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extending ctlicr, in which, aside from the steady motions excited in it by the (light-giving) solar action, the gravitativo action of the revolving mass of the sun produces a disturbing effect—such effect, he finds by mathematical analysis, being adequate to cause in the disturbed space light-undulations. The related phenomenon, of a luminous arch several degrees in width across the whole sky, and spoken of by Prof. Brorsen as a " ring-form .of the zodiacal light," observed by Mr. Jones, near Quito, in 1856, by Brorsen, at Scnftenberg, Prussia, 1854-'8, and previously by Humboldt, otF tho coast of Mexico, Prof. Challis regards as due to "gravity-undulations" originated in like manner by the axial revolution of the earth. • Nebula.—An account was given in this article, in iho preceding volume, of the singular phenomena of variation and disappearance of certain nebula?, with allusions also to tho connection of these changes with irregular appearance or variability of certain stars situated in or close to the field of nebula?. In the " American Journal of Science," for Jan. 1863, appears a. translation of Prof. A. Gautier's "Keccnt Researches relating to the Nebula?" (from tho "IJibliotheque Universelle," Sept. 1862), and in which is to bo found a very complete statement of the facts accumulated in regard to these interesting bodies, up to tho date of appearance of the original article.
Besides a variation in brilliancy, certain neb•ula? have been observed to undergo changes of form or appearance. Such is now the view taken of the change in tho nebula or star-cluster, 80 of Messier, in Scorpio, in I860. This nebula, having on May 9th of that year its ordinary appearance, by the 28th of the same month had assumed tho aspect of a single star of 7-8th magnitude; and by the 10th of Juno following tho stellar appearance had nearly disappeared, though tho nebula was then brighter than usual, with a well-marked central condensation.
Quito recently, Chacornac has observed with tho great telescope of Foucault the annular nebula of Lyra, and ho has found it to be resolved into a mass of very small stars, exceedingly near to each other. Tho nebula presented to him tho appearance of a hollow cylinder, seen in a direction nearly parallel to its axis. As Lord Rosso describes it, its centre is veiled by ft curtain of nebulous matter, resolvable into a thin stratum of stars.
Sir John llcrschcl has remarked that tho proportion, to the whole number, of tho nebula? which are—if wo may so express it—multiple, is greater than the proportion, to the whole number, of the multiple stars. Assuming 5' as tho greatest distance apart of tho members of double nebula?, M. d'Arrest has estimated that out of the whole number of about 3,000 nebula? in that part of the heavens visible to us, somo two or three hundred may be regarded as multiple. He has found a triple nebula, 100° 12' of right ascension and S'J'3 45' of
northern declination, in which, as observed in 1785,-1827, and 1802, sensible changes appear to have taken place, indicating a movement of revolution of one part round another. Between the two components, which are only 28" apart, a very small star is seen exactly whore Lassell observed it ten years before. M. d'Arrest will hereafter cite other instances of change in tho relative positions of double nebula; though he docs not yet infer that any of them have periods of revolution so short as those of some of the double stars. Finally, he describes a very small number of cases in which, by repeated comparison after intervals of a nebula with somo small star near it, he has been able to show slight differences of distance or position, which might indicate a proper motion of one or the other of these bodies.
The La Lande Prize.—Tho La Lande (astronomical) prize, value 500 francs, was awarded by tho French Academy of Sciences, in January, 1803, to Mr. Alvan Clark, of Cambridgeport, Mass., for his discovery of tho companion of Sirius [mentioned in the preceding volume].
The great 18* inch object-glass with which Mr. Clark made this remarkable observation, has been purchased by the Astronomical Association of Chicago, for the sum of $11,187; about an equal sum being considered requisite to pav for mounting it properly.
AUSTRIA. (For notice of the Imperial ITouse, detailed statistics of the population, the different nationalities, religious denominations nud principal cities, see Annual Cyclopedia for 1862.)
The population of Austria at the end of 18C1, was estimated at 37,000,000 souls. The following portions of Austria form part of the German Confederacy:
The standing army consisted, in May, 1803, uf 185,182 infantry, 30,188 cavalry, and 39,455 other troops. Total, in time of peace, 263,825. In time of war, the strength of tlie army is 436,60$ infantry, 41,862 cavalry, 86,098 oilier troops. Total, 505,468.
