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It is proposed to construct the cribs in still water, plank their bottoms and sides watertight for several feet up, fill them with as much stono as thoy can safely carry, tow them to their places, and sink them by letting water into their bottoms, and then to fill them up as promptly as possible to their tops, with stone previously provided. Cribs of this shape and size it is thought would bo stronger, and better calculated to resist the action of storms, than cribs of the same width and construction placed in a stright lino. The shafts are to bo air-tight iron cylinders, jointed together in sections of six to ten feet, and nine feet in diameter. The estimated cost of excavation and masonry for the tunnel is $143,000, or $13.54 per lineal foot; and for the tunnel complete, $307,552.
The investigations are based upon facts acquired by boring for an artesian well on tho lake shore, where it was found that about twenty feet below the surface a clay formation commences, which continues upward of one hundred feet further. Wherever the investigation has been made, the bottom of the lake, where the water is more than twenty feet deep, is found to be clay.
In conducting the investigations twtWargo scows, with all the necessary apparaffls on board, were towed to the proper locality, and there secured by four anchors. In the space between the boats, a two-inch gas pipe is lowered, and rests upon the surface of the earth, the top being two or three feet above the surface of the water. The auger is then passed down through tho pipe, and worked by two men: tho pipe being held in place by others. Both the outside pipe and the auger are lengthened, as circumstances may require, by the addition of joints or sections, which are readily screwed on. The pipo and auger are drawn out and lowered, by means of a derrick about 25 feet high, with rope and tackle. Up to the present time three localities have been examined. Tho first three fourths of a mile from shore. Hero tho water was 23 feet deep, with a bed of four inches of sand. They penetrated SO feet deep, and found nothing but blue clay. Tlie second locality was 1J miles out. Hero tho water was 31 feet deep, with about the same depth of sand. The auger snnk 30 feet with tho same result. The third, and the last locality is about 2J miles due east from tho water works. Here the water was 86 feet deep, clear and cool. The earth was penetrated 30 feet below its surface. The surface is covered a foot in depth with a mixture of sand and soft, marshy clay. After penetrating six or eight feet, the ohiy becomes thick, and is harder the deeper it is penetrated. It is of a bluish slato color, of very fine grain, with little or no grit, and would probably make excellent brick. It is apparently fine enough for pottery ware. The clay is of about the same character the entire depth, wherever the borings have been made.
ILLUMINATION. The following, as among the more important results developed during
the year past, in respect to the nature of ma. terials for illumination, and the modes of theii preparation and use, are deserving of notice:
Approximate Chemical Constitution of Bitumens, Solid and Liquid.—From an article entitled "Contributions to tho Chemical and Geological History of Bitumens, and of Pyroschists or Bituminous Shales" (" Amer. Jour. of Science," March, 1863), by Prof. T. S. Hunt, we extract tho following, in relation to tho chemislry of bitumens:
The solid bitumens (asphaltum, etc.), in appearance often resembling some forms of bituminous coal, are distinguished from the latter by their being almost or entirely fusible, and by their solubility in benzole and bisulphide of carbon. Their chemical composition varies much, being representable by formulas ranging from C3( Hn O0.s—that of an elastic bitumen from Derbyshire (Johnston), to Csi Hu.« Oa— that of an asphalt from near Naples (Regnault). Five analyses of bituminous coal made by the latter chemist, yield from Cs« H8 Oo.» to Cj« Hio Oj.a; while "tho mean composition of several analyses of coal, by Johnston, was C«4 H», with from 0> to 0<. The asphalts are thus seen to approach in composition the bituminous coals.
In the conversion of woody fibre into the successive stages of peat, lignite, and bituminous coal, the abstraction of variable proportions of water (HO), carbonic acid (COj), and marsh gas (C3 H«), may give rise either to hydrocarbons like Cj4 He, which represents idrialine (a hydrocarbon with minimum of H), and the basis of most bituminous coals; or like C-, Hia, which is the approximate formula of the hydrocarbons of many asphalts; or like C54 Hj4, which approximately represents crude petroleum (apart, of course, from water that may be intermixed with it). Anthracite, which is nearly pure carbon, and petroleum, which is (among natural bodies) carbon with a maximum of hydrogen, stand as the two extremes in the process of cqal-formation.
