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BRADISH, LtTnER, an American statesman and philanthropist, born in Cummington, Mass., Sept. 15th, 1783, died at Newport, R. I., Aug. 30th, 1803. He was graduated at Williams College, Mass., in 1804, and soon after commenced the study of the law in New York, with which place his interests were thenceforth in a great measure identified. After having made a lengthened tour in Europe, ho embarked in 1820 on board the United States ship of war Columbus for the Mediterranean, for the purpose of collecting and communicating to the Government information respecting the commerce of the Levant, preliminary to the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Porte. At the conclusion of his mission he travelled over many parts of Europe and the East, and in 1820 returned to New York. About the same time he removed to Franklin county in the northern part of the State, where he owned a large landed property, was a member of the Assembly 1827-30, an unsuccessful candidate of tho Anti-Masonic party for Congress in 1830, and again a member of the Assembly in 1835-'38, serving during his last term as speaker. From 1829 to 1843 he was lieutenantgovernor of the State, and in 1842 ho was the unsuccessful whig candidato for governor. Subsequently to that period he lived in retirement, except during the administration of President FillmoBO, when he filled tho office of Assistant U. S. Treasurer for New York. During tho latter part of his life, which he passed in the city of New York, ho was much occupied with educational, charitable, and reformatory projects, and at his death was president of tho New York Historical Society and of tho American Bible Society, having for many years previous been vice-president of both associations, and an active participator in all their proceedings.
BRAZIL. (For statistics, Kc Cyclopedia for 18G2.) Emperor Pedro II. de Alcantara John Charles Leopold Salvador Bibiana Francis Xavier do Paula Leocadio Michael Gabriel Raphael Gonzaga, born December 2d, 1825, son of the Emperor Pedro I. de Alcantara, ascended the throne, under tutorship in virtue of the abdication of his father, on April 7th, 1831, assumed the reins of government on July 23d, 1840; crowned July 18th, 1841; married Sept. 4th, 1848, to the Empress Therese Christine Marie, born March 14th, 1822, daughter of the late King Francis I. of the Two Sicilies.
Tho Brazilian army consisted, in 1S59, of 13,304 infantry, 2,724 cavalry. 3,582 artillery, and several smaller bodies; together, 22,546 men. In the financial bill for the year 1803'G4, presented to the Chambers in May, 1802, the effective force of land troops was fixed at 14,000 men, and in extraordinary cases at 25,000; that of marines at 3,000, eventually, 5,000.
The recent discovery of three extensive coal fields is of great importance forthe development of the resources of the country. 'With the exception of rumors as to the finding of surface coal, there had been nothing definite known of the existence of coal in that country. Reports, however, of the presence of coal reached Mr. N. Plant, the State geologist in Brazil, and in 1802 he fitted out an expedition to tho districts of Rio Grande do Sul. He there discovered a largo coal field, which had been named the Candiota, extending over about 150 square miles. The second was on the Rio Ratos, extending over about 50 square miles; and the third was in the province of San Catharina, extending over about 80 square miles. The first field was the largest, and took its name from tho river Candiota, which flowed along one side of it, and to which the field presented a noble escarpment about seven leagues long. The river had \vashcd through tho strata, and laid bare the coal beds, which could be worked in the valley from the surface. The field was partly in Brazil, and partly in the free republic of Uruguay. The country from the sea to the coal bed was a table land of basalt, by which the coal field was bounded on the east side, and on the southwestern side it was bounded by the syenitic rocks, which rose to a considerable elevation. The mineral could be conveyed in a day or so from the coal field along the Candiota and the river Jaguarao to San Pedro, where it would be of great service to tho ocean-going steamers. The quality of the coal was considered to be good, and as it was similar to the Australian coal, it was believed to belong to the oolitic age. It was highly bituminous, admirably suited for steam, but perhaps not so good as some English coal for ordinary purposes. In a deposit of 114 feet 05 feet were coal, the thickest stratum being 25 feet The coal strata were separated by thin seams of clay and other deposits which sometimes totally disappeared, and in places thcro was a solid bed of coal 65 feet thick. The discovery of such a mineral was of immense commercial importance. The annual exports of coal to Brazil from England alone w^ere 250,000 tons, at the rate of 4!)s. per ton, and these newly-discovered bedfe could be worked for 18s. per ton. Mr. N Plant had obtained direct from the emperor what was termed a " concession" to .work these coal beds, and he looked to English capitalists to assist him in turning it to account.
