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CHAP. XXVII. Of the Sacraments.
ACRAMENTS are holy signs and seals of the covenant
of grace", inmediately instituted by God, to represent Christ and his benefits, and to confirm our interest in him; as also to put a visible difference between those that belong unto the church and the rest of the world d; and solemnly to engage them to the service of God in Christ, according to his word e.
II. There is in every sacrament a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified ; whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other f.
- I. a Rom.iv. 11. And he received into Christ, have put on Christ. Gal. the sign of circumcision, a seal of the iii. 17. And this I say, that the cove. righteousness of the faith which he nant, that was confirmed before of had, yet being uncircumcised: that God in Christ, the law, which was he might be the father of all them that four hundred and thirty years after, believe, though they be not circumcis- cannot disannul, that it should make ed; that righteousness might be im- the promise of none effect. puted unto them also. Gen. xvii. 7. d Rom. xv. 8. Now I say, that Je. And I will establish my covenant be. sus Christ was a minister of the cirtween me and thee, and thy seed after cumcision for the truth of God, to thee, in their generations, for an ever- confirm the promises made unto the lasting covenant; to be a God unto fathers. Exod. xii. 48. And when a thee, and to thy seed after thee. Ver. Stranger shall sojourn with thee, and 10. (See below in letter f.]
will keep the passover to the Lord, b Matt. xxviii. 19. Go ye therefore, let all his males be circumcised, and and teach all nations, baptizing them then let him come near and keep it ; in the name of the Father, and of the' and he shall be as one that is born in Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 1 Cor. the land : for no uncircumcised person xi. 23. For I have received of the shall eat thereof. Gen. xxxiv. 14. Lord that which also I delivered unto And they said unto them, We cannot you, That the Lord Jesus, the same do this thing, to give our sister to one night in which he was betrayed, took that is uncircumcised; for that were bread,
a reproach unto us. c 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of blessing e Rom. vi. 3. Know ye not, that so which we bless, is it not the commu- many of us as were baptized into Je. nion of the blood of Christ ? the bread sus Christ, were baptized into his which we break, is it not the commu- death? Ver. 4. Therefore we are bunion of the body of Christ? 1 Cor. ried with him by baptism into death : xi. 25. After the same manner also he that like as Christwas raised up from took the cup, when he had supped, say- the dead by the glory of the Father, ing, This cup is the new testament in even so we also should walk in newmy blood: this doye, as oft as ye drink ness of life. 1 Cor. x. 16. (See in letter it, in remembrance of me. Ver. 26. c.] Ver, 21. Ye cannot drink the cup For as often as ye eat this bread, and of the Lord, and the cup of devils; ye drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's cannot be partakers of the Lord's ta. death till he come. * Gal. iii. 27. For ble, and of the table of devils. as many of you as have been baptized II. f Gen. xvii. 10. This is my co
III. The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments, rightly used, is not conferred by any power in them ; neither doth the efficacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that doth administer it, but upon the work of the Spirit, and the word of institution ; which contains, together with a precept authorising the use thereof, a promise of benefit to worthy receivers i.
IV. There be only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord ; neither of which may be dispensed by any but by a minister of the word, lawfully ordained k.
V. The sacraments of the Old Testament, in regard of the spiritual things thereby signified and exhibited, were, for substance, the same with those of the New!, venant, which ye shall keep between tized into one body, whether we be me and you, and thy seed after thee; Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond Every man.child among you shall be or free; and have been all made to circumcised. Matt. xxvi. 27. And he drink into one Spirit. took the cup, and gave thanks, and i Matt. xxvi. 27, 28. See in let. gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of ter f.] Matt. xxviii. 19. See in letit: Ver. 28. For this is my blood of the ter bij Ver. 20. Teaching them to New Testament, which is shed for observe all things whatsoever I have many, for the remission of sins. Tit. commanded you: and, lo, I am wita it. 5. Not by works of righteousness you alway, even unto the end of the which we have done, but according to world. Amen. his mercy, he saved us, by the wash- IV. k Matt. xxviii. 19. Go ye thereing of regeneration, and renewing of fore, and teach all nations, baptizing the Holy Ghost.
them in the name of the Father, and III. g Rom. ii. 28. For he is not a of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Jew, which is one outwardly; neither 1 Cor. xi. 20. When ye come together is that circumcision, which is outward therefore into one place, this is not to in the flesh: Ver. 29. But he is a Jew, eat the Lord's supper. Ver. 23. For I which is one inwardly; and circum- have received of the Lord that which cision is that of the heart, in the spirit, also I delivered unto you, That the and not in the letter, whose praise is Lord Jesus, the same night in which not of men, but of God. 1 Pet. iii. 21. he was betrayed, took bread. 1 Cor. The like figure whereunto, even bap. iv. 1. Let a man so account of us as tism, doth also now save us, (not the of the ministers of Christ, and stewputting away of the filth of the flesh, ards of the mysteries of God. Heb. but the answer of a good conscience v. 4. And no man takesh this honour towards God) by the resurrection of unto himself, but he that is called of Jesus Christ.