Chemical Constitution of American Petro* leum.—M. Schorlemmer has examined the refined but still composite coal oil known as kerosene, obtained by distillation of cannel coal at low temperatures. He finds it to contain a series of homologous hydrocarbons, their general formula being CnHn + 2, and which may be regarded as the hydrides of alcohol radicals. The oil, which boils below 120°C, contains tho four hydrides—
C,0 TI,,=hydriclo of nmvl, boiline at 3D°C.
C,. II.,= " hcptjrl ■' 9S°C.
C,.H„= " octyl. "119°C.
Precisely the same products were found by the analyst in American rock oil, or petroleum. Ho states that in this both benzole and toluolo exist, but that these are present in larger proportion in cannel-coal tar. He purified the oils by strong nitric acid, which leaves the greater part unattacked, but removes the benzole ami toluole; then, after washing, drying over caustic potash, and distilling with sodium, the four hydrides above given were obtained, as from coal tar.
MM. Pelouze and Cab. ours have also examined the American petroleum; and they, too, find that it consists essentially of compounds which are homologous with marsh gas, the lowest term of the series obtained by them being the hydride of butyl, 0S Hio, which passes into the state of vapor at a little above 0"O., while the highest term yet studied is Cso II33. From these hydrides the authors have obtained the corresponding chlorides, and, in many cases, the alcohols. They consider it probable that paraffin is a mixture of still higher terms in the series. But their results contradict those of M. Schorlemmer, in relation to benzole and toluole, the presence of which in petroleum they explicitly deny.
In the "Scientific American" (Now Scries), vol. viii, p. 171, an abstract is given of a process recently patented by Mr. W. W. Tindall, of Liverpool, for the deodorizing of petroleum, and other mineral oils; and in the samo journal, vol. ix, p. 133, an account of Prof. E. V. Gardner's new method of refining tho samo oils. The number of readers, however, to whom the details of theso processes would prove of interest, is extremely small.
Supposed Sources of Petroleum in certain Oil-bearing Strata.—Mr. T. S. Ridgeway, geologist and mining engineer, having surveyed the oil district of Oil Creek, Penn., states, as a result of this examination, his conviction that the petroleum of this district is not produced from the coal fields, since in that cise it would have had to flow up hill into the oil basin. He says: "Petroleum found in bituminous coalbasins no doubt originates from beds of coal; * * but it is my opinion that the petroleum of the Oil Creek valley is the result of tho decomposition of marine plants."
Prof. Hunt, in the communication above mentioned, states that it is in tho Lower Devonian (Corniferous) limestone that, in this country, the greatest amount of petroleum occurs; and ho considers that, although tho Higher Devonian sandstones in New York and Pennsylvania are often impregnated with the oil, so that these, along with higher strata, supply the oil-springs of those States, yet tho real source of tho oil in these strata may bo in the Lower Devonian,—this,as bethinks, being undoubtedly the caso in regard to the petroleum of Western Canada.
In certain townships on the northern shore of Lake Erie, coralline beds and those in which certain shells appear, are found filled or impregnated with petroleum. Speaking especially in reference to the township of Bertie, opposite Buffalo. Prof. Hunt says: "The facts observed at this locality appear to show that the petroleum, or the substance which has given rise to it, was deposited in tho beds in which it is now found, at the formation of the rock. We may Vol. 111.—33 A
suppose in these oil-bearing beds an accumulation of organic matters, whoso decomposition, in tho midst of a marine calcareous deposit, has resulted in their complete transformation into petroleum, which has found a lodgment in the cavities of tho shells and corals immediately near. Its absence from the unfilled cells of corals, in the adjacent and interstratified beds, forbids the idea of the introduction of tho oil either by distillation or by infiltration. Tho same observations apply to the petroleum of tho Trenton limestone; and if it shall hereafter be shown that tho source of petroleum (as distinguished from asphalt) in other regions is to bo found in marine fossiliferous limestones, a stop will have, been made toward a knowledge of the chemical conditions necessary to its formation."