In tho Asxual Cylopjidia of 1SG2, the ccennnt of the difficulty between Brazil and England was continued to Jan. Oth, 1863. The people of Brazil showed with regard to this dispute the greatest determination. The Municipil Chamber of Rio had an audience with the emperor, in order to express to him their thanks for the prompt and energetic conduct of the Government, and to give him the assurance that the people of Rio would be ready to make any sacrifices which the honor of the country might demand. . The emperor replied that the Brazilians might depend upon him in the hour of danger.
A committee appointed by the mercantile community to solicit subscriptions in the eventuality of a foreign war met on the 1st of Jannary, at the house of the Viscount Ipanema, its chairman. Mr. Ottoni, the leader of the ultra-Liberal party, was appointed secretary. On the opening of the session a letter was read from the major domo of the emperor, announcing that the emperor had subscribed a monthly sum of 24,000 francs as long as it might be doc-med necessary, to put the country in a state of defence; the empress a sum of 15,000 francs, and moreover 3,000 francs every month, and each of the princesses 3,000 francs a month. The emperor repeatedly visited the forts situated at the entrance of the bay, and a great agitation continued to exist in all classes of society. Enlisting offices were opened, and a large number of volunteers enrolled themselves.
It may be stated, to the honor of the English press and people, that the conduct of Mr. Christie, tho British minister at Rio, was generally condemned. They declared it to be, oven from a commercial point of view, entirely unpardonable to establish—for a pecuniary claim, amounting, according to Mr. Christie himself, to only £5,525, and which the British Government itself reduced to £3,200—a virtual blockade of Rio for nearly a month, and make reprisals to the value of more than £6,000. From the correspondence laid before the English Parliament it appears, that Earl Russell, in issuing instructions to Mr. Christie, expressly gave him authority to make another reference to the British Government respecting the response that might be made his ultimatum before resorting to reprisals, and that Mr. Christie, concealing that authority from the Brazilian Government, preferred the abuse to tho use of those instructions. It also appears that the discussion was conducted, on his part, with a «ant of temper and discretion which rendered » pacific solution impossible, without such a sacrifice of principle and dignity, on tho part of Brazil, as would have been a source of danger to the stability of tho empire.
On February 26th, the Brazilian envoy, at London, paid the indemnity demanded by the English Government for tho pretended pillage of the English vessel Prince of Wales; but, at tjie same time, protested against the acts of England. The further negotiations between tie two Powers led to no result. On May
28th, the Brazilian minister at London left that city, after having broken off diplomatic relations, and on June 6th, the English envoy was recalled from Rio.
On June 18th, the King of Belgium, to whoso arbitration the two Powers had agreed to submit one of tho two points of litigation, gave his decision, which was entirely in favor of Brazil, lie declared that the arrest of two British officers and a British .chaplain by the Brazilian police was not intended to be an insult to the honor of Great Britain, and that it could not be so regarded. This decision only expressed the opinion of all Europe, which, from the beginning of the difficulty, looked upon tho transaction as an encroachment of England upon a weak power. Even Portugal, generally the steadfast friend of England, was no exception, and the whole press of tho kingdom denounced the unwarrantable conduct of the British Government.
Subsequently tho King of Portugal offered his mediation, in order that the diplomatic relations between Brazil and Great Britain'might be renewed. In reply to this, the Brazilian Government declared that, much as it wished the successful issue of so benevolent a proof of friendship and interest, it could not take advantage of that noble offer so long as there did not exist on the part of the British Government any explicit acceptance of that offer.
When the news of a rupture of diplomatic relations between the Governments reached Brazil, it produced a profound impression. Tho most perfect unanimity prevailed among nil political parties as to the duty of Brazil not to submit to the demands of England. In Pernambuco tho news of tho rupture was received just previous to tho festival of St. Anthony, and a printed handbill was immediately circulated in the streets, demanding that tho English flag should be removed from the flags of friendly nations, which were to be displayed on the occasion, and that the flag of the United States be substituted in its place. The request was complied with.
In May, 1863, Mr. Webb, the American minister at Rio, called the attention of tho Brazilian minister and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, to a gross breach of neutrality perpetrated, and continued, on the part of tho representatives of his Majesty's Government in the ports of Pernambuco and Bahi.i. Tho ports of Brazil, he said, are made harbors of refugo and places of resort and departure for three piratical vessels—tho Alabama, Georgia, and Florida—avowedly designed to prey upon the commerce of tho United States. He asked the Imperial Government to promptly visit upon the offending governors tho punishment they so richly merited. He urged a light of the United States to demand the capture of the Alabama by Brazil, if possible, ns a duty duo alike to itself, to the United States, to humanity, and to civilization.
