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street, Lampeter College, and the Bristol Institution of Science. He designed the London and Westminster Bank, the Taylor Buildings at Oxford, the Sun Fire Office in Threadneedle street, the Church of St. Bartholomew, and completed the St. George's Hall at Liverpool, the architect, Elwes, having been worn out with the work. In 1819 he was appointed surveyor of St. Paul's, which office he held till his final retirement from the profession. About the year 1832 he became architect of the Bank of England, and in that capacity executed important works, not only at headquarters, but also at Bristol, Liverpool, Manchester, and Plymouth. In his efforts for the advancement of art, he was eminently catholic and liberal, lie was long a director of the School of Design at Somerset House, and was connected with the Royal Academy, where he held a position of much influence. He was for forty years treasurer of the Artists' General Benevolent Institution; was president of the Royal Instifite of British Architects, receiving the first fold medal awarded by her Majesty to the institute. He was also a member of the Dilletante Society, and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. His honors were not confined to his own country. He was appointed one of the eight foreign members of the Institute of France, in 1841 ; was a member of the Royal Academies of Bavaria, Belgium, Copenhagen; of the Society of Arts of Geneva; of the Archaeological Society of Athens, and of the Institute of Architects of New York, in 1860. He was the author of a preface to the " Iconography of the "West Front of Wells Cathedral," and of many valuable papers written for the Archaeological Institute.
COLOMBIA, United States Of, a federal republic in South America, which, until September 20th, 1861, was called New Granada. The area of the republic is estimated at 521,343 English square miles. It consists at present of nine States, beside the Federal District of Bogota; the names, capitals, and population of which are exhibited in the following table:
Snta. Capital! Population.
Panama. Panama 188,103
BMtrar Cartagena 182,157
Vtclalena Snnta "Maria 780.093
■inlander. Pamplona 37S.878
Antioquia Antioquia 224.442
Bnjar* Til nja 879,6S2
C'undinamaria Funza I .-. ttta
Tolima Puriflcacion f 4'4'MS
Panca Popuyan 830.881
Federal District..Bogota 43,000
The receipts for the financial year beginning September 1st, 1861, and ending August 31st, 1362, were estimated at 1,824,000 piastres,* 'he expenditures at 2,136,517 piastres: deficit, 212,517 piastres. The public debt for the samo financial year was as follows: Interest on the external debt, 202,000 piastres; interest on the internal debt, 218,104 piastres; interest on the
* A piastre la equal to an American dollar.
floating debt, 68,100: total, 488,204. The army, which is divided into four army corps, was to consist, according to the law of August 24th, 1861, of 19,385 men. The importations amounted in the year 1856-57, to 3,255,873 piastres; the exportations, 7,064,584.
An important revolution broke out in this republic at the beginning of the year I860. The Liberal party, under the leadership of Gen. Mosquera, rose against the constitutional President Ospina, who had entered upon tho presidential office, on April 1st, 1857, as the successful candidate of tho conservative or Federalist party. On July 18th, 1801, Mosquera took possession of Bogota, tho federal capital, deposed President Ospina, and assumed the reins of Government. The Federalist party continued to have control of the southern portion of the republic, with Antioquia as the seat of Government. The representatives of tho Liberal States met in a Congress at Bogota, which closed on October 20th, 1861. They assumed the name United States of Colombia, and adopted a new constitution, according to which the legislative bodies of tho republic were to be a Senate, consisting of three senators from each of tho now States, and a Chamber of Representatives, chosen by tho nine States and the Federal District, at the rate of one representative for every 60,000 souls, and every fraction over 20,000.
The leader of the troops of tho conservative party, Gen. Arboleda, was assassinated in November, 1862, and was succeeded in tho command of the Federalist army by Gen. Canal. On December 29th, 1862, an agreement was made between Gen. Canal and Gen. Mosquera, which'put an end to the civil war. Gon. Canal, together with his troops, submitted to the Government of the United States of Colombia, which, in its turn, pledged itself to grant a complete amnesty. On February 4th, 1863, deputies of all the States met at Rio Negro, in the State of Antioquia, to form a constitutional convention. Gen. Mosquera resigned to the convention tho dictatorial power which had been conferred upon him on September 20th, 1861, and tho convention appointed a Provisional Government, composed of five ministers, who were to remain in office during the organization of tho constitution. Tho new liberal constitution was proclaimed on April 23d, 1863. According to its provisions, each State administers its local affairs independently of tho Federal Government. Congress and the President are elected by tho States. Gen. Mosquera was appointed Provisional President until tho 1st of April, 18G4, when tho President elected during the year 18G3 by the people, was to take his place. During tho existence of tho Provisional Presidency, there was to be no fixed capital, Gen. Mosquera having the power to move it where ho pleased. Among the provisions of the new constitution was one granting religious liberty, and another confiscating the church property. This called forth an encyclical letter from the pope to the bishops of the republic, condemning both the confiscation of the church property, and the establishment of religious toleration, and urging the bishops to use the whole influence of the Church for the repeal of these features of the constitution. At the end of the year the conflict between Church and State had not terminated.