The navy, in May, 1863, consisted of 64 steamers, the totil horse power of which was 11,325, and 663 guns; beside 2 ironclad frigates, in course of construction, with 1,300 horse power, and 68 gens. The number of sailing vessels was 51, with 348 guns. Total of steamers and sailing vessels, 117, with 1,084 guns.
At the beginning of the year 1803 the Provincial Parliaments of Salzburg. Upper and Lower Austria, the Vorarlbcrg, Silesia, Moravia, Carinthia, Istria, Goritz, Styria, Carniola, Dalniatia, the Tyrol, the Bukowjna and Bohemia, were in session. All these Diets gave in their adhesion to the Central Constitution, and adopted almost unanimously the principle of trial by jury.
The Austrian Parliament (Council of the Empire) was opened on Juno 18th, the same number of provinces being represented as in the year before. (See Annual Cyclopaedia for 1S62.) In his speech from the throne the emperor made a satisfactory retrospect of the activity of the Reichsrath, and expressed a hope that Transylvania would also shortly take part in its deliberations. He thus continued: The Reichsrath closed its first session under the ble;sings of peace, which the Government will endeavor to maintain undisturbed. Thanks to the liberal institutions of the empire, its material and intellectual life are everywhere being rapidly developed, and its influence and position as a great Power continually becoming more powerful. Tho financial condition of the entire is becoming more and more satisfactory. The credit of the state and the public currency have most decidedly improved. It has been unnecessary to apply for any extraordinary credit during the current year. The budget, which will bo submitted to you, has been prepared with a view to the greatest possible economy. Bills relative to taxation will be submitted to you, tho object of which is to reestablish the currency on a thoroughly sound basis. Bills will also be introduced upon the reform of the administration of justice, as regards the administration of penal law more especially. These reforms will comprise oral proceedings, publicity, and trial by jury. Tho Mis for the reform of the civil law relate to bankruptcy, the private arrangement of debts, md the right of domicile. .
Besides the provinces not represented in the Crtinril of the Empire in 1862, a majority of the Czech (Bohcnvan) members, and the representatives of the Italian portion of tho Tyrol, resolved to cease taking part in the proceedings of the Council. The Council thereupon resolved, in its session on June 29th, that there 'as no reason for the absence of the Czech members from the sittings of that body, and
they were summoned to make their appearance on pain of having their title to sit. as members cancelled. On the other hand, the Government and the friends of a United Austria had tho gratification to see for tho first time a representative from Transylvania. The Emperor of Austria, by a decree dated September 27th, had raised the Roumanian nationality to an equality, in civil and religious rights, with the other nationalities of the crownland. Hitherto tho Roumanians, although by far the most numerous of all tho nationalities of Transylvania, had been excluded from all political action. Hereafter, in accordance with the imperial decree, the nationalities legally recognized will bo tho Hungarians, tho Szeklers, the Saxons, and tho Roumanians; and a particular emblem will bo added for the Roumanians to the escutcheon of Transylvania. The Hungarians and Szeklers of Transylvania were greatly dissatisfied with this decree. Their deputies had already withdrawn in a body from the Diet of Transylvania. The two other "nations," tho Saxons and Roumanians, resolved to send delegates to the Council of the Empire, who, to the number of 26, took their seats in that body on October 20th. Shortly after the Council declared itself to be complete. Toward the close of November, the Obergespanns (chiefs of the public administration) of Croatia, in a meeting held at Vienna, resolved that Croatia also should send deputies to the Council, if tho February Constitution was modified in a manner guaranteeing to the Croats the maintenance of their autonomy, the integrity of their territory, and the disposal of the direct taxes and revenue of Croatia.
