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colorless ntid crystalline base, leucanilin: this forms silts which are triacid.
The formulas of the three bases now named exhibit a remarkable connection—a sort of homology in which H3 is the constant difference. They are now given by Dr. Hofmann as follows:
The same author has examined the beautiful blue coloring matter obtained from crude chinolin, by action of iodide of methyl, or of ethyl, &c, and termed r.yanin. The iodide of this base has the formula Cjoiijbnj. Another and homologous base, its iodide CioHuNJ, is in the commercial cyanin associated with tho former. (ComptesEendiis, liv. 423; Iv. 817-49.)
More recently, Hofmann has determined the facts that either anilin or toluidin, pure and taken singly, does not yield coloring matters with oxidizing agents. Sinco a mixture of these two bases readily yields the characteristic colors, lie infers that tho coloring matters contain buth the phenyl and tolyl molecules. For tho anilin blue, he has found the formula CnHjiNa; and regarding this as rosanilin in which 3 equivalents of II are replaced by 3 of phenyl, he considers its rational formula to be C1IHn(CiaIIj)j'N'j, and terms it triphenyl-rosanilin. It is prepared by heating rosanilin with an excess of anilin. This base, free, is a white amorphous substance: its chlorhydrate has a bluish-brown color, and dissolves in alcohol with a magnificent blue. Ti\p iodides of methyl, ethyl, and amyl act readily upon rosanilin, forming new coloring matters analogous to anilin blue, and which contain three equivalents of one or other of the three radicles just named, in lieu of 3H. Tho author promises further communications on the nature of anilin-grcen, anilin-violet, and azulin. (Ibul. lvii. 25.)
V. PuYsico-CnEMioAL Phenomena and Principle. Dialysis.—M. Ern. Guinet has been investigating tho phenomena of transport through porous bodies. Having experienced difficulties in the use of tho dialyser of vegetable parchment [nee under Chemistry, prec. vol.], he substituted for it a porous septum of pipeclay, similar to the material of tho porous caps of certain batteries'. With this he succeeded in repeating most of Graham's principal experiments; and he also performed some which with the parchment septum appeared impossible.
Thus, into a mixed solution of gum and sugar was plunged a porous vessel containing pure water: in 24 hours most of the sugar had traveled the porous vessel and was dissolved in the water, which did not, however, contain a trace of gum. In like manner bichromate of potassi is speedily separated from its solution with caramel. M. Guinet was at the time of writing experimenting with a view to obtain a soluble modification of cotton,' by separating
this substance from its solution along with ammoniacal oxide [query: sulphate ?] of copper —the latter alone passing through the septum. This experiment could not be made with the vegetable parchment, since the latter would be acted on by the ammoniacal copper.
The author finds that the diffusibility of different crystalloids in a given liquid, as bisulphide of carbon, is by no means tho same. When iodine, sulphur, and naphthaline are dissolved in the bisulphide, the latter permeate a porous vessel into pure bisulphide much sooner than the former. The explanation he gives of phenomena generally of the sort here considered, is not directly chemical, or physico-chemical, as that of Mr. Graham, but simply mechanical, though conditioned "upon differences in character of the molecules of different substances.
He supposes the porous membrane or septum of any sort to act merely as a sieve, through which the molecules of various bodies pass with greater readiness ns they are more attenuated. Thus, the crystalloids, which pass readily, have generally a compound atom but slightly complex; while the colloids, which are detained, have a high equivalent and considerable atomic volume—a consequence of their highly complex atom. And the less diffusible of the crystalloids are, also, those which correspond to the greatest atomic volume (taking for this, however, the quotient of the atomic weight by the density, which cannot be exact). Such an instance he considers as being presented in case of the two elements, iodine und sulphur, the former of which is the less diffusible.
Dissociation of Bodies by Heat.—M. SainteClaire Deville has made some interesting discoveries in connection with the decomposition of bodies by heat. On passing through a porous earthen tube a current of hydrogen, this clement diffusss so rapidly that the gas which issues from the other end of tho tube will be found to be, not hydrogen, but air. If this porous tube be surrounded by a longer and shorter tube of glazed porcelain, and carbonic acid be passed into one end of the latter, the two gases will be found to have changed places by tho time they have reached tho other end of the two tubes.
