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♦ere on the muster rolls. lie recommended the repeal of the substitute and exemptive provisions, and that all having substitutes be put back into the field, and stated that the privileges which Congress granted, to put in substitutes, could be regularly and constitutionally abrogated by the same power. He said that no compact "was entered into between the Government and the person furnishing a substitute, as had been alleged, but only a privilege which Government accorded. Instead of complaining of such abrogation, the person ought to feel gratified at what had heretofore been allowed him. lie recommended an abridgment of exemptions and the conscription of all, making details according to the wants of society at home.
The Secretary said that the three years' men, when their terms expire, could not bo finally discharged, and should bo retained, allowing them to choose the existing company, under its present organization, in the same arm of the service. He-recommended the consolidation of such companies and regiments as were reduced below a certain complement.
The following is a list of the officers in the rebel service, who previously belonged to the regular army of the United States.:
Armstrong, Francis C, Captain, 2d Dragoons.
Archer. James J., Captain, 0th Infantry.
Armistead, L. A., Captain and biuret Major, Cth
Infantry. Adams, John, Captain, 1st Dragoons. Annistead, F. S., First Lieutenant, 10th Infantry. Alexander, E. P., Second Lieutenant, Engineers. Anderson, Charles D., First Lieutenant, 4th Artillery. Anderson, B. H., Second Lieutenant, 0th Infantry. Anderson, R. H., Captain, 2d Dragoons. Alexander, J. B. S., Second Lieutenant, Sth Infantry. Anderson, S. S., Captain and brevet Major, 2d Artillery. Anderson, O. B., First Lieutenant, 2d Dragoons. Bocgs, William R., First Lieutenant, Ordnance. Heall, William >\ B , Captain, 1st Cavalry. Brown. John A., Captain, 4th Artillery. Brewer. R. IL, First Lieutenant, 1st Dragoons. Baker, Lawrence S., First Lieutenant, Mounted Rifles. Barton, Seth M., Captain, 1st Infantrv. Blake, E. D., Captain, Sth Infantry. Blair, William B., Captain, Commissary Department.
Beckham, Robert F., orevet 2d Lieutenant, Engineers.
Brewer, Charles, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A.
ISeall, Llovd J., Paymaster, U. 8. A.
Borland, Harold, brevet 2d Lieutenant, 5th Infantry.
Bee, Barnard E., Captain, 10th Infantry.
ISradfuto, William R., Captain, 2d Cavalry.
Burtwell, John R. B., Second Lieutenant, 1st Cavalry.
Beauregard, P. G. T.,-Captaiu and brevet Major, Engineers.
Claiborne, Thomas J., Captain, Mounted Rifles.
Crittenden, George B., Lieutenant-Colonel, Mounted Rifles.
Collins, Charles B., brevet Second Lieutenant, Topographical Engineers.
Cooke, John R., First Lieutenant, Sth Infantrv.
Corley, James L., First Lieutenant, nth Infantry.
Chilton, Robert IL, Paymaster, U. S. A.
Cnsbv, George B., First Lieutenant, 2d Cavalry.
Cabell, Wm. L., Captain and Assistant Quartermaster.
Cooper, Samuel M., Second Lieutenant, 1st Artillery.
Cooper, Samuel, Colonel and Adjutant-General.
Carr, George W., First Lieutenant, 0th Infantry.
Cole, Robert (>., First Lieutenant, Sth Infantry.
Dunovant, John, Captain, 10th Infantry.
Dividson, Ilcury P., Captain, 1st Dragoons.
Deshler, James, First Lieutenant, 10th Infantry.
Department. Haskell, Alexander M., 2d Lieutenant, 1st Infantry, linger, Frank, Second Lieutenant, 10th Infantry." Hcth, Henry, Captain, 10th Infantry, linden, John II., Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A. Hallonouist, James IL, 2d Lieutenant, 4th Artillery. Hood, John B., First Lieutenant, 2d Cavalry. Holmes, Theophilus IL, Major, sth Infantrv. Hill, Robert C, Second Lieutenant, 5th Infantry. Hnse, Caleb, First Lieutenant, 1st Artillery. Hardee, William J., Lieutenant-Colonel, 1st Cavalry. Iverson, Alfred, Jr., First Lieutenant, 1st Cavalry. Ives, Joseph C, First Lieutenant, Topographical Engineers. Jackson, Wm. H., Second Lieutenant, Mouuted Rifles. Jones, John M., Captain, 7th Infantry. Johnson, Edw., Captain and brevet Mujor, Cth Infantry. Jordan, Thomas, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, Johnston, Albert S., Colonel and brevet BrigadierGeneral, Second Cavalry. Jackson, Andrew, Jr., Second Lieutenant, 1st Cavalry. Johnston, Joseph E., Quartermaster-General, U. S. A. Jones, Samuel, Captain, 1st Artillery. Jones, David R., brevet Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General. Jones, Thomas M., First Lieutenant, 8th Infantry. Jones, Walter, First Lieutenant, 1st Infantry.
