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and all the Islands between Italy and Africa. A peace on these conditions, will, in my opinion, not only secure the future tranquility of Carthage, but be sufficiently glorious for you, and for the Roman name. And do not tell me that some of our citizens dealt fraudulently with you, in the late treaty. It is I, Hannibal, that now ask a peace I ask it, because I think it expedient for my country; and thinking it expedient, I will inviolably maintain it.
· 111.Scipio's Reply. I KNEW very well, Hannibal, that it was the hope of your return, which emboldened the Carthagenjans to break the truce with us, and lay aside all thoughts of peace, when it was just upon the point of being concluded; and your present proposal is a proof of it. You retrench from their concessions, every thing but what we are and have been, long possessed of. But as it is your care, that your fellow citizens should have the obligation to you, of being eased from a great part of thieir burden, so it ought to be mine, that they draw no advantage from their perfidiousness. Nobody is inore sensible than I am of the weakness of man, and the power of fortune, and that whatever we enterprise, is subject to a thousand chances. If before the Romans passed into Africa, you had, of your own accord, quitted Italy, and made the offers you now make, I believe they would not have been rejected. But, as you have been forced out of Italy, and we are masters here of the open country, the situation of things is nucli altered. And what is chiefly to be considered, the Carthagenians, by the late treaty, which we entered into at their request, were, over and above what you offer, to bave restored to us our prisoners without ransom, delivered up their ships of war, paid us five thousand talents, and to have given hostages for the performance of all. The senate accepted these conditions, but Carthage failed on her part: Carthage deceived us. What then is to be done ? Are the Carthage nians to be released from the most important articles of the treaty, as a reward for their breach of faith? No, tainly. if to the conditions before agreed upon, you had added some new articles, to our advantage, there would have been matter of reference to the Roman people; but when, instead of adding, you retrench, there is no rooi
for deliberation. The Carthagenians, therefore, must submit to us at discretion, or inust vanquish us in battle. IV.-Calisthenes' Reproof of Cleon's Flattery to Alexander,
on whom he had proposed to confer Divinity by vote. IF the king were present, Cleon, there would be no need of my answering to what you have just proposed. He would hiinself reprove you, for endeavouring to draw him into an imitation of foreign absurdities, and for bringing envy upon him by such unmanly flattery. As he is absent, I take upon me to tell you, in his name, that no praise is lasting, but what is rational; and that you do what you can to lessen his glory, instead of adding to it. Heroes have never, among us, been deified, till after their death; and, whatever may be your way of thio king, Cleon, for my part, I wish the king may not, for many years to come, obtain that honour.
You have mentioned, as precedents of what you propose, Hercules and Bacchus. Do you imagine, Cleon, that they were deified over a cup of wine ? And are you and I qualified to make gods ? Is the king, our sovereign, to receive his divivity from you and me, who are his subjects? First try your power, whether you can make a king. It is sure. ly easier to make a king than a god; to give an earthly dominion, than a throne in heaven. I only wish that the gods may have heard, without offence, the arrogant proposal you have made, of adding one to their number, and that they may still be so propitious to us, as to grant the continuance of that success to our affairs, with which they have hitherto favoured us. For iny part, I am rot ashamed of my country, nor do I approve of our adopting the rites of foreign nations, or learning from them how we ought to reverence our kings. To receive laws or rules of conduct from them, What is it but to confess ourselves inferiour to them ?
V. -Caius Marius to the Romans; shewing the absurdity of their hesitating to confer on him the Rank of General, merely on account of his Extraction.
IT is but too common, imny countrymen, to observe a material difference between the behaviour of those who etand candidates for places of power and trust, before and after their obtaining them. They solicit them in one manper, and execute them in another. They set out with a great appearance of activity, humility and moderation, and they publicly fall into sloth, pride and avarice. It is, undoubtedly no easy matter to discharge, to the general satisfaction, the duly of a supreme commander, in troublesome times. To carry on with effect, an expensive war, and yet be frugal of public money ; to oblige those to serve, whom it may be delicate to offend; to conduct, at the same time, a complicated variety of operations; to concert measures at home, answerable to the state of things abroad; and to gain every valuable end, in spite of opposition from the envious, the factious, and the disaffected—to do all this, my countrymen, is more difficult than is generally thought.