When the tubes were heated to 1100'—1300* C, and a current of steam passed through the inner one, while a carbonic acid current is made to pass through the outer tube, the gas collected at the other end of tho tubes consisted of hydrogen and oxygen gases, mixed with carbonic acid—a fact showing that tho steam, or a portion of it, had undergone decomposition.
Deville is led to consider the decomposition of a substance as in all'respects analogous to the ebullition of a liquid: water is completely decomposed at a temperatnro sufficient to expand its vapor to ten-fold its volume at 0" O. The decomposition can also take place at lower temperatures, the phenomenon being in this respect analogous to that of tho evaporation of liquids below their boiling points. Deville has also extended his observations to the dissociation of the elements of carbonic acid by means of heat.
Deposit of Camphor toward the Light.—It has been generally stated in books of chemistry that camphor vapor has a tendency to be deposited toward the light; that is, if a bottle containing camphor be exposed to sunlight, the camphor will be deposited in crystals against that side of the bottle which is turned toward the light. Mr. C. Tomlinson's experiments have led him to conclude that heat is the real agency concerned in determining the phenomenon thus observed. He exposed a great number of bottles of camphor to light under different circumstances (as, for intance, when immersed in water), and found that no deposit was formed under those conditions that prevented a radiation of heat.
His theory is to the effect that, in all cases in which deposits are produced in preference upon one side of a containing vessel, as of such materials as camphor, naphthaline, iodine, mercury, water, &c, from the state of vapor, this result is determined in accordance with two well-known laws: 1, there has been a radiation of heat to greater extent from that surface, rendering it colder than the vapor in its vicinity; and, 2, a condensation of vapor then takes place by contact with the colder surface. A like result i3 obtained with some salts in solution.
VI. Theoretical Chemistry. Numerical Relations of the Alkali-Metal Equivalents.—M. Dumas remarks that, among the alkali-metals, thallium is (so far as yet known) the last term of a scale of numerical relations in which lithium is the first, and in which the equivalents of tho others mark so many different degrees. Thus, taking Li as 7, and correcting Dumas' list and ratio (in this single particular) with Profs. Johnson and Allen's result for cajsium, we have the following scale:
Lithium 7.. 7
Cast u m 133
Now, between certain terms of this series the following striking relations are to be discovered:
1. Li, Na, and K form a triad, the equivalent of the middle term of which is exactly tho
7 + 39 mean of those of tho other two, thus, —-—
2. K, Rb, and Cs appear to form a second
triad, the equivalent of its middle term being
almost exactly the mean of those of the other
.. 39 + 133 ..
two; thus, — = 86.
3. Addition of double the weight of Na to that of K. gives precisely the weight of Rb; thus, 23x2 + 39 = 85.
4. Addition of double tho weight of Na to
the weight of Rb, gives approximately the weight of Cs; thus, 23 x 2 + 85 = 131.
6. Addition of double the weight of Na to 4 times that of K, gives approximately the weight of Tl; thus, 23 x 2 + (39 x 4) = 202.
These relations, Dumas believes, must attract the attention of chemists; and without attributing to them a value that the actual numbers would not justify, they show the interest which attaches to the careful comparison of the equivalents of bodies belonging to the same family.
[The analogies above shown, if they have any real value, would appear to suggest a doubt whether the equivalents of some of the elements here considered have yet been with entire correctness determined.]
VII. Applications Of Chemistry.—For certain applications of chemical facts and principles, the reader is referred to the subject of Illumination, and some others of the heads previously mentioned in this article.
Coloring Articles of Copper and Brass.—Mr. J. Hunt, of Birmingham, England, coats articles of copper and brass with platinum, by immersing them in a weak solution of the bichromate of that element, heated to the boiling point, and then by the galvanic battery in the usual method causing the deposit of a thin film of the metal over their surfaces. The effect is to impart to tho articles so treated a bright steel color,.which, when the articles before immersion are burnished, is of a beautiful bluish cast.