James, George S., First Lieutenant, 4th Artillery.
Jackson. Andrew, .First Lieutenant, Sd Infantry.
Loring, William W., Colonel, Mounted Ritles.
Lee, Fitzhugh, First Lieutenant, 2d Cavalry.
Longstreet, James, Paymaster, U. S. A.
Lee, Stephen IX, First Lieutenant, 4th Artillery.
Lay, George W., Captain and brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, Cth Infantry.
Lockett, Sam'l II., brevet 2d Lieutenant, Engineers.
Lomax, Lunsford L., First Lieutenant, 1st Cavalry.
Long, Armistead L., First Lieutenant, 2d Artillery.
Long, John O., First Lieutenant, 2d Infantrv.
Lee, George W. C, First Lieutenant, Engineers.
Lee, William F., Second Lieutenant, 2d Infantry.
Little, Henry, Captain, 7th Infantry.
Lee, Robert E., Colonel, 1st Cavalrv.
Maury, Dabney II., Captain and Assistant AdjutantGeneral.
Myers, Abraham C, Captain and brevet Lieutenant, Colonel, and Assistant Quartermaster.
Mackall, William W., brevet Major and Assistant Ad-
Williams, Solomon, Second Lieutenant, 2d Dragoons. .
Walker, Henry H., First Lieutenant, 6th Infantry.
To these must be added 30,131 men enlistel in New York for two years in the spring of 1861; 2,589 twelve months’ men enlisted in Pennsylvania, and the following raised for the defence of their respective States: Maine, 262: Pennsylvania, 3,191 : Missouri, 10,540; and Kentucky, 1,860; making a grand total of 1,276,246. If to these again be added the regular army and the militia called out by the governors of the border States under apprehensions of invasion, but not mustered into the service of, the United States, the number of men engaged from April, 1861, to January, 1863, will probably not vary much from a million and a half. The troops actually in service at the close of 1862, comprising 3 years’, 2 years', 12 months’, 9 months’ men and regulars, represented organizations amounting originally to an aggregate of 1,200,000; but among these the casualties of the field, diseases of the camp, discharges for physical disability, and desertions, had made fearful inroads, sonne regiments having within a year of their enlistment been reduced to less than the strength of a couple of full companies. As an illustration at once of the bravery of the troops and of the rate at which the army is depleted, Gen. Meade stated in reply to an address of welcome from the mayor of Philadelphia, that from March, 1862, when the army of the Potomac left its lines in front of Washington, to the closo of
1863, not less than a hundred thousand men in it had been killed and wounded. The causes and rate of the depletion in this and other military departments will bo found treated under the heads of Hygiene Of The Akmy more fully.
In view of the serious loss of disciplined troops which would be caused by the return home of the 2 years', 12 months' and 9 months' regiments, comprising an aggregate of about 65,000 men, whose terms of enlistment would expire during the summer and autumn of 1863, the Government early in the year took measures to obtain the passage of an Enrolment and Conscription Act, authorizing the President to recruit the army, when necessary, by drafting from the able-bodied male citizens of the country between the ages of twenty and fortyfive. The measure wTas unpopular in many parts of the country, though few, if any, among the party in favor of carrying on the war objected to it upon principle, as a final and peremptory means of providing men. They, however, preferred volunteering as more effective and more in accordance with republican institutions. In reply to these objections it was urged that volunteering under the last call had proceeded slowly, that the bounties demanded were excessive, and that the quota of many States, even under the inducement of heavy bouuties, had not been filled. These reasons being deemed conclusive, the conscrip.tion act became a law on March 3d; in tho succeeding May and June the enrolment was effected in most of the States, and early in the former month a draft of 300,000 men was ordered, the conscription commencing in tho several districts into which the country was divided by the provost marshal-general and his assistants, a3 soon as the enrolment.was completed and the quota in each assigned. For the operations of the conscription act, see Enrolment. On December 1st, 1803, the draft had resulted, in twelve States in which it was enforced, in adding about 50,000 men to the army, and in the accumulation of a fund of $10,518,000, derived from commutations under what is known as the "Three Hundred Dollar clause" of the act, which was reserved for the procurement of recruits by bounties.
