. The Court of Love. military honor.

Thine eyes, sweet lady, have infected mine. INFANTRY, Light, among the moderns, have

Shakspeare.

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