Bronzing Cast Iron.—The pure copperwhich is deposited by a galvanic battery has been found to be peculiarly adapted to the coating of cast-iron figures exposed to the weather. This copper is mixed in a state of powder with oil, and is then laid on with the brush, as a paint. The iron balcony decorating the facade of tho Thedtre Frangais, in Paris, is thas bronzed.
New Uses of Aluminium Bronze.—An account of the composition and properties, and of certain uses, of aluminium bronze, was given in the preceding volume. As the bronze is very ductile, and well suited to the processes of rolling and hammering through which s^eel and gold require to be passed in the making of pens, Mr. R. Pinkney, of London, proposes to substitute it for those metals in the manufacture of pens. He states that the alloy of which tho aluminium amounts to 95 per cent, has a fine gold color; while that in which the copper forms 7i per cent., is of a beautiful green.
Mr. J. Erwood, also of London, has patented the manufacture of bronze powders and leaf from the aluminium bronze, and which are intended to take the place of the powders and Dutch-metal leaf in common use, for application to paper-hangings, gildings, &c. Copper 90 parts to 10 parts of aluminium are said to produce a bronze of a fine yellow color. This is rolled, annealed, and beaten to the thinness of foil or leaf; and in this form it can be used for common gilding. By stamping and grinding the foil, in the manner in which the ordinary powders are produced from tin and brass, the new bronze powders are obtained. The foil and the powders are applied by pressing or dusting them upon varnished surfaces.
Paints from Iron Slag.—The iron slag produced in puddling furnaces, containing a large quantity of oxide, can, it is found, when reduced to powder, bo employed as a substitute for litharge, as a drier for paints. It is prepared by pulverizing, washing and drying. It serves not only as a cheap drier for paints, but also when mixed by itself with oil, as a cheap paint for coarse uses.
Silccring Cloth.—Mr. J. Cimeg, of London, has patented a process for depositing metallic particles upon fabrics of silk or wool. lie states that the concentrated juice of fruits, as of currants and apples, contains iu small amount a chemical principle capable of acting as a mordant on cloth, and of precipitating' from the state of solution the particles of certain metals, as silver and gold. Having cleansed thoroughly a silk or woollen fabric, to remove from it nil oily and gummy matters, he immerses it (for silvering) for a short period in a solution of nitrate of silver, ammonia, and Eochelle salt; after this the fabric is steeped in the fruit juice. In consequence of the reaction then taking place, pure silver is, from the solution of the nitrate previously taken up by the cloth, deposited upon its fibres. The fabric being cleansed in soft water, the silver is found to adhere to it, and so as to be incapable of removal by washing.
Rendering Fabrics Non-inflammable.—In a notice of this subject in the Cyclopaedia for 1S02, mention was made of the use for the purpose specified of the chloride of zinc, the sulphate of ammonia, tung3tate of soda, and common salt. It is recommended also to mix the phosphate of ammonia with chlorhydrate of the same base; an efficacious solution should contain 20 per cent, of this mixture; or of the sulphate alone a 7 per cent, solution will prove equally effectual. Either of these can be applied in those manufactures where stuffs are stiffened under the action of hot air or by cylinders heated by steam; but they cannot be used where the common smoothing-iron is to lie employed, from the fact of their being then decomposed by the heat. In such case, however, a 20 per cent, solution of tungstate of soda may be employed; but like borax, alum, 4c, tin's is liable to destroy the thread of cotton 8tutT3. All these solutions should be applied to the stuffs after they have been first stiffened with starch and dried. Common salt is not liable to either of the sorts of objection holding against the ammonia salts on one hand, and the tungstate of soda on the other.