On Juno loth, under apprehensions of an invasion of Pennsylvania and other Northern States, the President issued a proclamation, calling for 100,000 militia to be mustered into the United States service for six months-unless sooner discharged, viz.: from Maryland, 10,000; from Pennsylvania, 50,000; from Ohio, 30,000; and from West Virginia, 10,000; and directing that these States should be respectively credited under the Enrolment Act for the militia service rendered under the proclamation. The governor of New York also received a requisition for 20,000 men. The hitter call was obeyed with commendable promptitude, and
very nearly to the extent required by the President; but from the States most immediately affected by the invasion of Gen. Lee, the number of men thus obtained was proportionately less. The speedy retirement of tho Confederates after tho battle of Gettysburg rendered the services of these troops useless, and by August 1st they were nearly all disbanded.
It having become apparent to the Government, during tho progress of the draft, that the act of March 3d was insufficient to supply tho army with recruits, the President issued a call on October 15th for 300,000 volunteers, to be enlisted by the governors of the different States "for the various companies and regiments in tho field from their respective States." The volunteers thus enlisted were declared entitled to advance pay, premium, and bounty, as previously established by Government for enlisted troops; and, together with all other volunteers not previously credited, were to he credited on and deducted from tho quotas established for the draft. Should any State fail to raise the quota assigned to it by the War Department under this call, then a draft for the deficiency was to be made on the State or its districts on January 5th, 1861. Nothing in tho proclamation was to interfere with existing orders, or any subsequently to bo issued, for tho draft then in progress or where it had not commenced; and it was stated that in the assignment of quotas of States and districts duo regard would bo had for the men previously furnished, whether by volunteering or drafting.
This call differed in several particulars from any previously made, and iudieated tho adoption of a wiser policy in reference to reinforcing the army. In the first place tho troops were ordered to bo raised six months or more before the expiration of tho terms of any of the threo years' men, and not, as previously, when there was imperative need of their services, either to repel invasions, to save the menaced capital, or to fill tho places of those whoso term of enlistment was about to expire. They were to be incorporated into the various organizations in tho field, and not formed into new regiments or companies. And lastly, tho people were called upon to decide under which system, volunteering or the draft, they would replenish the wasted battalions of the army, thus relieving the Government from the odium which, in tho opinion of many, its enforcement of tho conscription had brought upon it.
But although the call was made several months in advance of the withdrawal of tho enlisted men of 1801, it came none too soon for tho needs of tho country. Estimating tho strength of the army nt 650,000 men, on Jan. 1st, 1863, we have to deduct from that number 10,000 two years' and 55,000 to 6f',000 nine mouths' men, whose terms expired previous to October; and if from the remainder we make a further deduction of 25 per cent, for losses of every description, which is tho ascertained ratio of depletion, there would be left but 450,000 effective men at the close of the year. To offset these losses thero were 50,000 conscripts, and, as appears by the provost-inarshalgcnernl's report, 83,242 recruits obtained, previous to November, by volunteering, of whom all but about 15,000 were 3 years' men, a total of 133,242, which would bring tho strength of the army, in October, up to about 580,000 men. Tho estimates of the "War Deportment show that the paymaster-general of volunteers was called upon in November to pay 901 regiments of infantry, 159 of cavalry, 42 of artillery, 4 of engineers, and 174 artillery batteries, making a total of about 1,150 full regiments. The regular army to bo added consists of 0 regiments of cavalry, 5 of artillery, and 19 of infantry, making an aggregate of 1,200 regiments. To this large number, tho exigencies that follow victory and occupation, the nature and extent of the field of operations, and the formidable size of the enemy's army, imperatively demanded that considerable reinforcements should be added.
Within a few days after the last call, volunteering commenced in all the States with an activity which promises a substantial increase to the national forces. In addition to the bounties offered by Government, from its commutation fund and from other sources, viz., $302 to new recruits, and $402 to veteran volunteers, thero wore bounties provided by State, county, town, or other local authorities, nearly, if not fully, equal in amount, making tho whole sum received by the recruit from $600 to $900. Under this stimulus a sufficient number of recruits had probably come in at the close of tho year to restore the army to tho effective strength possessed by it a twelvemonth previous.