To this the Marquis d'Alvantis positively declared that tho Government of his Majesty was firmly resolved to maintain and to cause to be respected, the neutrality in the terms in which it was declared when assumed; and that it was not disposed to allow this neutrality to be violated in any way by those interested in the contest, still less by the delegates of the Government itself.
Secretary Seward acknowledged the prompt, just, and friendly proceedings adopted by the Brazilian Government, but reserved the question, whether indemnities would be duo to the United States for the losses and injuries inflicted upon their citizens.
Of the commerce between Brazil and the United States some interesting statements were made by the Rev. Mr. Fletcher, formerly Secretary of Legation at Brazil, in an address to the New York Board of Commerce. He said: That during his connection with the Legation at Brazil he was afforded an opportunity of examining the Government archives, and was forcibly struck with the large balance of trade against the United States.- We had spent millions of dollars in opening a trade with Japan, while we had neglected the far richer field opened to us at our own doors. The trade of Japan with the rest of tho world was only about 12,500,000 annually, while that of Brazil was $183,000,000. In the year 1801 we sent gold to all South America, except Brazil, $8,000,000 worth, and to Brazil $6,000,000. "Wo bought from South America (Brazil excepted) $14,000,000, and from Brazil $18,000,000. Ihis was an exceptional year, owing to the war. In 1859 and 1800 we bought from $21,000,000 to $22,000,000 of Brazil, and sold her about $6,000,000. Mr. Fletcher then dwelt at length upon the richness of Brazil; its immense resources, present and prospective; its fortunate geographiqal position; its topographical and geological characteristics; the salubrity of its climate, and its general adaptation to all tho wants of mankind, all of which conspired to show that it would eventually becomo the largest producing country in the world, with perhaps the exception of the United States. He also spoke of tho political condition of Brazil, the rights guaranteed to all men there without regard to color, and the measures in progress for the speedy extinction of slavery. After extensive travel in Brazil he was prepared to say that two thirds of its territory was adapted to the raising of cotton; and he had gathered tobacco a thousand miles up the Amazon river, which had been declared by good judges to be equal to the best quality of Havana. In concluding, ho referred to the want of proper transportation between the United States and Brazil, and carefully demonstrated the advantages of direct steamship communication. Passengers now must go in English steamers by way of England to that port, and trade, to some extent, takes the same circuitous route. The Liberals in Brazil were desirous of establishing better means of transpor
tation between their country and the United States'; they were now in a majority, and a proposition had already been made by them looking to the freedom of Brazilian ports, the opening of the Amazon, and the establiahmect of direct steamship and mail communication. The interests of the merchants of the United States, and particularly of New York, demanded that this subject should receive adequate attention.
BRIDGEPORT, is a. station on the Nashvillo and Chattanooga railroad near the State line of Tennessee. At this point the railroad crosses the Tennessee river by a bridge which was partly destroyed by tho army of Gen. Bragg on its retreat from the State—it was occupied by the force of Gen. Hooker at the time when communication with Chattanooga was interrupted. Several boats were built at Bridgeport to be used as transports for the Federal armv.
BRONSON, Hon. Gkeexe C, a distinguished lawyer and politician, died at Saratoga, aged about 65 years. He was a native of Oneida, and resided the greater portion of his life at Utica, in that county, where he enjoyed an extensivo practice and a high reputation. In April, 1819, he was chosen surrogate of Oneida county; in 1822 was a member of Assembly, and in 1829 was elected attorney general, which latter office he held up to Jauuiiry, 1836, at which time he was elected one of the Puisne Judges of the Supreme Court of Judicature. He was next appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1845; and, two years subsequently, one of the Judges of the Court of Appeals, then just organized. After leaving the bench he removed to New York, and practised law; but, having become involved in some unfortunate speculations, he lost nearly the whole of his property. In 1853 he was appointed collector of the port, but was removed in 1854. In December, 1859. he was elected corporation counsel, which office he held until January, 1863. As a lawyer, he ranked among tho first in this country. In politics he was a staunch democrat, and was the leader of the Hard Shells, lie was the candidate for governor of that section of the democratic party, in 1855.
BRUINSFORL) on BRUINSBURG, is a small village in Claiborne county, Mississippi. It is on a point of land on the east bank of the Mississippi river, and is the spot where Gen. Grant's army landed when it crossed the river below Yieksbnrg.