In the latter months of the year, a war broke out between the United States of Colombia and Ecuador. Gen. Mosquera, whose course in bringing about these hostilities was generally censured by the press of South America, victoriously advanced into Ecuador. On December 30th, peace was restored between the two republics by a treaty, which, at the same time, established between them free trade.
At the presidential election held toward the close of the year, Senor Murillo, the minister of the republic at Washington, was elected. ITidterm of offico begins in April, 1864.
A revolution of the conservative party against the Government of the republic, broke out in November, 18G3, in the State of Antioquia, but it did not assume largo dimensions, and seemed to be nearly at an end at the close of the vear.
COMMERCE. Tho year 1863 has not exhibited much advance in a commercial point of view. The expectations that had been entertained of an immediate renewal of trade as a necessary consequence of tho opening of the Mississippi, and the continued occupation of the Atlantic coast of South and North Carolina, and the penetration of the troops into the Texan country, have not been realized; and tho foreign commerce of the country has greatly contracted in face of the improved harvests in Europe. These have enabled the people to dispense witli much of the breadstuff's and provisions which were the main staples of tho national export. Tho official statement of the Treasury Department gives the following returns of tho trado of the Union for the fiscal years 18C2 and 1863. The fiscal year ends Juno 30th.
Import*. 186?. 1863.
Goods §1Sr>,!04,771 $252,731,939
Specie 10,415,052 9,555,648
Total $205,S19,823 $2G2,2S7,5ST
Domestic produce..$131,875,098 $249,350,649
Foreign ■' .. 11.027,830 17,790,200
Specie 8t!,SSC,950 04,150,010
Total $229,790,230 $331,809,459
The import valuations are in specie, being the invoice value of tho goods entered. Tho export values are at the legal tender prices, and require to be corrected by the premium on gold in order to approximate to the value actually realized for tho goods abroad. The average rate of specie for the year 1803 was nearly 60 per cent. The "balance of trade," so called, may then be approximated as follows:
""specie value '173,435,233
Excess Imports $74,296,700
Net specie export direct 64,000,902
There remains $20,000,000, which has been met by the sale of California and Canada bills, which have been sent: in the former case against gold shipped from San Francisco, and in the latter case against gold carried unreported to Canada. There is, however, a correction to be made from this result, since the exports of goods from California have been on a specie valuation. The currency in that State has continued to be in the precious metals, and, as a consequence, prices of commodities there have maintained their specie values. The prices in New York and San Francisco on the siime day were as follows for the same articles:
Gold 152 pur
Greenbacks. par CSe.
Coffee, Java 40c. 274c 12jc
Coffee, Bio S3c. 23c. 10c
Shirting.? 2Sc 20c. Sc
Prints, Mcrrimacks... 23c 17c. 6c.
Prints, Spragucs 22c 16c. 6c
Denims 51c 25c. 26c.
Cambrics 24c. 18c lie
Flour. $7 00 $4-50 $2-50
Wheat, white 1-77 1<KI 77c
Hay 8200 14-00 1800
Oak bole Leather 41c 80c He
Iron, Scotch 4000 42 00 4-fO
Kice, Pntn.1 650 400 250
Sugar, New Orleans.. lljc 9c. 2fc
The exports of wheat from San Francisco to England declined. This wheat is of a quality which commands 10 per cent, higher price than that of the Western States. Wheat therefore has ceased to be an article of export from the Atlantic States into California in exchange for gold.
The duties, under the existing tariff, weighed heavily upon the imports. The value of dutiable goods imported as above was $202,731,939, and the amount of duty paid was $69,059,641 or an average of 34 per cent. The cost was therefore as follows:
Invoice cost of Import? $202,731,959
Advanco in exchange, 50 per ct. 5101.365.9(39
Gold for exchange, 60 " . 84,5i9,S21 204,K5,4?2
Total cost landed $407,6S7,s:i
This cost is exclusive of freight, insurance, storage, labor, commission, <fec, which raised the .cost to fully 150 per cent, of the invoice prices. These imports include largo quantities of those raw materials, cotton, wool, naval stores, &c, that formerly were our staple exports, but which now must be imported at high cost to feed the manufactories. In the case of many articles of importation the rate was much higher, reaching on ordinary woollen goods 234 per cent., and on linens M per cent. The high cost of importation naturally checked in some degree the consumption of goods; but the growing abundance of money gave a new impulse to business, and the stocks of goods generally diminished as tho year drew to a close.
