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power of our enemies, ten times inore dreadful than you do now-l declare, that this people, whom you so much despise, and to wliom, you are nevertheless indebted for all your victories, shall never more enlist themselves--not a man of them shall take arms-not a inan of them sball expose his life for imperious lords, with whom he can neither share the dignities of the state, nor in private life, have any alliance by marriage. X.-Speech of Junius Brutus, over the dead Body of Lu
cretia. YES, noble lady, I swear by this blood, which was once so pure, and which nothing but royal villany could have polluted, that I will pursue Lucius Tarquinius the proud, his wicked wife and their children, with fire and sword; nor will I ever suffer any of that family, or of any other whatsoever, to be king in Rome : Ye gods, I call you to witness this my oath ! There, Romans, turn your eyes to that sad spectacle--the daughter of Lucretia, Catalinus' wife-she died by her own hand. See there a noble la. dy, whom the lust of a Tarquin reduced to the necessity of being her own executioner, to attest her innocence. Hospitably entertained by her, as a kinsman of her husband's, Sextus, the perfidious guest, became her brutal ravisher. The chaste, the generous Lucretia, could not survive the insult. Glorious woman! But once only treated as a slave, she thought life no longer to be endured. Lucretia, as a woman, disdained a life that depended on a tyrant's will; and shall we-shall men, with such an example before our eyes, and after five and twenty years of ignominious servitude, shall we, through a fear of dying, defer one single instant to assert our liberty ? No, Romans, now is the time;--the favourable moment we have so long waited for, is come. Tarquin is not at Rome. The Patricians are at the head of the enterprise, The city is abundantly provided with men, arms, and all things necessary.--There is nothing wanting to secure the success, if our own courage does not fail us. And shall those warriours who have ever been so brave wlien foreign enemies were to be subdued, or when conquests were to be made to gratify the ambition and avarice of a Tarquin, be then only cowards, when they are to deliver themselves from
slavery ? Some ot' you are perhaps intimidated by the army which Tarquin now commands.
The soldiers, you imagine, will take the part of their general. Banish so groundless a fear. The love of liberty is natural to all mnen. Your fellow citizens in the camp feel the weight of oppression, with as quick a sense as you that are in Rome; they will as eagerly seize the occasion of throwing off the yoke. But let us grant that there are some among them, who, through baseness of spirit, or a bad education, will be disposed to favour the tyrant. The nuniber of these can be but small, and we have means sufficient in our hands to reduce them to reason. They have left us hostages, more dear to them than life. Their wives, their children, their fathers, their mothers, are here in the city. age, Romans, the gods are for us ;—those gods, whose temples and altars the impious Tarquin has profaned, by sacrifices and libations, made with polluted hands, polluted with blood, and with numberless-unexpiated crimes committed against his subjects.- Ye gods, who protected our forefathers--ye genii, who watch for the preservation and glory of Rome, do you inspire us with courage and unanimity in this glorious cause, and we will, to our last breath, defend your worship from all profanation !
XI.- Demosthenes to the Athenians, exciting them to prose
cute the War against Philip. WHEN I compare, Athenians, the speeches of some amongst us, with their actions, I am at a loss to reconcile what I see with what I hear. Their protestations are full of zeal against the public enemy; but their measures are so inconsistent, that all their professions become suspected. By confounding you with a variety of projects, they perplex your resolutions; and lead you from executing what is in your power, by engaging you in schemes not reducible to practice.
'Tis true, ihere was a time, when we were powerful enough, not only to defend our own borders, and protect our allies, but even to invade Philip in his own dominions. Yes, Athenians, there was such a juncture; I remember it well. But, by neglect of proper opportunities, we are no longer in a situation to be invaders; it will be well for us, if we can provide for our own defence, and our allies.
Never did any conjuncture require so much prudence as this. However, I shouid not despair of seasonable remedies, had I the art to prevail with you to be unanimous in right measures. The opportunities which have so often escaped us, have not been lost through ignorance or want of judgment, but through negligence or treachery. If I assume at this time, more than ordinary liberty of speech, I conjure you to suffer patiently those truths, which have no other end but your own good.
You have too many reasons to be sensible how much you have suffered by hearkening to sycophants. I shali therefore, be plain, in laying before you the grounds of past miscarriages, in order to correct you in your future conduct.
You may remember it is not above three or four years since we had the news of Philip's laying siege to the fortress of Juno, in Thrace. It was, as I think, in October we received this intelligence. We voted an immediate supply of threescore talents; forty men of war were ordered to sea; and so zealous were we, that preferring the: necessities of the state to our very laws, our citizens above the age of five and forty years, were commanded to serve. What followed ? A whole year was spent idly, without any thing done, and it was but in the third month, of the following year, a little after the celebration of the feast of Ceres, that Charademus set sail, furnished with no more than five talents, and ten galleys,' not half manned..
