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with my brother Cneius, making war under my auspices, (as was the will of the senate and People of Rome) T, that you might have a consul for your captain against Hannibal and the Carthagenians, have freely offered myself for
You, then, have a new general, and I a new army. On this account a few words from me to you, will be neither iinproper nor unseasonable.
That you may not be una rised of what sort of enemies you are going to encounter, or what is to be feared from them, they are the very same, whom in a former war, you vanquished both by land and sea; the same from whom you took Sicily and Sardinia, and who have been these twenty years your tributaries. You will not, I presume, march against these men with only that courage with which you are wont to face other enemies : but with a certain
anger and indignation, such as you would feel if you saw your slaves on a sudden rise up in arms against you. Conquered and enslaved, it is not boldness, but necessity that urges them to battle; unless you could believe, that those who avoided fighting when their army was entire, have acquired better hope, by the loss of two-thirds of their horse and foot in the passage of the Alps.
But you have heard, perhaps, that though they are few in number, they are men of stout hearts and robust bodies; beroes of such strength and vigour, as nothing is able to resist. -Mere effigies ! Nay, shadows of men ;-wretches emaciated with hunger, and benumbed with cold! bruise ed and battered to pieces among the rocks and craggy cliffs ! their weapons broken, and their horses weak and foundered ! Such are the cavalry, and such the infantry, with which you are going to contend; not enemies, but the fragments of enemies. There is nothing which I more apprehend, than that it will be thought Hannibal was vanquished by the Alps, before we had any conflict with him. But perhaps, it was fitting it should be so; and that, with a people and a leader who had violated leagues and covenants, the gods themselves, without man's help, should begin the war, and bring it to a near conclusion; and that: we, who, next to the gods, have been injured and offendi ed, should happily finish what they have begun..
I need not be in any fear, that you should suspect me: of saying these things merely to encourage you, wbile in
wardly I have a different sentiment. What hindered me from going into Spain? That was my province, where I should have had the less dreaded Asdrubal, not Hannibal, to deal with. But bearing, as I passed along the coast of Gaul, of this enenıy's inarch, I landed my troops, sent my horse forward, and pitched ny camp upon the Rhone. A part of my cavalry encountered and defeated that of the enemy. My infantry not being able to overtake theirs, which fled before us, I returned to my fleet; and with all the expedition I could use, in so long a voyage by sea and land, ain come to meet them at the foot of the Alps. Was it then my inclination to avoid a contest with this tremen. dous Hannibal ? And have I met with him only by accident and unawares ? Or am I come on purpose to challenge him to the combat? I would gladly try, whether the earth, within these twenty years has brought forth a new kind of Carthagenians; or whether they be the same sort of men who fought at the Ægates, and whom, at Eryx, you suffered to redeem themselves at eighteen denarii per head; whether this Hannibal, for labours and journies, be, as lie would be thought, the rival of Hercules; or whether he be, what his father left him, a tributary, a vassal, a slave to the Roman people. Did not the consciousness of his wicked deed at Saguntum, torment him and make him desperate, he would have some regard, if not to his conquered country, yet surely to his own family, to his father's memory, to the treaty written with Amilcar's own hand. We might have starved him in Eryx; we might have passed into Africa with our victorious fleet, and in a few days, have destroyed Carthage. At their humble supplication, we pardoned them; we released then when they were closely shut up without a possibility of escaping; we made peace with them when they were con quered. When they were distressed by the African war, we considered them, we treated thein as a people under our protection. And what is the return they make for all these favours ? Under the conduct of a hairbrained young man, they come hither to overturn our state, and lay waste our country. I could wish indeed, that it were not so; and that the war we are now engaged in, concerned only our own glory, and not our preservation. But the coutest, at present, is not for the possession of Sicily and Sardi
nia, but of Italy itself; nor is there behind us another army, which, if we should not prove the conquerors, may Inake head against our victorious enemies. There are no more Alps for them to pass, which might give us leisure to raise new forces. No, soldiers ; here you inust make your stand, as if you were just now before the walls of Rome, Let every one reflect, that he has now to defend, not only his own person, but his wife, his children, his helpless infants. Yet let not private considerations alone possess our minds; let us remember that the eyes of the senate and people of Rome are upon us; and that as our force and courage shall bow prove, sucha will be the fortune of that city, and of the Roman empire. VII.-Speech of Hunnibal to the Carthigenian Army, on
the same Occasion. I KNOW not, soldiers, whether you or your prisoners be encompassed by fortune, with the stricter bonds and necessities. Two seas inclose you on the right and left.;. not a ship to fly too for escaping. Before you is the Po, a river broader and more rapid than the Rhone; behind you are the Alps, over which, even when your numbers were undiminished, you were hardly able to force a passaģe. Here, then, soldiers, you must either conquer or the very first hour