Notwithstanding the unceasing efforts of tho Austrian Government to reconcile the different nationalities, the animosity between them rather increased than decreased. This was tho case particularly with the Slavi and Germans in Bohemia and Bavaria, with the Germans and Italians in the Tyrol, with the Hungarians in Transylvania on this side, and the Germans and the Roumanians on the other. Galicia was kept in constant agitation by a secret revolutionary government, which in somo instances even decreed and inflicted the death penalty upon Poles who were regarded as opposed to the national Polish movement. But the most important of all the national manifestations took place toward the close of the year in Hungary. Tho "Alleanza " of Milan, a journal printed by tho Hungarian insurgents in Italy, published the text of a proclamation, issued in Hungary, in tho name of Kossuth. The proclamation was as follows:
JJi/ order of Louis Kossuth, the Rational Committee ef Independence to the Nation.—Fidelity to the flag of 184'.' survives in the heart of our nation. Refusing to accept any kind of compromise, tho great majority of the nation is firmly resolved to shake off the detested yoke of German domination, lint as the external signs of our national life have in recent times not been in harmony with that resolution, our natural ullies abroad have conceived doubts as to the firmness of our dosigns. These doubts have been Ihc greatest obstacle to the efforts of our Government tending to the deliverance of the country. The removal of that obstacle becomes nn imperious necessity before the new turn of European events—a turn offering a prospect full of promise to all the peoples who groan under a foreign yoke. AVe must give a sign of life in order that our natural allies may be convinced that against the common enemy they may surely count upon the arms of the Magyars. We must hold ourselves in readiness, in order that the ties of the terrified Austrian may not entangle our nation in the snore. We must prepare to be in a state to seize energetically Ihe favorable opportunity. For these purposes the Governor, Louis Kossuth, abolishing every previous order, and having judged it necessary to decree the formation of a new general committee, makes known, by the present document, to the nation, that in consequence of that order the General Committee of Independence is constituted ; that it has for its end the realization of the declaration of independence of 1849; and that, full of,resolution and ready for all sacrifices, it has taken in hand the direction of affairs, according to the instructions received, or to be received, from the chosen governor of our country. The committee expects, horn the patriotic sentiments of the nation, that the orders emanating from it will be promptly executed, that its instructions will be followed, and that its measures will be speedily accomplished. At the same time it calls upon the enemies, open and concealed, of the flag of 1H41), to abstain from any plot or intrigue if they would not incur the peiialty inflicted upon traitors. At all events, the General Committee of Independence declares that it will know how, and that it is determined, to secure obedience to its orders, and the accomplishment of the measures which it must take. Long live the nation and good hope. Let every honest patriot prepare himself for action. Our motto is—1840'and victory. Done at Iiude Pestii, the 2ith Dee., 1SG3.
It was asserted that tho National Committee of Hungary would act on the same footing as the secret Polish Government, that its manifesto had been placarded in all the towns of Hungary and Transylvania, and that it had produced a great sensation.
In the diplomatic complications arising out of the Polish difficulties, Austria took an active part. In common with France and England, she addressed several notes to Russia, urging upon the latter Power the expediency of adopting measures calculated to restore peace, but showed herself, however, averse to going to war with Russia. (Sec Poland.) She observed a strict neutrality in tho war between Russia and Poland. Some Galician members in the Austrian Council complained of the rigoror.s measures adopted by tho Government against the sympathizers with the insurrection, but the Council approved the steps which had been taken in this respect.
The Emperor of Austria, in August, proposed to the Governments forming the German Confederacy, a highly important plan for the reformation of the federal constitution of Germany. A Congress of Princes, and representatives of the four free cities assembled at Frankfort, on August 17th, and by a considerable majority adopted the Austrian plan; but as Prussia was not represented in this Congress, and did not consent to the resolutions, no result was obtained up to the end of the year 1803. (See Gebmaxt.)
In the Schleswig-Holstein question which, toward the end of tho year, began to disturb the peace of Europe, and in particular that of Germany. Austria, in union with Prussia, was in favor m recognizing Jung Christian IX. of Denmark, as Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. and to compel Denmark to repeal the constitution by which Schleswig was to be incorporated with Denmark Proper. This view was, however, not shared by the Frankfort Diet, nor by any considerable portion of the German people, and the Austrian Government eoon found itself in opposition to both*