Transportation of Petroleum, or other Liquids.—Mr. S. J. Seely of Brooklyn, N. Y., has patented a railway car for the purposes just indicated. The body of the car is of corrugated or other sheet iron, and, in order to secure lhe greatest strength of the materials, is made in tho form of a cylinder. Thus, tho car-body is in effect a large cylindrical tank, on wheels, and into which the liquids to be transported are directly introduced. Opening from tho bottom of the cylinder, are a series of pipes, furnished with cocks and flexible branch pipes, so as to allow of drawing off tho contained liquid into several barrels or ether vessels at once; while the arrangement of pipes is ordinarily protected by their being enclosed within boxes, through doors in which access can be had to the former when occasion requires.
Comparison of Uluminants in reference to Lighting Power, Cost, and Products.—In a lecture before the Royal Institution, February, 1863, Prof. E. Frankland presented the results of certain comparisons of various illuminating materials largely in use in England. He stated that, for economy, brilliancy, and intensity of light, the kerosene (in England called " paraffin ") and rock oils take the first place. The following arc, in brief, the results of the comparisons referred to:
I. Illuminating Equivalents.—Kerosene oil, 1 gallon, equivalent to 1.20 galls. American petroleum; to 18.0 lbs. paraffin (solid)candles; to 22.9 lbs. sperm candles; to 27.0 lbs. wax candles; to'29.5 lbs. composite candles; and to 89 lbs. tallow candles.
II. Comparative Cost.—To produce an amount of light equal to that of 20 sperm candles, burning each at tho rate of 120 grs. per hour, for 10 hours, tho cost of various materials consumed was as follows: wax, 7s. 2i<!.; spermaceti, 0s. 8d.; paraffin candles, 3s. lOd.; tallow, 2s. 8d.; sperm oil, Is. lOd.; rock oil, 7jd.; kerosene oil, Od.; ordinary coal gas, 44d.; canned gas, 3d..
III. Carbonic Acid and Heat—generated per hour by various illuminating agents, each burned in such quantity as to give the light of 20 sperm candles:
Tallow 101 100
Wax; spermaceti 8".5 Si
l'anitlin candles 67 66
Coalgas 50 4T
(.'annul gas 4-n 82
Kerosene; rock oil 8*0 29
The great liability, however, of kerosene and other similar and highly carbonaceous oils to escape in part unconsumed into the air of rooms, in which such materials are burned, constitutes one serious objection to their general use; since through pre-occupation of mind in those using it, or through carelessness, this result, with serious contamination of the air, must often occur. In this connection it should bo remarked that, tho^iighly dangerous disease known as "spottedfever" (cerebro-spinal meningitis), which has appeared at intervals in different parts of the country, having recently broken out in very fatal form at Long Branch, N. J., Dr. Sayre, one of a committee of physicians who visited the place and examined the cases of fever, names as among the predisposing causes to it tho habit in many families of burning kerosene through the night in bedrooms, with the lampwick put down. Consequences of this practice, to state them somewhat more fully than Dr. Sayre has done, must be tho vitiation of the air of tho room, not only with unconsumed oil-vapors, but with the gas produced by combustion, and often also with some smoke or soot.