The imports at the port of New York monthly for tho year are shown in tho following table:
The volume of goods imported rose considerably from month to month during the year, and the quantity which was entered for consumption was much affected by the price of gold. The fir^t months of the year, when gold underwent a rapid rise, and Congress authorized large issues of legal tenders, the desire to buy goods was very activo and strong. There was a prevailing belief in a continual and rapid decline of paper as compared to'commodities, which naturally indicated a desire to hold tho most stable values, and large quantities of goods changed hands for investment. Tho estimates of the probable consumption of goods, as well imported as domestic, did not apparently, however, take fully into account the influence of high prices in checking this consumption. The stocks of goods in the country were known to be insufficient as measured by the usual scalo of consumption, but the high prices which special duties and paper threw upon the goods greatly diminished this scale. In illustration of this effect are the figures of some leading imported articles.
of dealers at the close of the year wero unusually small. Tho necessities of the times compelled the transaction of business mostly on a cash basis, and this of itself tended to make the trade of tho year more safe and consequently more profitable. The following synopsis will, however, show a largely diminished number of failures for tho past year as compared with the preceding one, and a remarkable decrease when compared with the average number in a normal condition of the country. This is accounted for chiefly by the check given to speculation, the heavy rise in the prices of goods, and the disposition shown by merchants, in view of the uncertain prospect which tho future presented, to profit by the opportunities offered and place themselves in shnpe to meet any emergency. The number of failures has diminished in uniform ratio throughout the Northern and Western States.
Tho liabilities of tho partner firms in the last two years have been as follows:
The decline hero apparent portains to almost all articles of consumption, and arises from tho common cause of enhanced prices. Tho effect of this diminished consumption was to disappoint, to some extent, tho anticipations of a continued rapid rise in goods; the more so, a? a reaction in the price of gold set in, which, being equivalent to a rise in Federal stocks, attracted to them tho money that had previously sought merchandise as an investment. With the summer months, the stock of imported goods became greatly diminished, and with tlie autumn trade a renewed activity sprung up. The decline in gold and exchange from 72 in February, to 25 in August, naturally operated •gainst activity in trade, because it was virtually a fall in tho prices of merchandise and a rise in the value of stocks. When, however, in August, gold again began to rise, under the renewed activity of the autumn trade, importations were renewed with much vigor, notwithstanding which the supplies of goods in the hands
Now York City and Brooklyn 47,491.000
Balance Northern States 12,235.800
British Provinces 8,292,588
1S63. $2,035,000 442,000 1.133,000 4,289,000 2,50S,000
Total N. States and British Prov. .526,341,853 $10,407,000
The insignificant figures here presented, may be appreciated by comparison with former years. Thus, in 1857, the failures in New York city were $135,129,000; for 1858, $17,778,462; in 1859, $13,218,000; and these were reduced to only $2,035,000 for the past year. In Philadelphia, the failures in 1857 were $32,954,500; in Boston, they were $41,010,000. The figures have now become, therefore, quite nominal.
The large number of houses that have, from various causes, cither failed or ceased business in the prominent cities since the war began, has left the trade in the hands of comparatively few, whose amplo means enabled them to lay in their stocks in the beginning of the year at low figures. The rapid advance- in price of all merchandise, with a steady, but not excessivo demand, has made tho year's business a more than usually profitable one to importers and jobbers; while the purchases have not been on so largo a scale as in peaceful times, tho enhanced value of goods has increased the amount beyond precedent. The retail trado has boen equally prosperous.
The imports at the port of New York were
FoEEIGN IMPORTS AT THE PORT of NEW YORK FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31st, 1so [The quantity is given in packages when not otherwise specified.]
4,039 713,789 | Bananas.......
g Preserved ginger. Pine apples.......
- Furniture.... 1,080 139,489 |Grain........ 10,625 Grindstones.. 41,313 167.561 Gunny cloth.. 915 59,508 Gutta percha. 259,432 Guano.......
- 4,581 Hair..
134 573. Hemp....
o: go Fo ----
752 44,444 India rubber..
- 87,056 Irons......... -too 286 Ivory.......... ----186 27,353 Instruments:
25 47.997 || Chemical..........
530 82,460 || Mathematical.
18,112 84,108 || Hides, dressed..... 27,784 641,863 Hides, undressed.. 701 29,160 | Horns.... -254 14,507 Leather 200 960 l Leather, pat...... 49,604 167.259 Liquors, who, &c.: 146 18.610 Alcohol... 82 26,457 || Ale..... 294 28,539 Brandy. -771 2,537 Beer.............. 250 2,131 Cordials.......... - 175,847 Gin ..............
For EIGN IMPorts AT THE Port of NEw York, &c.—(continued.)