M. Sauvageon has discovered that cotton stuffs exposed for awhile to the vapor of burning sulphur, assume such a degree of incombustibility that, although they will char and
become brittle when held over the flame of a spirit lamp, yet they cannot be made to take fire; while in the same circumstances, similar fabrics not so prepared are inflamed at once. It would appear an easy matter to subject white clothing after washing to the vapor of sulphur; and an incidental effect would be that of bleaching it more perfectly. How often the exposure would be necessary appears not yet to be known; nor, perhaps, whether the fibre is damaged in consequence. But the suffocating and poisonous properties of the sulphur vapor (sulphurous acid) would evidently necessitate much precaution in any attempts at a domestic application of this method.
Caustic Soap for Cleaning Flax, &c.—In the "Scientific American "—to the weekly notices of discoveries and of important patents appearing in whjch, we are indebted also for some
other items under this topic date of April
4th, 1863, an account is given of Mr. Henry's patent for a highly caustic 6oap, to be used in the treatment of flax, hemp, nettles, straw, grass, &c, to obtain fibre for spinning. The soap is made by combining a concentrated solution of caustic alkali with oil, grease, or other saponifiable substance, in such a way as to secure an excess of alkali. Mr. Henry states that after the gathering of flax, &c, no further preparation than that of steeping in a solution of such soap is requisite: the fibre will then be properly freed from the glutinous matters of the plant; and pulp for paper may also be thus obtained. The use of the soap in moderate quantity is said to take the place of the usual rotting process, and to render the subsequent crushing operation much more easy. The gummy and oily parts of the plant are so removed, or disintegrated, that upon subsequent washing a clean and beautiful fibre is obtained.
Purification, and also Concentration, of Waters, by Freezing.—Sea-water, in freezing, forms flakes of ico consisting of nearly pure water, the residual liquid being then extremely saline, so that in some northern countries it is used to furnish salt. Dr. Kobinet, of Paris, has recently applied the same process for the purification of fresh water. He found the ice of water taken from the Seine, and from wells and springs, and then frozen, to be nearly as perfectly freed from such impurities as salts of lime and magnesia, as is distilled water. It is accordingly now proposed to procure fresh water on shipboard, not by distillation, but by congelation.
Again, the concentration of mineral waters has long presented a difficult problem, from the fact that, if heat were resorted to, it expelled the gases in solution in such waters. Dr. Henry, of Paris, has now experimented by congelation upon forty varieties of mineral water, reducing these to \, fV, and even ^ of their original volume, but without removing or altering the gases contained in them. It is quite certain, however, that in some cases changes will under such process take place in the salts in solution; and so far, this will vary the therapeutic properties of the waters. Theconcentration will secure great economy in transportation; and the ice meanwhile obtained has of course its value. Messrs. Tichon and Melsens, of Aix les Bains, Savoy, have recently put in a reclamation on the score of this process, claiming to have applied it since 1856 for the improvement of the taste of disagreeable sulphurous waters, and also to concentrate their mineral ingredients. The former asserts that the method will not suit all mineral waters, since it alters organic matters if these are held in solution in them.
Manvfacture of lee.—The objects to be socured in the processes just treated of, are much facilitated by the new method of M. Carr6 for the manufacture of ice, and of course, for the freezing of waters for any required purposes. This method, which attracted much attention in the Exhibition of 1802, and of which a full description is to be found in V Annee Scienlifique el Industrielle, by Figuier (1863), is one which M. Carre has based essentially upon an apparatus of American invention, that of Prof. A. 0. Twining. The latter had produced ice in a brief time by the cold consequent on volatilization of sulphuric ether; but a difficulty existed in the way of maintaining the requisite vacuum: M. Carre now substitutes ammonia, previously liquefied by condensation; the frigoriiic effect being due to the large amount of heat which becomes latent in this material when allowed again to assume the gaseous form. The new apparatus, which can be worked cither intermittently or constantly, is being introduced into many branches of industry. Besides its application for purifying water, and for concentrating mineral waters, as above referred to, it is also employed by brewers for freezing the wort of beer destined to undergo fermentation; by restaurant keepers for proparing ices and sherbets; and by vine growers to concentrate wines.
Alcohol, Manvfacture of, from Ohfiant Gas. —See this subject under the preceding division of Oroanio Compounds.