BAIRD, Robert, D.D., an American Presbyterian clergyman and author, born in Fayette county, Pa., October Cth, 1798, died at Yonkers, N. Y., March 15th, 18G3. He received his collegiate education at Washington and Jefferson Colleges Pa., graduating at the latter in 1818. After leaving college he taught for a year at Bellefort, where he commenced, also, his career as a newspaper writer, in the village newspaper. In 1819 he entered the Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J., and pursued the usual course of theological study for three years, acting as tutor in the New Jersey College during his last year in the seminary. In 1822 he was licensed, and tho same year took charge of an academy in Princeton, over which he presided for the next five years with great success, preaching occasionally in the neighboring pulpits. In 1827 he determined to devote himself more exclusively to professional labors, and proposed to the American Bible Society a plan for supplying every
destitute family in New Jersey with a Bible, which was adopted and carried into execution through his exertions. He also accepted an appointment as agent of the Missionary Society of New Jersey, and labored for two years among the feeble and destitute churches of bis denomination in that State. In 1829 he accepted an appointment as agent of the American Sunday-school Union. For nearly six years he travelled extensively in its behalf, throughout the United States, holding meetings in most of the prominent cities and towns, and enlisting the services of able speakers, statesmen, and divines, to address the audiences he had collected. By these labors be raised the annual revenues of the Union from $5,000 to $28,000. In 1835 he visited Europe, and remained there, with the exception of two brief visits home, for eight years, devoting himself to the promotion of Protestant Christianity in Southern Europe, and subsequently to the advocacy of the Temperance Reform in Northern Europe. Possessing a fine personal appearance, a kindly face, an amiable disposition, and rare affability of manner, and being an accomplished linguist and a man of extensive general information, he enjoyed extraordinary opportunities of mingling in the best circles of European society, and was on terms ofpersoif.il and friendly intercourse with many of the crowned heads of Europe. He was also the valued and intimate friend of the most eminent scholars and evangelical clergymen of Great Britain and the Continent; and, from his abundant labors on both sides of the Atlantic, received tho name of the "International Preacher." Upon the formation of the Foreign Evangelical Society, since merged in the American and Foreign Christian Union, he became its agent and corresponding secretary. In 1842 he published, in Scotland, "A View of.Religion in America," a work which excited much attention in Europe, as being the most complete account of the religious condition of the United States which had been published up to that time. It was translated into some of the continental languages. In 1843 he returned home and remained for three yeare engaged in active labors for the promotion of the work of aiding the spread of Protestantism in Europe, both by personal and written appeals. In 1846 he again visited Europe to attend the World's Temperance Convention in Stockholm, and the meeting of the Evangelical Alliance in London, and spent about a year and a half abroad, visiting Russia, where he was very cordially welcomed by the Czar, and also the German States. On his return he delivered, in connection with his labors as Secretary of the Christian Union, a series of lectures on the Continent of Europe, in most of the principal cities of the country. He subsequently crossed tho Atlantic several times, bnt his visits there were less protracted than those already mentioned. He took a great interest in the Waldenses, and rendered efficient sen-ice in bringing their churches and institutions into Turin and its vicinity. His last visit to Europe was made in 1862, and he vindicated, in London, before public assemblies, the cause of the Union against secession with great energy and eloquence, thougli many of his former friends were at that timo hostle to the United States. Dr. Baird had been, through life, a man of most indomitable industry, and found time, amid his other arduous labors, to prepare many volumes for the press. Among them are the following: "View of the Valley of the Mississippi," 1832; "History of the Temperance Societies" (translated into five languages),. 1836; li View of Religion in America" (already mentioned), Glasgow, 1842 (this was translated into seven or eight languages); '•Protestantism ip Italy," Boston, 1845; "The Christian Retrospect and Register," New York, 1851; "History of the Albigenses, Waldenses, and Vaudois; " " Visit to Northern Europe," 1857; besides many small volumes, pam
phlets, etc., etc. nis death was quite sudden, and was caused by a severe hemorrhage from the lungs,- which occurred on the 11th of March.
BALDWIN, Roger Shehman, LL.D., an American jurist and statesman, born in New Haven, Conn., January. 4th, 1793; died in the same city February 19th, 1863. lie was of Puritan stock on both the father's and mother's side, his father, the Hon. Simeon Baldwin, being a descendant of one of the Puritan emigrants who settled at New Haven with the Rev. John Davenport; whilst his mother was the daughter of Roger Sherman, one of the most eminent of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, himself descended from the early Puritan settlers of western Connecticut. The Hon. Simeon Baldwin, or Judgo Baldwin, as he was usually called, had represented his district in Congress for some years, and was subsequently, until lie reached the limit of ago assigned by the State Constitution, Judge of the Superior Court and the Supreme Court of Errors of the State.