Quantity. Walue. Quantity, Liquors, Wines, &c.: Zine................. 4,769,086 Porter......------- 3,094 $25,546 Lithograph stones... Rum .... - ----- 33,882 Machinery.......... 1,550 Whiskey 51,362 |Marble & manuf do.
Wines...... -- - 1,198.288 . Matches .......... -Champagne....... 101,901 601,028 Macaroni. - 9,188 Metals, &c.: Molasses....... ... 92,894 Brass goods....... 150 29.889 || Mules & horses...... Bronzes.......... 40 7.555 Oil paintings........ 439 Ch's & unch's..... 6,665 334,641 Ostrich feathers..... Copper..... Copper ore. 880 *ppe 894 Hardware......... 501,253 tatoes.... Iron hoop, tons.... 3,110 134.905 |Provisions...... * pig, tons...... .26375 - 397.915 Pumice stone. ** | R. bars.... 68,884 * sheet, tons... “tubes......... 2 * other, tons.... 2,656 10.503 920 ... 278,756 Soap................ 22,548
Spices: Cassia............. 85 100 sover ore - Tia o: --- §§§ " slabs, lbs...... 2,598.2
Wire............ -- - - 4,530 8,233
Value. Quantity. Walue. $228,210 |Stationery, &c.: 540 Engravings........ 284 $95,182 103,862 Paper.......... ... 7,424 274,289 123,028 Other staty...... - - 186,544 1,084 §. ---------- ... 1,424 68,157 16,828 Sugars,hhds,bbls&tcs. 235,911 10,855,925 1,928,598 |Sugars, boxes & bags 310,084 8,678,627 - Tar.... ------------- ,01 16,080 143,114 || Tapioca 4,3 18,726 7,948 Trees and plants.... 17,585 10,614 Tea 6,796,802 27,864 || Twine 24,547 70,757 || Toys 303.934 24,593 || Tobacco 870,854 265,802 || Tomatoes. 6,448 100.255 Turp. sp"ts.. .030 18,044 Waste 497,586 1,010 | Whalebone. 2,657 1,286,431 Wax 11,008 849,362 || Woods.: 68408 l Boxwood.......... - 1,016 86,587 | Brazil....... - 57.426 878,725 | Cam. wood. -- - 1,867 110,196 Sedar....... -- - 75,294 44, Cork ... - 466 42,779 18, Fustic........... . 4,537 84, 1,276.157 Lima wood........ - 5,357 75,0 Lignumvitae...... 1,863 42,097 *ść........ 0.5,415 431,534 ahogany... 17,697 | Palm i. 25,905 || Ratan ...... 82,415 Rosewood... 557 so Sanan wood. 2.SSS Willow 34,967 || Other woods. 284.541 || Wool, bales......... 42,630 || Other miscel........ 871,480 Grand Total............ $117,328,929
This table embraces the following unusual list, and aided farm produce to pay for imports, but by the change produced by war they are now to be paid for by farm produce, and thus curtail the national resources. Rosin was formerly sold at 80 cts, per bbl., it is now bought back at $32 per bbl. That is, we give for one bbl. what we formerly got for forty bbls. The exports from the port of New York were These figures were formerly on the export in the aggregate, monthly, as follows:
items in the list of importations: Wool, lbs....................114,864 $8,538,021
| Free. Dutiable. Mostits.
Specie. Foreign. Domestic. Total. $4,624.574 $73,111 $668,275 $14.829,898 $19,695,851 3,965,664 43.889 610,000 17,780,586 22,400,148 6,385,442 213,685 75S,266 16 137,689 23,095,082 1,972,834 74,949 375,224 11,581,933 14,004,940 2,115,079 101,837 602,254 18,188,510 16.002,780 1,367,774 49,380 298,067 14,780,072 16,495,293 ,268.881 77,232 44S,601 15,298,073 21,092,787 2,465,861 90,813 231,774 10,666,959 14,454,809 ,480,385 55,400 23S,972 11,717,761 15,492,518 6,210,156 145,525 850.614 14,518,454 21,219,549 5,438,863 - 883,948 11,413,591 17,292,436 5,259,053 55,555 458,575 12,846,151 18,619,834 $49,254,066 $1.087.212 | $5,424 579 $114.249.177 $220,465,034
These values, except for specie, are in curfency, and widely different from their real alue, or that which is realized abroad. The fluctuation in the value of exchange, however, had an important influence upon the export Barket, since the disposition to ship depended almost altogether upon what could be obtained
for bills. Nevertheless, the chief exports were year:
vol. III.-13 A
breadstuffs and provisions; and those articles, in consequence of the improved crops of England and Western Europe, were far less in demand than in the previous year. The following table shows the exports, from the port of New York, of the articles which make up the bulk of the export trade for the