A New Safely Paper.—Mention is made in "Macniven and Cameron's Paper-trado Review," of a new safety paper, designed to prevent forgery or alteration of shares, bank-notes, checks, bills, or any paper demanding such security. The sheet of this paper is formed of several layers of pulp superposed, and which can be of different colors or nature, according to requirement. It is only necessary that the middle layer of the paper be colored of a delible or destructible color, when, if acids or other chemicals are employed to obliterate the writing or print on its surface, they will also destroy this color; and the hue wanting at such spot cannot be restored save by means that will destroy the whiteness of the surface of the paper. Thus this plan is likely to serve as an excellent check to the fraudulent, alteration of documents.
Protection of Skins and Furs from Vermin. —Dry skins, as those of stuffed birds and aui
mals, as well as furs, &c, are known to be subject to the attack of insects, by which they may soon be destroyed. To prevent such injury, P. W. Payras, of Paris, has taken out a patent for treating such articles with a mixed solution of the sulphate and the chloride of zinc, of a strength corresponding to 15° Beaum6, with the addition of ten grains of arsenic to each quart of the liquid. The preparation having been applied with a brush or sponge to the fleshy side of the skin, the latter is then hung up and dried. Where greater expedition is desired, the whole skin may bo dipped in the solution, and then dried. The liquid should be kept in a glass or porcelain vessel. In moderately cold climates, the addition of arsenic may be dispensed with.
Gold and Ruhher Plates for Artificial Teeth. —Mr. M. Cartwright, of London, has patented plates for artificial teeth, composed of gold and india-rubber intimately blended. The rubber having been first dissolved in benzine, leaf gold is then ground with it until an intimate mixture, and which is plastic, is formed. This compound is further softened by heating, until it can be worked into the model of the plate required; afterward it is vulcanized by heat in a suitable oven.
CHILI, a republic in South America. The population amounted on December 31st, 1801, to 1,648,804 inhabitants, of whom 822,727 were men, and 826,167 women. The annual increase is about 20,000. In 1861,10,004 marriages were celebrated, being at the rate of one for every 153 inhabitants. The Chilian army numbered 2,028 men, and the national guard 20,839. The custom house receipts of Valparaiso, in December, 18C2, presented an excess of 30,000 piasters over those of December, 1801, and the general receipts for 1802 an excess of 240,000 piasters over the receipts of 1861. The budget of expenditures for 1863 was fixed at 0,529.000 piasters.
The political history of Chili presents no events of marked importance. In the President's message on the opening of Congress, in June, reforms wero as usual noticed and great promises made.
The Chilian Government claimed the ownership of the guano lately discovered on the coast in Mejillones, in conformity with a law of 1842, which declared all discoveries to be "public property," but subsequently stated its willingness to grant licenses to load vessels as formerly, when applied for according to custom house regulations, and thus in a great measure satisfied the public.
At the beginning of the year, Chili had a serious diplomatic difficulty with England. The British representative claimed £50,000 for damages for the loss of an arm sustained by a young man, "Whitehead, who had most imprudently and unjustifiably exposed himself by his interference with a sentry in the streets during the late revolution. The enforcement of this claim by order of the British Government, excited the greatest indignation throughout the country, not only among the natives hut also among the British residents. A meeting of about four hundred of the most influential British merchants was held in Valparaiso, to express their feelings with regard to the claim, and they were unanimous in condemning it as most unjust. The English Government, at length, consented to compromise the matter.
On the 8th of December, 1862, Santiago, the capital of Chili, was the scene of a terrible calamity. The church of the Jesuits, while crowded in the evening to overflowing by more than three thousand persons, caught fire. The c.imphene in a transparency on the high altar set on fire its frame-work, and wrapped in flame a kind of tabernacle wholly composed of canvas, pasteboard, and wood. As no less than twenty thousand lights in long festoons of colored globes hung in the church, with gauze and drapery of every description, the whole interior was in a few minutes an inextinguishable bonfire, and a rain of liquid blue fire poured down npon the crowded masses below. The church had only one door of easy access, which, opening inside, was soon blocked up, and made escaj>o impossible. In less than a quarter of an hour, about two thousand human .beings had perished, including many children, but very few men. Feats of the most prodigious valor and thrilling heroism were performed by many individuals on the spot. Mr. Kelson, the American ambassador, in particular, distinguished himself. Ho was instrumental in saving the lives of fifty young ladies, and never deserted his post at the threshold of the doors until the roof had fallen in, when a complete shower of sparks and cinders seemed to envelop him. He was carried from the spot, with his clothes smouldering, and his hair singed to the roots.