BUFORD, Jonx, a major-general of volunteers in the United States service, born in Kentucky in 1825, died at Washington. Dec. 16, 1863, of typhoid fever contracted in service with the army of tho Potomac. His early training and education were carefully conducted, and his mental and moral development gave bright promise of future usefulness. He was appointed from Illinois, to the Military Academy at West Point, and graduated in 1848, standing well in his class, and in the estimation of all who knew him ; was appointed brevet second lieutenant of 1st Dragoons and served on the Plains until the war broke out, when he promptly and heartily ottered himself to the service of his country. His rare abilities as an officer attracted the attention of the Government, and he was early made a major in the Inspector-General's corps. His peculiar duties did not give him an opportunity to engage in the leading campaigns until 1862, when ho was made a brigadier-general, simply as an acknowledgment of his military merits. In the early part of 1862, ho fought under Gen. Pope, in his Virginia campaign, succeeding General Stoneraan (who afterward became his commander) on Gen. McClellan's staff, during the battle of Antietam. When the present cavalry organization of the army of the Potomac was perfected, of which Gen. Stoneman was at that time the chief, Gen. Buford was assigned to command the reserve cavalry brigade. Ho was subsequently conspicuous in almost every cavalry engagement, and at Gettysburg commenced the attack on the enemy nt Seminary Ridge before tbe arrival of Reynolds on the 1st of July, and on the second of July rendered important services both at Wolf's Hill and Round Top. A short time previous to his death he was assigned to the command of the cavalry in the army of the Cumberland, and had left the army of the Potomac for that purpose. He was a splonditl cavalry officer and one of the most successful in the service; was modest, yet brave; unostentatious, but prompt and persevering; ever ready to go where duty called him, and never shrinking from action however franght with peril. His last sickness was but brief, the effect, probably, of'protracted toil and exposure. On the day of his death, and but a little while before his departure, his commission of major-general was placed in his hands. He received it with a smile of gratification that the Government he had defended, appreciated his services, and gently laying it aside, soon ceased to breathe.haps the most beautiful to be observed among all the alkali and earthy metals. Kirchhoff and Bunsen, in the figure originally given by them, had represented 11 lines: to these, which they do not find altogether correct in position, the authors add 7 more; viz., 4 red lines, one of which is as bright as any of that color in this spectrum, a fine yellow line, and two unimportant green ones. Bunsen, in a later communication (Pogg. Ann., csix. 1), states that he found Allen's method for preparing pure caesium inapplicable in case of sources furnishing very minute quantities of this element. He even avails himself of the great deliquescence of the chloride of caesium (in an atmosphere at once moist and warm) for obtaining the metal entirely free from rubidium. He now admits the correctness of the chemical equivalent, 183, found by Johnson and Allen. These authors, in their latest communication, agree with him in attributing the want of deliquescence of the caesium chloride, in their earlier experiments, to the influence of an atmosphere at the time relatively cool and dry. Their views in reference to the spectrum of caesium Bunsen does not substantially contradict; and it appears that a part of the disagreement between the two sets of results had arisen from differences in the spectroscopes employed in the respective experiments. (“Amer. Jour. of Science,” Jan. and Nov. 1863.) CALIFORNIA. One of the Pacific States of the Union first settled in 1769, ceded to the United States by Mexico, by the treaty of March 16th, 1848, and admitted into the Union as a State in 1850. Its capital is Sacramento, population in 1860, 13,788. The area of this State is 188,982 square miles, and its population in 1860 was 379,994, of whom 23,848 were Chinese and Mexican half-breeds, and 14,555 Indians. The governor of the State, from December 1863 to January 1868, is Frederick F. Low, whose official residence is at Sacramento. His salary is $7,000. The election for State officers, except superintendent of public instruction, was held September 3d, 1863. Gov. Low, Union, received 63,165 votes; the democratic candidate, John G. Downey, receiving 43,229. In October, an election was held for judges of the supreme and district courts, and the Union candidates, Oscar L. Shafter, Lorenzo Sawyer, S. W. Sanderson, John Curry, and A. L. Rhodes, were elected. The Union majority in the State was about 20,000. The Legislature elected at the same time stood as follows: Senate, 35 Unionists to 5 Democrats; Assembly, 72 Unionists to 8 Democrats—Union majority on joint ballot, 94. Under the provisions of the amended Constitution the sessions of the Legislature are to be biennial, meeting on the 1st of December of the odd years, 1863, 1865, etc. The time of session is limited to 120 days; senators are elected for four years, one half being elected every second year; the Assembly is elected for two years.