Burners for Kerosene Lamps.—The forms of burners and chimneys for kerosene and coaloil lamps are already very various; and they are generally so familiarly knowTn that on this head little in the way of novelty is to be expected. It has been desirable to have, especially for chandelier, hall, and bracket lamps, if not for all others, where the use of a chimney is necessary, some arrangement by which the wick can be trimmed and lighted without disturbing the chimney or shade. Mr. Homer Wright, of Pittsburg, Pa., has accomplished this end by the invention of a burner with a door in one side, a projection from the inner side of the door and hinged to the front of the wick tube, causing, when tho door is opened, by means of a slot arrangement, tho wick tube to be at the same time lowered and inclined so that its upper end protrudes through the opening, when it can bo trimmed or lighted, and as simply returned to its place.
Tho inconveniences and expense of glass chimneys for kerosene lamps have led to many attempts to produce for such lamps cheap and simplo burners without chimneys. The principle of these is generally that of simply extending upward the brass or other metallic tubs arrangement which ordinarily surrounds tho burner, or forms the cap of the lamp, the burner being carried up to a proportional height, so that the baso of the flame shall be but little below tho level of tho summit of the tube; the latter being at the same time freely perforated or mainly open below, and some
times also at the sides near the flame, Jo as to secure an indraught and current of air: the tube of tho burner thus becomes itself a short chimney, but mainly placed below, instead of around and above tho flame. Among the best known of these, and the most effective, are the so-called "Savage" burner (patented 18G2); the "star" burner (J. Edgar—1863); ami the burner of the "Scoville Manufacturing Company" (patent applied for). Of dealers questioned on this point, ono declared that the "star" burner gave the largest clear flame, without risk of vapor or smoke; another (rave preference in the same particulars to the " Savage" burner. But all agreed that these burners are in use very inferior for their purposes to the glass chimneys; that with them a large free flame cannot bo obtained, without its smoking and throwing off unburned oil-vapors into tho room.
Apparatus for Tenting the Explosive Pointt of Coal Oils.—The subjects of the danger of explosion in the burning of coal or rock oils, including kerosene, and of the need of a standard vaporizing point, oils ranging below which shall not be allowed for sale, were considered at somo length under Illumination, in the preceding volume. The need of somo convenient and tolerably accurate test of the explosive point of these oils is obvious.
At first, most dealers simply placed a small quantity of oil in a saucer or other open vessel, dipping in it a thermometer bulb, applying heat, and then by repeated application of a lighted match or taper finding the temperature at which explosion would take place. But, besides the rapid escape or even blowing away of the vapor from over the liquid in this mode, it has other imperfections; and it almost necessarily gives the exploding point higher than it really is—thus deceiving the purchaser.
At least three forms of apparatus for testing more accurately the exploding point of oils have, within the past two years, been invented in this country, the last two of which appear to be those now chiefly in use. The invention of Mr. JohnTagliabue, of New York, consists of a small upright, hollow, cylindrical support, having an opening in the side and below, for introducing a gas-burner, or alcohol lamp; while within tho support, above, is a small waterbath, sot within which again is a cup open at top to receive the oil to be tested; into the oil at one side, by a convenient clasp, the bulb of a small thermometer is inserted, while jus' above the oil a taper is supported—this is to bo lighted when the experiment is commenced. Tho oil being placed in the open cup, and very slowly heated by the lamp—removing the latter at times, if tho temperature rise too fast, so as to receivo for a while the heat only from the water-bath and metals—the temperature at which tho oil throws off a vapor that mixed with air explodes is considered to be determined by a slight explosion or "puff," which usually extinguishes the taper. Heating a few degrees higher, and applying a fresh lighted taper or match, the temperature is found at which the vapor of