On December 11th, he addressed a letter to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the republic, expressing the profound regret caused in his mind, and in that of his fellow citizens residing in Chili, for the terrible misfortune, and assuring the Chilian Government that the Government and people of tho United States would feel the deepest sorrow upon receiving the news of this catastrophe. To this letter Senor Toorn.il, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Chili, replied, on December 12th, that he was specially charged by the President of the republic to as3uro tho representative and the citizens of the United States who had taken part in the public mourning, that the noble conduct manifested by them upon this sal occasion would ever be gratefully remembered by the Chilian people and Government. To allay the popular excitement, tho Government i-sned an order that the building in which the disaster occurred should be razed to the ground. The Legislature also passed an act providing that henceforth there should be no illuminations of churches and splendid night services, and that proper measures should be taken in all tho
churches to secure a sufficient number of doors. Another result of the calamity was the organization of a fire brigade. On the 31st of December, a similar calamity had nearly befallen the worshippers in another church of Santiago, but fortunately the fire was extinguished.
In point of material prosperity, Chili is making great progress. Tho railway of Coquimbo, and the line from Santiago to Valparaiso, are finished, and it was intended to construct a telegraphic line from Valparaiso to Panama.
CHINA. An empire in Eastern Asia. Emperor: Ki-Tsiang (before his accession to tho throne, Tsai-Sung), born in 1835, succeeded his father Hiengfung in August 22d, 1861. Prime Minister, Yihsoo, Prince of Kung. Population, in 1849, estimated at 415 millions. Area, estimated by McCulloch at 76,815 geographical squaro miles, by Malto Brun at 69,840, by Barrow at 60,072.
Tho treaty of Nankin, concluded in 1812, opened to foreign commerce tho ports of Canton, Amoy, Fu-tcheu, Ningpo and Shanghai. The treaty of Tien-tsin opened also the following ports: Kiung-tcheu on tho island of Hainan, Taiwan upon the island of Formosa, Swatan on the coast of the province of Kiangtung, Tchi-fou on the northern coast of tho province of Shan-tung, Nintchiang in tho gulf of Leaotong, and the ports of Chinkiang, Kiukiang and Hangchow on theYang-tse-kiang. The treaty of Pekin, of Oct. 24th and 26th, opened the port of Tien-tsin.
Since the middlo of tho year 1SG2 the Imperial Government, supported by England and France, has been constantly gaining upon the powerful Taeping rebellion. A number of English and French oilicers have been in the employment of the Chinese Government and formed different corps of native troops, which learned from them the tactics of the European troops. Several of the French officers lost their lives in engagements with tho Taepings. Thus Admiral Protet was killed in an attack upon the city of Kiu-ting, which he undertook to take from tho insurgents. Two other officers, Lebreton and Tardif de Moidry, captains of artillery, were likewise killed. Tho latter was succeeded byGen. d'Argraibelle, who, in March, 1803, compelled the insurgents to evacuato the towns of Shaouh-sing (DO miles from Ningpo) and Scaousan (20 miles from the former place), and to fall back upon Hangchow. In Oct. 1SG3, tho Franco-Chinese cimtingent captured Foyang, ■which was accomplished with 900 men and four guns.
The American General Ward, who had greatly distinguished himself in the servico of the Chinese Government, was mortally wounded on September 20th, 1862, in an engagement with tho Taepings near Ningpo, and died on the following day. Be was succeeded in the command of tho disciplined Chinese by Gen. Burgevine, who, however, got very soon into difficulties with the Chinese. On Jan. 4th, 1863, Gen. Burgeviue marched into tho settlement of