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into the unknown ocean, where they expected to perish by the violence of the wind, or perhaps to wander for ever in the boundless deep. At laft, in the midst of their despair, they found a small island, where they sheltered themselves, and which the sense of their deliverance difpofed them to call Puerto Santo, or the Holy Haven.

When they returned with an account of this new inland, Henry performed a publick act of thanksgiving, and fent them again with feeds and cattle, and we are told by the Spanish hiftorian, that they fet two rabbits on fhore, which increased fo much in a few years, that they drove away the inhabitants, by destroying their corn and plants, and were fuffered to enjoy the island without oppofition.

In the fecond or third voyage to Puerto Santo (for authors do not agree which), a third captain called Perello, was joined to the two former. As they looked round the island upon the ocean, they faw at a distance fomething which they took for a cloud, till they perceived that it did not change its place. They directed their course towards it, and, in 1419, difcovered another island covered with trees, which they therefore called Madera, or the Isle of Wood.

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Madera was given to Vaz or Zarco, who fet fire to the woods, which are reported by Souza to have burnt for seven years together, and to have been wafted, till want of wood was the greatest inconveniency of the place. But green wood is not very apt to burn, and the heavy rains which fall in these countries must surely have extinguished the conflagration, were it ever fo violent.


There was yet little progrefs made upon the fouthern coaft, and Henry's project was treated as chimerical by many of his countrymen. At last Gilianes, in 1433, paffed the dreadful cape, to which he gave the name of Bajador, and came back to the wonder of the nation.

In two voyages more, made in the two following years, they paffed forty-two leagues farther, and in the latter, two men with horfes being fet on fhore, wandered over the country, and found nineteen men, whom, according to the favage manners of that age, they attacked; the natives having jave-· lins, wounded one of the Portuguese, and received fome wounds from them. At the mouth of a river they found fea-wolves in great numbers, and brought home many of their fkins, which were much efteemed.

Antonio Gonzales, who had been one of the affociates of Gilianes, was fent again, in 1440, to bring back a cargo of the fkins of fea wolves. He was followed in another fhip by Nunno Triftam. They were now of ftrength fufficient to venture upon violence, they therefore landed, and without either right or provocation, made all whom they feized their prifoners, and brought them to Portugal, with great commendations both from the prince and the


Henry now began to pleafe himself with the fuccels of his projects, and as one of his purposes was the converfion of infidels, he thought it neceffary to impart his undertaking to the pope, and to obtain the function of ecclefiaftical authority. To this end Fernando Lopez d'Azevedo was difpatched to Rome, who

who related to the pope and cardinals the great defigns of Henry, and magnified his zeal for the propagation of religion. The pope was pleased with the narrative, and by a formal bull, conferred upon the crown of Portugal all the countries which fhould be discovered as far as India, together with India itself, and granted feveral privileges and indulgences to the churches which Henry had built in his new regions, and to the men engaged in the navigation for discovery. By this bull all other princes were forbidden to encroach upon the conquefts of the Portuguese, on pain of the cenfures incurred by the crime of ufurpation.

The approbation of the pope, the fight of men whose manners and appearance were fo different from those of Europeans, and the hope of gain from golden regions, which has been always the great incentive to hazard and difcovery, now began to operate with full force. The defire of riches, and of dominion, which is yet more pleafing to the fancy, filled the courts of the Portuguese prince with innumerable adventurers from very diftant parts of Europe. Some wanted to be employed in the search after new countries, and fome to be fettled in those which had been already found.

Communities now began to be animated by the spirit of enterprife, and many affociations were formed for the equipment of fhips, and the acquifition of the riches of diftant regions, which perhaps were always fuppofed to be more wealthy, as more remote. Thefe undertakers agreed to pay the prince a fifth part of the profit, fometimes a greater fhare,

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fhare, and fent out the armament at their own expence.

The city of Lagos was the first that carried on this defign by contribution. The inhabitants fitted out fix veffels, under the command of Lucarot, one of the prince's household, and foon after fourteen more were furnished for the fame purpose, under the fame commander; to thofe were added many belonging to private men, fo that in a fhort time twenty-fix fhips put to fea in queft of whatever fortune fhould prefent.

The fhips of Lagos were foon feparated by foul weather, and the reft, taking each its own course, ftopped at different parts of the African coaft, from Cape Blanco to Cape Verd. Some of them, in 1444, anchored at Gomera, one of the Canaries, where they were kindly treated by the inhabitants, who took them into their fervice against the people of the ifle of Palma, with whom they were at war; but the Portuguese at their return to Gomera, not being made fo rich as they expected, fell upon their friends, in contempt of all the laws of hofpitality and ftipulations of alliance, and, making feveral of them prifoners and flaves, fet fail for Lisbon.

The Canaries are fuppofed to have been known, however imperfectly, to the ancients; but in the confufion of the fubfequent ages they were loft and forgotten, till about the year 1340, the Bifcayners found Lucarot, and invading it (for to find a new country and invade it has always been the fame), brought away feventy captives, and fome commodities of the place. Louis de la Cerda, count of Clermont,

Clermont, of the blood royal both of France and Spain, nephew of John de la Cerda, who called himfelf the Prince of Fortune, had once a mind to fettle in those islands, and applying himself first to the king of Arragon, and then to Clement VI. was. by the pope crowned at Avignon, king of the Canaries, on condition that he should reduce them to the true religion; but the prince altered his mind, and went into France to ferve against the English. The kings both of Caftile and Portugal, though they did not oppose the papal grant, yet complained of it, as made without their knowledge, and in contravention of their rights.

The first fettlement in the Canaries was made by John de Betancour, a French gentleman, for whom his kinfman Robin de Braquement, admiral of France, begged them, with the title of King, from Henry the magnificent of Caftile, to whom he had done eminent fervices. John made himfelf mafter of fome of the ifles, but could never conquer the grand Canary; and having fpent all that he had, went back to Europe, leaving his nephew, Maffior de Betancour, to take care of his new dominion. Mafiot had a quarrel with the vicar-general, and was likewife difgufted by the long abfence of his uncle, whom the French king detained in his fervice, and being able to keep his ground no longer, he transferred his rights to Don Henry, in exchange for fome diftricts in the Madera, when he fettled his family.

Don Henry, when he had purchafed those islands, fent thither in 1424 two thousand five hundred foot, and an hundred and twenty horfe; but the army


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