A rumor was spread that Philip was sick. That rumour was followed by another--that Philip was dead. And then, as if all danger died with him, you dropped, your preparations; whereas then, then was your time to push and be active; then, was your time to secure yourselves and confound him at once. Had your resolutions, taken with so much heat, been as warmly seconded by action, you
had then been as terrible to Philip, as Philip, recovered, is now to you.. " To what purpose, at this time, these: reflections? What is done cannot be undone."
But bv your leave, Athenians, though past moments are not to be recalled, past errors may be repeated. Have we not, now, a. fresh provocation to war? Let the memory of oversights, by which you have suffered so much, instruct you: to be more vigilant in the present danger. If the Olyn: thians are not instantly succoured, and with your utmost
efforts, you become assistants to Philip, and serve him more effectually than he can help himself.
Ti is not, surely, necessary to warn you, that votes alone can be of no consequence. Had your resolutions, of themselves, the virtue to compass what you intend, we should not see them multiply every day, as they do, and upon every occasion, with so little effect; nor would Philip be in a condition to brave and affront us in this manner. Proceed then, Athenians, to support your deliberations with vigor. You have heads capable of advising what is best; you have judgment and experience to discern what is right; and you have power and opportunity 10 execute what you determine. What time so proper for action? What occasion so happy? And when can you hope for such another if this be neglected ? Has not Philip, contrary to all treaties, insulted you in Thrace? Does he not, at this instant, straiten and invade your confederates, whom you have solemnly sworn to protect ? Is he not an implacable enemy? A faithless ally? The usurper of provinces, to which he has no title nor prelence ? A stranger, a barbarian, a tyrant? And, indeed, what is he not
Observe, I beseech you, men of Athens, how different your conduct appears, from the practices of your ancestors. They were friends to truth and plain dealing, and detested flattery and servile compliance. By unanimous consent, they continued arbiters of all Greece, för tbe space of forty-five years, without interruption; a public fund of no less than ten thousand talents was ready for any emergency; they exercised over the kings of Macedon, that authority which is due to barbarians; obtained both by sea and land, in their own persons, frequent and signal victories; and, by their noble exploits, transmitted to posterity an immortal memory of their virtue, superiour to the reach of malice and detraction. It is to them we owe that great number of public edifices, by which the city of Athens exceeds all the rest of the world in beauty and magnificence. It is to them we owe so many stately temples, so richly embellished, but above all, adorned with the spoils of vanquished enemies. But visit their own private habitations; visit the houses of Aristides, Miltiades, or any other of those patriots of antiquity; you will find nothing, not the least mark or ornament, to distinguish
em from their neighbours, They took part in the govnment, not to enrich themselves, but the public; they d no scheme or ambition but for the public; nor knew y interest, but for the public. It was by a close and eady application to the general good of their country,
an exemplary piety towards the immortal gods, by a rict faith and religious honesty betwixt man and man, id a moderation always uniform, and of a peace, they tablished that reputation, which remanins to this day, id will last to utmost posterity.
Such, 0 men of Athens, were your ancestors; so gloriis in the eye of the world; so bountiful and munificent their country; so sparing, so modest, so self-denying themselves. What resemblance can we find in the cesent generation, of these great men ? At a time when our ancient competitors have left you a clear stage; hen the Lacedemonians are disabled; the Thebans emloved in troubles of their own; when no other state hatever is in a condition to rival or molest you; in short, hen you are at full liberty; when you have the opportuity and the power to become once more the sole arbiters. f Greece; you permit, patiently, whole provinces to be vrested from you; you lavish the public money in scan, lalous and obscure uses ; you suffer your allies to perish n time of peace, whom you preserved in time of war: ind to sum up all, you yourselves, by your mercenary court, and servile resignation to the will and pleasure of lesigning insidious leaders, abet, encourage and strength. in the most dangerous and formidable of your enemies. Yes, Athenians, I repeat it, you yourselves are the conTrivers of your own ruin.
Lives there a man who has confidence enough to deny it?-Let him arise and assign, if he can, any other cause of the success and prosperity of Philip. “But,” you reply, “what Athens may have lost in reputation abroad, she has gained in splendor at home. Was there ever a greater appearance of prosperity ? A greater face of plenty ? - Is not the city enlarged? Are not the streets better paved, houses repaired and beautified ?" Away with such trifles; shall I be paid with counters ? An old square new vamped up! A fountain! An Aqueduct ! Are these acquisitions to brag of? Cast your eye upon the magistrate, under whose ministry you boast these precious