enemy. But the same fortune, which has thus laid you under the necessity of fighting, has set before your eyes the most glorious reward of victory. Should we by our valour, recover only Sicily and Sardinia, which were ravished from our fathers, those would be no inconsiderable prizes. Yet what are those ? The wealth of Rome; whatever riches she has heaped together in the spoils of nations; all these with the masters of them, will be yours. The time is now come to reap the full recompense of your toilsomne march. es over so many mountains and rivers, and through so many nations, all of them in arms. This, the place which fortune has appointed to be the limits of your labour ; it is here that you will finish your glorious warfare, and receive an ample recompense of your completed service. For I would not have you imagine, that victory will be as difficult as the name of a Roman war is great and sounding. It has often happened, that a despised enemy has
you meet the
given a bloody battle; and the most renowned kings and nations, liave by a small force been overthrown. And if you but take away the glitter of the Roman name, what is there wherein they may stand in competition with you? For (to say nothing of your service in war, for twenty years together, with so much valour and success) from the very pillars of Hercules, from the ocean, from the utmost bounds of the earth, through so many warlike nations of Spain and Gaul, are you not come hither victorious ? and with whom are you now to fight? With raw soldiers, an undisciplined army, beaten, vanquished, besieged by the Gauls, the very last summer; an army unknown to their leader, and unacquainted with him.
Or shall I who was born, I might almost say, but certainly brought up, in the tent of my father, that most excellent general; shall I, the conqueror of Spain and Gaul, and not only of the Alpine nations, but which is still greater, of the Alps themselves--shall I compare myself with this halfyear's captain ? A captain, before whom should one place the two armies without their ensigns, I am persuaded he would not know to which of them he is consul. I esteem it no small advantage, soldiers, that there is not one among you who has not often been an eye witness of my exploits in war; not one of whose valour I myself have not been a spectator, so as to be able to name the times and places of his noble achievements; that with sole diers, whom I have a thousand times praised and rewarded; and whose pupil I was before I became their general, I shall march against an army of men, strangers to one an
On what side soever I turn my eyes, I behold all full of courage and strength. A veteran infantry; a most gallant cavalry; you, my allies, most faithful and valiant; you, Carthagenians, whom not only your country's cause but the justest anger impels to battle. The hope, the courage of assailants is always greater than of those who act upon the defensive. With hostile banners displayed you are come down upon Italy : You bring the war. Grief, injuries, indignities, fire your minds and spur you forward to revenge. First, they demand me, that I, your general, should be delivered up to them; next, all of you who had faught at the siege of Saguntum; and we were to be put to death by the extremest tortures, Proud and cruel naa tion ! Every thing must be yours, and at your disposal !!
You are to prescribe to us with whom we shall make war, with whom we shall make peace! You are to set us bounds; to shut us up within hills and rivers; but you, you are not to observe the limits which yourselves have fixed ! « Pass not the Iberus." What next? « Touch not tlie Saguntines : Saguntum is upon the Iberas; move not a step towards that city.” Is it a small matter, then, that you have deprived us of our ancient possessions, Sicily and Sardinia ? you would have Spain too. Well; we shall yield Spain, and then you will pass into Africa. Will pass, did I say ? -This very year they ordered one of their consuls into Africa—the other into Spain. No, soldiers, there is nothing left for us, but what we can vindicate with our swords. Come on, then. Be inen. The Romans may, with more safety, be cowards; they have their own country behind them, have places of refuge to fly to, and are secure from danger in the roads thither; but for you, there is no middle fortune between death and victory. Let this be but well fixed in your minds; and . once again, I say you are conquerors. VIII.---Speech of Adherbal to the Roman Senate, imploring
their Assistance against Jugurtha. FATHERS !
IT is known to you, that king Micipsa, my father, on his death bed, left in charge to Jugurtha, his adopted son, conjunctly with my unfortunate brother Hiempsal and myself, the children of his own body, the administration of the kingdom of Numidia, directing us to consider the senate and people of Rome, as proprietors of it. He charged us to use our best endeavours to be serviceable to the Roman commonwealth, in peace and war; assuring us, that your protection would prove to us a defence against all enemies, and would be instead of armies, fortifications and treasures.
While my brother and I were thinking of nothing but how to regulate ourselves according to the directions of our deceased father-Jugurtha--the most infamous of mankind !--breaking through all ties of gratitude, and of common humanity, and trampling on the authority of the Roinau commonwealth, procured the murder of my unfortunate brother, and has driven ine from my throne and