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Cape of Storms. He would have gone forward, but his crew forced him to return. In his way back he met the Vi&tualler, from which he had been parted nine months before ; of the nine men which were in it at the separation, six had been killed by the negroes, and of the three remaining, one died for joy at the light of his friends. Diaz returned to Lisbon in December 1487, and gave an account of his voyage to the king, who ordered the Cape of Storms to be called thenceforward Cabo de Buena E/peranza, or the Cape of Good Hope.
Some time before the expedition of Diaz, the river Zarie and the kingdom of Congo had been discovered by Diego Can, who found a nation of negroes who spoke a language which those that were in his ships could not understand. He landed, and the natives, whom he expected to fly like the other inhabitants of the coast, met them with confidence, and treated them with kindness; but Diego "finding that they could not understand each other, feized some of their chiefs, and carried them to Portugal, leaving some of his own people in their "room to learn the language of Congo.
The negroes were foon pacified, and the Portuguese left to their mercy were well treated; and as they by degrees grew able to make themselves un. derstood, recommended themselves, their nation, and their religion. The king of Portugal sent Diego back in a very short time with the negroes whom he had forced away; and when they were set safe on shore, the king of Congo conceived so much esteem for Diego, that he sent one of those who had returned back again in his fhip to Lisbon, with two young men dispatched as ambassadors, to desire instructors to be sent for the conversion of his kingdom.
The ambasadors were honourably received, and baptised with great pomp, and a feet was immedidiately fitted out for Congo, under the command of Gonsalvo Sorza, who dying in his passage, was fucceeded in authority by his nephew Roderigo.
When they came to land, the king's uncle, who commanded the province, immediately requested to be folemnly initiated into the christian religion, which was granted to him and his young son, on Easter day 1491. The father was named Manuel, and the son Antonio. Soon afterwards the king, queen, and eldest prince, received at the font the names of John, Eleanor, and Alphonso, and a war breaking out, the whole army was admitted to the rites of christianity, and then sent against the enemy. They returned victorious, but soon forgot their faith, and formed a conspiracy to restore paganism; a powerful opposition was raised by infidels and apostates, headed by one of the king's younger sons; and the millionaries had been destroyed had not Alphonfo pleaded for them and for christianity.
The enemies of religion now became the enemies of Alphonso, whom they accused to his father of difloyalty. His mother, queen Eleanor, gained time by one artifice after another, till the king was calmed; he then heard the cause again, declared his son innocent, and punished his accusers with death,
The king died soon after, and the throne was disputed by Alphonso, supported by the christians,
and Aquitimo his brother, followed by the infidels. A battle was fought, Aquitimo was taken and put to death, and christianity was for a time established in Congo ; but the nation has relapsed into its former follies.
Such was the state of the Portuguese navigation, when in 1492, Columbus made the daring and prosperous voyage, which gave a new world to European curiosity and European cruelty. He had offered his proposal, and declared his expectations to king · John of Portugal, who had Nighted him as a fanci. ful and rash projector, that promised what he had not reasonable hopes to perform. Columbus had solicited other princes, and had been repulsed with the same indignity ; at last Isabella of Arragon furnished him with ships, and having found America, he entered the mouth of the Tagus in his return, and fhewed the natives of the new country. When he was admitted to the king's presence, he acted and talked with so much haughtiness, and reflected on the neglect which he had undergone with so much acrimony, that the courtiers who saw their prince insulted, offered to destroy him; but the king, who knew that he deserved the reproaches that had been used, and who now sincerely regretted his incredulity, would suffer no violence to be offered him, but dismissed him with presents and with honours.
The Portuguese and Spaniards became now jealous of each other's claim to countries which neither had yet seen; and the Pope, to whom they appealed, divided the new world between them by a line drawn from north to south, a hundred leagues westward from Cape Verd and the Azores, giving all that lies
west from that line to the Spaniards, and all that lies east to the Portuguese. This was no satisfactory division, for the east and west must meet at last, but that time was then at a great distance.
According to this grant, the Portuguese continued their discoveries eastward, and became masters of much of the coast both of Africa and the Indies; but they seized much more than they could occupy, and while they were under the dominion of Spain, loit the greater part of their Indian territories.
P R E F A C E
P R E G E P T'OR:
A GENERAL PLAN OF EDUCATION.
HE importance of education is a point so
generally understood and confessed, that it would be of little use to attempt any new proof or illustration of its necessity and advantages.
At a time when so many schemes of education have been projected, so many proposals offered to the Publick, so many schools opened for general knowledge, and so many lectures in particular sciences attended; at a time when mankind seems intent rather upon familiarising than enlarging the several arts; and every age, sex and profession, is invited to an acquaintance with those studies, which were formerly supposed accessible only to such as had devoted themselves to literary leisure, and dedicated their powers to philosophical enquiries; it seems rather requisite that an apology should be made for any further attempt to smooth a path so VOL, IX,