Previous campaigns having shown the folly of recruiting the army by tho addition of new regiments and companies, which require many months of experience in actual warfare to become effective, the Government, early in the year, began to devise means to retain in the field tho veteran troops whose terms were about to expire, and to fill up the regiments in active service to tho maximum strength. Many of the latter were reduced to mere skeleton commands; a brigade of four or five regiments being frequently inferior in numerical strength to a full regiment; and, in the opinion of experienced officers, an army made up of numerous small organizations of this naturo was wanting in mobility and in other elements of power. Few of the regiments raised during the first two years of the war had received any considerable reinforcements, and though the men had become good soldiers, tho gradual reduction (amounting in some cases to almost 90 per cent.) in their numbers had greatly weakened that esprit du corps which it is one of the chief objects of a general to promote. A regiment reduced to 150 or 200 men, with no hope of being reinforced, soon loses interest in its or
ganization, and its members, if not demoralized or affected in their discipline, become at the best only machines. Inlluenced, doubtless, by these considerations, tho Secretary of "War announced, in his annual report, that "the prime importance of filling up the old regiments, and the superiority of such forces over new regiments, were points upon which all military experience and opinions agree," and, throughout the year, the policy of the Government in providing for an increase of the army, was in conformity with these views. An important exception was made in the case of negro regiments, of which mention will bo made hereafter. In some of the States also nine months' men, and in New York two years' men, were formed into new regiments, which were considered, and were in fact, equivalent to veteran regiments.
As a means of inducing veterans, both out of and in the service, to reUnlist, or to enter old regiments other than their own, a liberal system of bounties and furloughs was adopted, the details of which nro given in the following order, issued by the War Department, on June 28th.
General Orders, No. 191.—First: In order to increase the armies now in the field, volunteer infantry, cavalry, and artillery mav be enlisted at any time within ninety days from this date, in the respective Stales, under the regulations hereinafter mentioned. The volunteers so enlisted, and such of the three years' troops now in the field as may refnlist, in accordance with this order, will constitute a force to be designated "Veteran Volunteers."
The regulations for enlisting the force are ns follows:
Second: The period of service for the enlistments and reenlistments above mentioned shall be for three years or during the war.
Third: All able-bodied men behVecn the ages of 18 and 45 years, who have heretofore been enlisted and have served for not less than nine months, and can pass the examination required by the mustering regulations of the United States, may be enlisted under this order ns veteran volunteers in accordance with the provisions hereinafter set forth.
fourth: Every volunteer enlisted and mustered into the service as a veteran under this order, shall be entitled to receive from the United States one month's pay in advance, and a bounty and premium of $402.
Fifth: If the Government shall not require these troops for the full period of three years, and they shall be mustered honorably out of the service before the expiration of their term of enlistment, they shall receive, upon being mustered out, the whole amount of bountv remaining unpaid, and the san.e as if the full term had been served. The legal hell's of volunteers who die in service shall be entitled to receive the whole bountv remaining unpaid at the time of the soldier's death."
Sixth: Veteran volunteers enlisted under this order will be permitted at their option to enter old regiments now in the tield; but their service will continue for tho full term of their own enlistment, notwithstanding the expiration of the term for which the regiment was originally enlisted. New organizations will be officered only by persons who have been in service, and have shown themselves properly qualified for commaud. As a badsre of honorable distinction, service chevrons will be furnished by the War Department, to be worn by the veteran volunteers.
Sinenth: Officers of regiments, whose terms have expired, will be authorized, on proper application and approval of their respective governors, to raise companies and regiments, within the period of sixty days, and, if the company or regiment authorized to be raised shall be tilled up and mustered into service within the said period of sixty days, the officers may be reooramissioned at the date of their original commission, and, for the time engaged in recruiting, they will be cutitled to receive the pay belonging to their rank.
Eighth: Volunteers or militia now in service, whose terra of service will expire within ninety days, and who shall then have been in service at least nine months, shall be entitled to the aforesaid bounty and premium of *4u2, provided they reenlist before the expiration of their present term for three years, from date of reenlistment or for the war, and said bounty and premium shall be paid in the manner herein provided for other troops reentering the service.