the oil will take tiro and hum steadily, or at which, as is commonly said, the oil burns. As to the explosive point, however, this apparatus would appear in a degree liable to the objections to be made against the open saucer; as by an unnoticed current of air tho vapor could be for a time carried off, and— some dealers have stated—so that the oil can thus be made to show an apparent explosive point twenty degrees higher than the real one —a great'injustice, of course, to the purchaser. The accompanying drawings (figs. 1 and 2) represent a "Coal Oil Pyrometer" for tho uses just considered, and which, though stated in the "Technologisto" (Doc, 1802) to have been invented by Messrs. II. J. Smith and W. Jones, of Pliila., and constructed by Mr. Giuseppe Tagliabue, of New York, the latter declares to be his own invention (patented, Nov., 1802). The close similarity of this instrument, in many of its parts, to the preceding, renders a complete description of it unnecessary. In it, also, appear tho hollow cylindrical support, waterhath, included reservoir for the oil, lamp, and thermometer. The last named has here, however, a fixed position, with its bulb within the oil to be tested, while over tho oilreservoir can be closed (as in fig. 2), or
by caps sliding over them, and heat being applied, vapor presently begins to arise from the oil; but in this condition of the instrument the atmosphere does not readily enter it, and the vapor tends to be confined. Tho application of heat should be made slowly, and with the precautions before named. When the-supposed explosive point of tho vapor is nearly reached, upon opening the small orifices in the cover the upper chamber at once becomes filled with a mixture of the vapor and air, and a lighted taper being introduced through the door (e), if the point of free vaporizing of the oil has been reached, a slight explosion or "pull'" within this chamber will indicate the fact. Bysliding off the cover, and heating, the point at which the vapor takes fire on the surface of the oil—this being usually (as found with this instrument) some 8° to 10° or more above tho explosive point—is readily found.
The instruments thus far named are small, not expensive, and easy of use. It is declared by some that, even with that last named, an oil can be made to show too high an explosive point; but it is doubtless true that, with either of them, by a proper understanding and care, and repeating, if needs be, a fair and useful test of tho explosive point of oils liable to contain naphtha can be obtained. Prof. John Torrey, of New York, declares Mr. G. Tagliabue's instrument superior (in accuracy, implied) to those in which the cup is open or uncovered. Still it must be kept in mind that these tests show the explosivencss and comparative safety of oils only, and cannot be relied on to indicate tho proportions of light and of heavy oils, and so, the endurance and value of an oil for lighting.
RcgnauWs Apparatus for Fractional distillation of Coal Oils, Petroleum, etc.— M. W. Regnault has very recently invented an apparatus intended to serve the purpose indicated at the close of the preceding section; that, namely, of determining analytically tlje percentage of the component oils—having different densities and boiling points—which are contained in a given coal or rock oil, or in any derivative from one of these, the separation being effected by means of fractional distillation. Essentially, tho apparatus consists of an upright cylindrical copper retort—capacity about 300 cubic centimetres—with a lampstand and lamp underneath for heating, and at its upper part communicating by a tube with tho interior hollow brass cylinder of a condensing arrangement (also upright), this cylinder being enclosed within a considerably larger one, while into the lower part of the spaco between the two a stream of cold water is, by means of a funnel and tube, continually allowed to flow; the heated water, meanwhile, escaping through another tube at its top. The condenser is prolonged into a small tube at top, and also at bottom; and the whole being supported by an iron tripod, a row of glass •flinders, say fivo in number, graduated to cubic centimetres, are introduced' beneath the condenser, these being on a movable support, so as to be slid in succession under it, in order to catch tbe oils carried over at different temperatures. The temperatures are shown by a thermometer (Centigrade) which has its bulb inserted through a tubulure, within the retort, but above the surface of the oil introduced.