But, besides the disadvantages which are common to me, with all others in eminent stations, my case, is in this respect, peculiarly hard--that whereas a commander of Patrician rank, if he is guilty of neglect or breach of duty, has his great connexions, the antiquity of his family, the important services of his ancestors, and the multitudes he has by power, engaged in his interest, to screen him from condign punishment-my whole safety depends upon myself; which renders it the more indispensably necessary for me to take care, that my conduct be clear and unexceptionable. Besides, I am well aware, my countrymen, that the eye of the public is upon me; and that though the impartial, who prefer the real advantage of the commonwealth to all other considerations, favour my pretensions, the Patricians, want nothing so much, as an occasion against me. It is, therefore, my fixed resolution, 10 use my best endeavours, that you be not disappointed in me, and that their indirect designs against me may be defealed.
I have from my youth, been familiar with toils and with danger. I was faithful to your interest, my countrymen, when I served you for no reward but that of honour. It is not my design to betray you, now that you have conferred upon me a place of profit. You have committed to my conduct, the war against Jugurtha. The Patricians are offended at this. But where would be the wisdom of giving such a command to one of their honourable body? A person of illustrious birth, of ancient family, of innu
merable statues--but of no experience! What service would this long line of dead ancestors, or his multitude of motionless statues, do his country in the day of battle ? What could such a general do, but in his trepidation and inexperience, have recourse to some inferiour commander for direction, in difficulties to which he was not himself equal? Thus, your Patrician general would, in fact, have a general over him, so that the acting commander would still be a Plebian. So true is this, my countrymen, that I have, myself, known those that have been chosen consuls, begin then to read the history of their own country, of which, till that time, they were totally ignorant; that is, they first obtained the employment, and then bettiought theinselves of the qualifications necessary for the proper discharge of it.
I submit to your judgment, Romans, on which side the advantage lies, when a comparison is made between Patrician haughtiness, and Plebian experience. The very actions which they have only read, I have partly seen, and partly myself achieved. What they know by reading, I know by action. They are pleased to slight my mean birth : I despise their mean characters. Want of birth and fortune is the objection against me; want of personal worth against them. But are not all men of the same species ? What can make a difference between one man and another, but the endowments of the mind ? For my part, I shall always look upon the bravest man, as the noblest man. Suppose it were required of the fathers of such Patricians as Albinos and Beztia, whether if they had their choice, they would desire sons of their character, or of mine : What would they answer, but that they would wish the worthiest to be their sons? If the Patricians have reason to despise me, let them likewise despise their ancestors, whose nobility was the fruit of their virtue. Do they envy the honours bestowed upon me? Let them envy, likewise, my labours, my abstinence, and the dangers I have undergone for my country, by which I have acquired them. But those worthless men lead such a life of inactivity, as if they despised any honours you can bestow; whilst they aspire to honours as if they had deserved them by the most industrious virtue. They lay claim to the rewards of actity, for their having enjoyed the pleasures of luxury. Yet none can be more lavish than they are, in praise of their ancestors. And they imagine they bonour themselves by celebrating their forefathers; whereas they do the very contrary; for, as much as their ancestors were distinguished for their virtues, so much are they disgraced by their vices. The glory of ancestors cast a light indeed, upon their posterity ; but it only serves to shew what the decend. ants are. It alike exhibits to public view, their degeneracy and their worth. I own I cannot boast of the deeds of my forefathers; but I hope I may answer the cavils of the Patricians, by standing up in defence of what I have myself done.
Observe now, my countrymen, the injustice of the Patricians. They arrogate to themselves honours, on account of the exploits done by their forefathers, whilst they will not allow me the due praise, for peforming the very same sort of actions in my own person. He has, no statues, they cry, of his family. He can trace no venerable line of ancestors. What then? Is it matter of more praise to disgrace one's illustrious ancestors, than to become illus trious by one's own good behaviour ? What if I can show no statues of my family? I can show the standards, the armour, and the trappings, which I have myself taken from the vanquished : I can show the scars of those wounds which I have received by facing the enemies of my country. These are my stalues.--These are the lionours I boast of. Not left me by inheritance, as theirs; but earned by toil, by abstirence, by valour; amidst clouds of dust and seas of blood ; scenes of action, where those effeminate Patricians, who endeavour, by indirect means to deprecate me in your esteem, have never dared to show their faces.
VI.-Speech of Publius Scipio to the Roman Army, before
the Battle of Ticin. WERE you, soldiers, the same army which I had with me in Gaul, I might well forbear saying any thing to you at this time; for wlial occasion could there be to use hortations to a cavalry, that had so signally vanquished the squadrons of the enemy upon the Rhone, or to legions, by whom that same enemy, flying before them, to avoid a battle, did, in effect, confess themselves conquered ? But as these troops, haviug been enrolled for Spain, are there