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The fifth contains a celebration of Daphnis, which has stood to all fucceeding ages as the model of paftoral elegies. To deny praife to a performance which fo many thoufands have laboured to imitate, would be to judge with too little deference for the opinion of mankind: yet whoever shall read it with impartiality, will find that most of the images are of the mythological kind, and, therefore, eafily invented; and that there are few fentiments of rational praife or natural lamentation.

In the Silenus he again rifes to the dignity of phi lofophick fentiments and heroic poetry. The addrefs to Varus is eminently beautiful: but fince the compliment paid to Gallus fixes the tranfaction to his own time, the fiction of Silenus seems injudicious; nor has any fufficient reafon yet been found, to juftify his choice of thofe fables that make the fubject of the fong.

The feventh exhibits another conteft of the tuneful fhepherds: and, furely, it is not without some reproach to his inventive power, that of ten pastorals Virgil has written two upon the fame plan. One of the fhepherds now gains an acknowledged victory, but without any apparent fuperiority; and the reader, when he fees the prize adjudged, is not able to discover how it was deferved.

Of the eighth paftoral, fo little is properly the work of Virgil, that he has no claim to other praise or blame than that of a translator.

Of the ninth, it is fcarce poffible to discover the defign or tendency: it is faid, I know not upon. what authority, to have been compofed from fragF 4


ments of other poems; and except a few lines in which the author touches upon his own misfortunes, there is nothing that feems appropriated to any time or place, or of which any other ufe can be difcovered than to fill up the poem.

The first and the tenth paftorals, whatever be determined of the reft, are fufficient to place their author above the reach of rivalry. The complaint of Gallus difappointed in his love, is full of fuch fentiments as difappointed love naturally produces; his wifhes are wild, his refentment is tender, and his purposes are inconftant. In the genuine language of defpair, he fooths himself a-while with the pity that fhall be paid him after his death:

Tamen cantabitis, Arcades, inquit,
Montibus hæc veftris: foli cantare periti
Arcades. O mihi tum quam molliter offa quiefcant,
Vetra meos olim fi fiftula dicat amores!

Yet, O Arcadian swains,

Ye beft artificers of foothing ftrains!

Tune your foft reeds, and teach your rocks my woes,

So fhall my fhade in fweeter reft repose,

O that your birth and business had been mine;
To feed the flock, and prune the fpreading vine!


Difcontented with his prefent condition, and defirous to be any thing but what he is, he wishes himfelf one of the fhepherds. He then catches the idea of rural tranquillity; but foon difcovers how much happier he fhould be in thefe happy regions, with Igoris at his fide:

Hic gelidi fontes, hic mollia prata, Lycori:
Hic nemus; hic ipfo tecum confumerer ævo.
Nunc infanus amor duri me Martis in armis;
Tela inter media, atque adverfos detinet hoftes.
Tu procul a patria (nec fit mihi credere) tantum
Alpinas, ah dura, nives, & frigore Rheni
Me fine fola vides. Ab te ne frigora lædant!
Ah tibi ne teneras glacies fecet afpera plantas!

Here cooling fountains roll thro' flow'ry meads,
Here woods, Lycoris, lift their verdant heads;
Here could I wear my careless life away,
And in thy arms infenfibly decay.
Inftead of that, me frantick love detains
'Mid foes, and dreadful darts, and bloody plains:
While you-and can my foul the tale believe,
Far from your country, lonely wand'ring leave
Me, me your lover, barbarous fugitive!
Seek the rough Alps where fnows eternal shine,
And joyless borders of the frozen Rhine.
Ah! may no cold e'er blast my dearest maid,
Nor pointed ice thy tender feet invade!

Jam neque Hamadryades rurfum, nec carmina nobis
Ipfa placent: ipfæ rurfum concedite fylva.
Non illum noftri poffunt mutare labores ;
Nec fi frigoribus mediis Hebrumque bibamus,
Scithoniafque nives hyemis fubeamus aquofæ :
Nec fi, cum moriens alta liber aret in ulme,
Æthiopum verfemus oves fub fidere Cancri,
Omnia vincit amor ; et nos cedamus amori.



He then turns his thoughts on every fide, in queft of fomething that may folace or amuse him: he proposes happiness to himself, firft in one scene and then in another; and at last finds that nothing will fatisfy:


But now again no more the woodland maids,
Nor paftoral fongs delight-Farewell, ye fhades—
No toils of ours the cruel god can change,
Tho' loft in frozen deferts we should range;

Tho' we fhould drink where chilling Hebrus flows,
Endure bleak winter's blafts, and Thracian flows;
Or on hot India's plains our flocks fhould feed,
Where the parch'd elm declines his fickening head;
Beneath fierce-glowing Cancer's fiery beams,
Far from cool breezes and refreshing ftreams.
Love over all maintains refiftlefs fway,
And let us love's all-conquering power obey.


But notwithstanding the excellence of the tenth paftoral, I cannot forbear to give the preference to the firft, which is equally natural and more diverfified. The complaint of the fhepherd, who faw his old companion at eafe in the fhade, while himfelf was driving his little flock he knew not whither, is fuch as, with variation of circumstances, mifery always utters at the fight of profperity:

Nos patria fines, & dulcia linquimus arva;
Nos patriam fugimus: tu, Tityre, lentus in umbra,
Fermofam refonare doces Amaryllida fylvas.

We leave our country's bounds, our much lov'd plains;
We from our country fly, unhappy fwains!

You, Tit'rus, in the groves at leifure laid,
Teach Amaryllis' name to every fhade. WARTON,

His account of the difficulties of his journey, gives a very tender image of paftoral diftrefs:


En ipfe capellas

Protenus ager ago: hanc etiam vix, Tityre, duco :
Hic inter denfas corylos modo namque gemellos,
Spem gregis, ah! filice in nuda connixa reliquit.

And lo! fad partner of the general care,
Weary and faint I drive my goats afar!
While scarcely this my leading hand sustains,
Tir'd with the way, and recent from her pains;
For 'mid yon tangled hazels as we past,
On the bare flints her hapless twin she caft,
The hopes and promise of my ruin'd fold!


The defcripion of Virgil's happiness in his little farm, combines almost all the images of rural pleafure; and he, therefore, that can read it with indifference, has no sense of pastoral poetry:

Fortunate fenex, ergo tua rura manebunt,

Et tibi magna fatis; quamvis lapis omnia nudus,
Limofoque palus obducat pafcua junco,
Non infueta gravis tentabunt pabula fœtas,
Nec mala vicini pecoris contagia lædent.
Fortunate fenex, his inter flumina nota,
Et fontes facros, frigus captabis opacum.
Hinc tibi, quæ femper vicino ab limite fepes,
Hyblais apibus florem depafta fali&ti,
Sæpe levi fomnum fuadebit inire fufurro.
Hinc altá fub rupe canet frondator ad auras;
Nec tamen interea raucæ, tua cura, palumbes,
Nec gemere aëria ceffabit turtur ab ulmo.

Happy old man! then ftill thy farms reftor'd,
Enough for thee, fhall blefs thy frugal board.
What tho' rough ftones the naked foil o'erfpread,
Or marshy bulrush rear its watʼry head,


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