His son, the subject of this notice, entered Yale College at tho age of fourteen, and graduated in 1811, with high honors. On tho completion of his collegiate course, he commenced the study of law, first in his father's office, and afterward in the then famous law school of Judges Reeve and Gould, at Litchfield, Conn. Here his intense application, and his rapid acquisition of the science of law gained him a high encomium from Judge Gould. He was admitted to tho bar in 1814, and by his industrious and thorough study of the principles of law, his careful preparation of his cases, his remarkable command of pure and elegant language, and the precision, definiteness, and logical character of his pleas, soon attained a very high rank in his profession. His preference was for the classes of cases which involved the great principles of jurisprudence rather than those where suocess depended upon appeals to the sympathies or prejudices of a jury; still ho was rarely unsuccessful in jury cases, and his dignified and lofty eloquence, enforced as it was by tho conviction that he would not^ngage in a cause which ho believed to be unjust or dishonest, gavo him great weight with a jury. One of the most celebrated cases in which he was engaged, and one in which his great qualities as a lawyer were finely displayed, was that of tho Africans of the Amistad, in 1841. He managed their case against tho Spanish authorities, who claimed them as the slaves of parties in Cuba, in tho district court of Connecticut; and when the decision there was in favor of the Africans, and the executive authorities at Washington had appealed tho case to the Supreme Court of the United States, he was associated with the venerable John Quincy Adams in defending their right to freedom. His plea on that occasion was pronounced by his learned and eloquont colleague, and by Chancellor Kent, one of tho ablest forensic efforts ever made in that august court. At the age of fifty he was regarded, and justly, as not only holding the highest rank as a pleader in the Connecticut har, hut as being, in the words of General Kimberly, himself one of the finest legal minds of the century, " the ablest lawyer that Connecticut has ever produced in any part of her history." In 1S37 Mr. Baldwin was elected to the State Senate, and reelected the following year, when ho was chosen president of that body pro tempore. In 1840 and 1841 he was the representative of New Haven in the General Assembly. In 1844 he was elected governor of the State, and reelected the following year. In 1847 he wasappointed by the governor to the United States Senate, to fill the unexpired term of the Hon. Jabez W. Huntington, and in the following May elected to the same position by the Legislature. His course in the Setiate was highly honorable to himself and the State ho represented. He took his place at once among tho giant intellects of the Senate of that time, and though he spoke but rarely, his speeches were always impressive and able. The exclusion of slavery from the territory acquired in consequence of the Mexican war was a measure to which he bent the energies of his powerful mind, and he had the happiness to witness the passage of the resolutions on this subject which he had introduced and advocated. His course in this measure met with tho approbation of men of all parties in his native State. He also opposed with great vigor and eloquence the Compromise Bill of 1850, and especially that portion of it which contained a new Fugitive Slave Law. On ono occasion Mr. Mason, of Virginia, attempted to disparage Connecticut for retaining 3,500,000 acres of her western lands for State purposes. Mr. Baldwin replied, in an eloquent and spirited speech, in which ho showed that while Virginia had reserved fourteen millions of acres of her western lajuls for military bounties to her soldiers, Connecticut, with a larger patrimony, had reserved but three and a half million acres, and that for a school fund, while her patriotic soldiers, who outnumbered by ono half the Virginia soldiers, though from a State with only one third its population, volunteered without bounty. Gov. Baldwin was the candidate of his party for tho senatorsliip for the term of 1851-'o7, and would have been elected but for the opposition of four or five members of the party, who insisted on pledges from him, which he deemed it inconsistent with his character and independence to give, and tho election was postponed for a year, at which time the democratic party were in the majority, and their candidate was elected. From this time Gov. Baldwin remained in private life, devoting to his profession his great abilities, ripened and mellowed by his increasing years. In 1860 he was ono of tho two electors at large on the ticket for the election of President Lincoln, and by appointment of Governor Buckingham, was a member of the "Peace Congress" of Februa
Among the States which have witnessed an increase in their Baptist membership, Illinois stands first on the list, her net gain being 2,856, more than that of all tho other States put together, and nearly nine per cent, of her former numbers.
The anniversaries of tho American Baptist Missionary Union, of the American Baptist Publication Society (inclusive of the American Baptist Historical Society), and of tho American Baptist Home Mission Society, were held during tho year in Cleveland, Ohio, from August 19th to 21st. The receipts of the Missionary Union during the year amounted to $103,956 (against $95,193 the year before). Tho number of its minions is 19; the number of churches about 375, with 31.000 members. The anniversary assembly of the Missionary Union unanimously adopted a scries of resolutions on the state of tho country, of which the following arc the most imjKirtuiit:
Resolved, That the Authors, aiders, and abettors of this .slaveholders' rebellion, in their desperate efforts to nationalize the institution of slavery, and to extend its despotic sway throughout the land, have themselves inflicted on that institution a series of most terrible, and fatal, and suicidal blows, from which, wc believe, it can never recover, and they have, themselves, thus fixed its destiny and hastened its doom; and that, for thus overruling what appeared at first to be a tcnib'c national calamity, to the production of-rc