BURN'S, Hon. Robert Easton, was born at Niagara, C. W., on the 26th December, 1805. His father was the Rev. John Burns, a Presbyterian minister, who emigrated from Scotland in 1803, and became principal of the Niagara Grammar School. Educated by his father, young Burns commenced the study of the law at the age of 16, in the offico of the late Mr.
John Breckenridge, of the town of Niagara, C. W. He was called to the bar immediately after concluding his studies, and practised for some years in Niagara, St. Catherine's, and Hamilton, with considerable success. In September, 1837, he was appointed Judge of Niagara District, and in the spring of 1838 went to Toronto and entered into partnership with Attorney General Hagerinan. When the seat of Government was taken to Kingston the Count of Chancery followed, and Mr. Burns became resident of that city, but removed again to Toronto on. the Government becoming established in Montreal. Hero Mr. Burns became a partner of Mr. Philip Vankoughnet, the present Chancellor of Upper Canada, and Mr. Oliver Mowat, the present Postmaster-General, but was very soon appointed to the important office of Judge of the Home District, which he held until the year 1848 or 1849, when he resigned to form a partnership with Mr. John Duggan. A very short time afterward, however, ho was appointed by the Baldwin-Lafontaine government puisne Judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, an office which ho held until his death. A few years ago, ho was appointed Chancellor of the University of Upper Canada. His last public duty was performed at tho Hamilton Assizes, about two months before his death. He returned home suffering from an attack of dropsy, accompanied by a genernl break-up of the constitution, and was unablo afterward to leave his house. At noon on tho 12th January, 1868, his sufferings, which had been severe, were brought to a close, and he peacefully expired, surrounded by tho members of his family. Mr. Burns married first, on tho 10th Feb. 1835, Anne Flora Taylor, daughter of Mr. John Thomas Taylor. By this marriage he had four sons, three of whom survive him. His wife having died in September, 1850, in 1S56 ho married Miss Britannia Warton, of Toronto, who died in 1808. Tho funeral of tho Judge took place from his residence, Yorkville, on Thursday, the 14th of January, at two o'clock, and was largely and respectably attended. Although Mr. Justice Burns never engaged in politics, yet as a leading member of the Chancery Bar, and the occupant of three judicial situations he filled a prominent position in Upper Canada, lie possessed a sound judgment, an accurate and retentive memory, and large experience.
The population of California has probably diminished somewhat during the year 1863, from the great excitement among the mining people in relation to the extraordinary productiveness of the gold mines of Idaho and of the Colorado river region in Arizona, and the large yield of the Nevada and Colorado Territory silver and gold mines. In California, placer mining is almost wholly abandoned in the oldest mining districts, though it pays well in the more recently discovered deposits, and in some sections, where the auriferous earth is deep. The shallow placers, where the gold was washed out in a cradle or tom, are now only resorted to by the Chinese miners who are contented with small gains. Sluice and hydraulic mining are now the processes most in use in placer diggings. The for. mer requires a considerable stream of water, in such a position that it will permit a fall of from twenty to one hundred feet. This stream is conducted through an artificial aqueduct composed of sluice boxes (boxes of rough boards twelve feet long and from five to twenty feet wide, one end being four inches narrower than the other, so that the ends of the boxes may slide into each other); these boxes are set upon trestles at different angles of depression, according to the character of the dirt—tough clayey dirt requiring a steeper pitch than that which is more sandy. An eight-inch pitch or grade, that is, eight inches for each sluice box, or length of twelve feet, is the lowest grade generally used, and sixteen inches the highest. The sluice boxes have riffle-bars or clusters of slates with spaces between, wedged into them either longitudinally or at different distances across, to catch the gold and fine dirt, and to give the quicksilver an opportunity to come in contact with the fine particles and form on amalgam with them. The quicksilver is usual. ly put in near the head of the sluice, which may be fifty or five hundred feet in length, according to the circumstances, and the dirt
being thrown in by the miners, and the water
let on, the washing of the gold goes on with: out cessation, usually from three to ten days, when the miners “clean up" by taking out a
ortion of the rifle-bars at a time, and collect.
ing the coarse gold and the amalgam, pressing
the gold from the mercury by straining it through cloth or buckskin, and sometimes increase the product by panning the fine sand, which is usually rich in gold, which has collect. ed in the rifts and corners of the sluice. Where there are considerable quantities of boulders, the sluice boxes wear out very rapidly, and hence, where it is practicable, the miners often make the bottom of the sluice of cobble stones instead of wood. As water is not over-abundant in most parts of California, and it is desirable to use it as economically as possible, the miners sometimes, where they find a hill of auriferous earth situated near their sluice,