In using this instrument, 100 cubic centimetres of the oil to bo tested are introduced by means of a pipetto through the tubuluro into the retort; the thermometer is adjusted, and heat applied. Let it now be supposed that the first of the live graduated glass vessels is placed so as to receive the oil recondensed from the vapors which distil over from the time of the first application of heat until the thermometer (0.) shows 100°=212°F.; this portion will, of course, contain the lightest of the components of the oil tested. At the moment the mercury passes 100° the second glass vessel is slid under the tube of the condenser, and kept there (say) until the thermometer marks 120°= 243°F. In this manner the five vessels may be made to receivo successively the oils which distil over, first below 100°, and then within every 20° of increased temperature, from 100° up to 180°=3oU°F. It is evident that any other desired even ranges of temperature may bo taken; making the first change, say, at 44"C. = 113°F., or thereabouts, so as to separate and determine, first, the proportion of oils present which are so volatile as to be unsafe components of an oil for ordinary illuminating purposes. Now, in any case, if the flow of cold water bo uniformly kept up through the condensing apparatus, and if it be sufficient, all the vapors distilled over will bo condonsed, and the several portions of oil being furthermore, as caught, of equal or nearly equal temperatures, a comparison can directly bo made botwoon them; and just 100 cubic centimetres of oil, having been introduced into the retort, the quantities in the several graduated vessels —supposing them to havo the same temperatures as the oil when originally introduced— will show the exact percentage of oils, having their vaporizing points between the degrees successively taken, which wero contained in the mixed oil at the first.
Even this method does not, it will bo seen, give a strict chemical analysis of the oils tested, but only a proximate analysis, by means of tho comparative volatility of the component oils. .In a discussion upon this instrument, before the Polytechnic Association of New York (Feb. 25th, 1804), the question having been raised whether petroleum w a mixture of liquids that can be accurately separated at different boiling points, Dr. Parmelee (dentist) remarked that, making uso himself of about 2,000 gallons of benzine a week, of sp. or. of from 70° to 80° Beaume, he had found it very difficult to freo this entirely from naphtha by hent. Petroleum dealers, he stated, have no other means
of estimating the different qualities of oil than the heat test. Still there is no (?) dividing line between the oils—they can be obtained at almost any specific gravity, between certain limit*.
The apparatus, which cannot fail to be of great value to those who deal largely in coal or rock oils, or their liquid products, is now to be had in New York.
AcelyUne.—In his lecture already referred to, Dr. Frankland mentioned the fact of the discovery by M. Berthelot, within the past ten years, of anew component in coal-gas, to which he had given the name of acetylene, and for the production of which, unlike that of the other gaseous hydrocarbons, an intense heat is requisite. The object had been, hitherto, to produce coal-gas at a low temperature; but now the question was how far the production of this acetylene on a large scale could bo carried on. This question is still in embryo; but if successful results are obtained, the influence on the futnre manufacture of gas must be great. The lecturer exhibited the light of the now gas, as set free by adding to acetylide of copper dilute chlorhydric acid; and although tho gas was burned—as its excessive proportion of carbon rendered necessary—in only a very small jet, still the intense brilliancy of the light it alforded was decisively apparent.
In his introductory address before the British Association, 1863, the president, Sir William Armstrong, referred to the subject of acetylene. He mentioned the observation of Dr. Odling, to the effect that the new gas may bo produced by mixing carbonic oxide with an equal volume of light carburetted hydrogen, and exposing the mixture in a porcelain tube to an intense heat; and the still more recent observation of Mr. Siemens, who has discovered that this gas is formed in the highly heated regenerators of his furnaces. The lecturer declared that there is now every reason to believe the new gas will become practically available for illuminating purposes.
Artificial Fuel and Gas Material.—Before a meeting (Nov. 19th, 18G3) of members of the Franklin Institute, Phila., Prof. A. L. Fleury exhibited samples of a fuel and gas material, or basis, the invention of Mr. Win. Gerhardt, of that city. A solid material, which is at once fire-proof and porous, is made into bricks, balls, or other desired shape; and these are next mado to imbibe gas tar, coal oil, or other similar hydrocarbon, until saturated, and arc then dried. They can then bo used as fuel, or distilled for illuminating gas. No ash results, and the porosity is retained; so that the masses can be used again in the same manner. This is proposed as a method of securing a fuel freo from sulphur, for the manufacture of steel, iron, glass, etc.; and it is said that it can be made to furnish a fuel cheaper than is coal, at the prices now ruling.
Methods of Gas Manufacture.—In the CvcloP.toia. for 1862 were mentioned certain processes for carburetting more highly lighting