Sixth: After the expiration of ninety days from this date, volunteers serving in three years' organizations who may reenlist for three years from the date ofsuch reenlU'tment or for the war, shall be entitled to the aforesaid bounty and premium of $402, to bo paid in the manner bereiu provided for other troops reentering the service.
Ttntk: Officers in service, whose regiments or companies may reenlist in accordance with the provisions of this order, before the expiration of their present term, shall have their commissions continued so as to preserve their date of rank as lixed by their original muster into the United States service.
Eleventh: As soon after the expiration of their original term of enlistment as the exigencies of the service will permit, a furlough of thirty days will be granted to men who may reenlist in accordance with theprovisions of this order.
Twelfth: Volunteers enlisted under this order will be credited as three years' men in the quotas of their respective States, Instructions for the appointment of recruiting officers, and for enlisting veteran volunteers, wdl be immediately issued to the governors of States. Bv order of the Secretary of \\ ar.
E. V. TO\VNSE.ND,'Asst. Adjt.-Gcn.
Br an order issued Sept. Jlth, section 9 of the above order was amended, so as to read as follows:
9,—After the expiration of ninety days from this date (Jun'3 25th) volunteers serving in three years' organizations, who may reenlist for three years or tho war in the companies of regiments to which they now belong, and who may have, at the date of reenliststent, less than one year to serve, shall be entitled to the aforesaid bountv and premium of $402 to be paid in the manner provided for other troops reentering tho service. The new term will commence from the tiino of rernlistment.
Another order, dated in December, extended the time- for recnlisting veteran volunteers in the respective States under General Orders No. 191, current series, to Jan. 5th, 1864.
A farther order from the War Department, dated Nov. 21st, provided that volunteers then in the service, reeulisting as veteran volunteers under General Orders, No. 191, should have a furlough of at least thirty days previous to the expiration of their original enlistment; and that when three fourths of a regiment or company should reenlist, the men so enlisted might go home in a body with their officers; tho individuals of tho regiments or companies not reenlisting to bo assigned, during the absence of their comrades, to duty with other organization?. This modification of the original order, together with the liberal bounty offered to veteran volunteers, had the effect of inducing
large numbers to reenlist, and, subsequent to the middle of December, a steady stream of fnrloughed regiments poured northward, affording indications that the army, when reorganized in tho spring of 1804, would contain a considerable nucleus of disciplined troops.
The men raised by drafting were distributed, from time to time, among the regiments or companies of their States, and those volunteering under the October call, it was understood, at tho close of the year were to be similarly disposed of. Few of the latter class of recruits, however, had been forwarded to the seat of war at that date. The great body of them were in temporary State camps, and in many of the States the number of these was still inconsiderable.
As an additional means of promoting tho efficiency of the army, a plan of consolidation in depleted regiments was authorized by tho two following sections of the Enrolment and Conscription Act: •
Sec. 19.—And be it further enacted. That whenever a regiment of volunteers of the same arm from the same State is reduced to one half the maximum number prescribed by law, the President may direct tho consolidation of the companies of such regiment; Provided, That no company so formed shall exceed tlio maximum number prescribed by law. When such consolidation is made, the regimental officers shall bo reduced in proportion to the reduction of the numbers of companies.
Sec. 20.—And be it further enacted, That whenever a regiment is reduced below the minimum number allowed by law, no officer shall be appointed in such regiment beyond those necessary for tho command of such reduced number.
In accordance with theso provisions, somo regiments which had dwindled to insignificant proportions were consolidated into five or a less number of companies, where the interests of tho service seemed to demand it; but, in tho majority of cases, they were allowed to remain as originally organized, for reasons deemed conclusive by those having discretion in the matter, and which can be best understood by reference to the following order providing for the mustering out of supernumerary officers in such consolidated regiments:
General Orders, Kb. 86. War Department, Adjutant-general's Office, ) Washington, April 2rf. 1m>3. J 1. Under the authority contained in sections nineteen and twenty of the act for enrolling and calling out the national forces, and for other purposes, approved March 3d, 1803, it is ordered that, for each and every regiment of the volunteer army now reduced, or that may be reduced hereafter, as set forth in said sections, consolidation shall be made in accordance with the following rules:
1. Each regiment will be consolidated into live or a less number of companies, and the colonel, major, and one assistant surgeon mustered out.
2. Each regiment will be consolidated into six or a less number of companies, and the colonel, two majors, and one assistant surgeon mustered out.
3. Each regimeut tyill be consolidated into six or a