God, as was Aaron. b Matt. iii. 11. I indeed baptize you V. 11 Cor. x. 1. Moreover, brewith water unto repentance; but he thren, I would not that ye should be that cometh after me is mightier than ignorant, how that all our fathers were I, whose shoes I am not worthy to under the cloud, and all passed through bear: he shall baptize you with the the sea; Ver. 2. And were all bapti. Holy Ghost, and with fire. 1 Cor. xii. zed unto Moses in the cloud, and in 13. Før by one Spirit are we all bap- the sea ; Ver. 3. And did all ear thie
CHAP. XXVIII. Of Baptism.
dained by Jesus Christa, not only for the solemn admission of the party baptized into the visible church, but also to be unto him a sign and seal of the covenant of grace, of his ingrafting into Christd, of regeneration of remission of sins, and of his giving up unto God, through Jesus Christ, to walk in newness of life 8 : which sacrament is, by Christ's own appointment, to be continued in his church until the end of the world h.
II. The outward element to be used in this sacrament is water, wherewith the party is to be baptized, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, by a minister of the gospel, lawfully called thereunto'.
III. Dipping of the person into the water is not necessame spiritual meat; Ver. 4. And did ness of his death, we shall be also in all drink the same spiritual drink: (for the likeness of his resurrection. they drank of that spiritual Rock that e Tit. iii. 5. Not by works of righfollowed them; and that Rock was teousness which we have done, but Christ.)
according to his mercy he saved us, I. a Matt. xxviii. 19. (See letter k of by the washing of regeneration, and the foregoing Chapter.)
renewing of the Holy Ghost. 61 Cor. xii. 13. For by one Spirit are Mark i. 4. John did baptize in we all baptized into one body, whether the wilderness, and preach the bapwe be Jews or Gentiles, whether we tism of repentance for the remission be bond or free ; and have been all of sins. made to drink into one Spirit.
g Rom. vi. 3. Know ye not,
that c Rom. iv. 11. And he received so many of vere baptized into the sign of circumcision, a seal of the Jesus Christ, were baptized into his righteousness of the faith which he death? Ver. 4. Therefore we are buhad yet being uncircumcised ; that he ried with him by baptism into death, might be the father of all them that that like as Christ was raised up from believe, though they be not circumçi. the dead by the glory of the Father, sed; that righteousness might bé im- even so we also should walk in new. puted unto them also. With Col. ii.
ness of life. 11. In whom also ye are circumcised b Matt. xxviii. 19. (See in letter k, with the circumcision made without foregoing Chapter.) Ver. 20. Teaching hands, in putting off the body of the them to observe all things whatsoever sins of the flesh by the circumcision of I have commanded you: and, lo, I Christ: Ver. 12. Buried with him in am with you alway, even unto the end .baptism, wherein also ye are risen of the world. Amen. with him, through the faith of the II. · Matt. iii. 11. I indeed baptize operation of God, who hath raised you with water unto repentance; but him from the dead.
he that cometh after me is mightier d.Gal. iji, 27. For as many of you as than I, whose shoes I am not worthy have been baptized into Christ, have to bear: he shall baptize you with put on Christ. Rom. vi. 5. For if we the Holy Ghost, and with fire. John have been planted together in the like. i. 33. And I knew him not: but he
sary ; but baptism is rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person k.
IV. Not only those that do actually profess faith in and obedience unto Christ!, but also the infants of one or both believing parents are to be baptized m. that sent me to baptize with water, With Gal. iii. 9. So then they which the same said unto me, Upon whom be of faith are blessed with faithful thou shalt see the Spirit descending, Abraham. Ver. 14. That the blessing and remaining on him, the same is he of Abraham might come on the Genwhich baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. tiles through Jesus Christ; that we Matt. xxviii, 19. [See in letter k, fore- might receive the promise of the Spigoing Chapter.] Ver. 20. [See in let- rit through faith. And Col. ii. 11. In ter h.]
whom also ye are circumcised with the III. k Heb. ix. 10, 19, 20, 21, 22. circumcision made without hands, in Acts ii. 41. Then they that gladly re- putting off the body of the sins of the ceived his word were baptized : and flesh, by the circumcision of Christ : the same day there were added unto Ver. 12. Buried with him in baptism, them about three thousand souls. Acts wherein also ye are risen with him xvi. 33. And he took them the same through the faith of the operation of hour of the night, and washed their God, who hath raised him from the stripes; and was baptized, he and all dead. And Acts ii. 38. Then Peter his, straightway. Mark vii. 4. And said unto them, Repent, and be baptiwhen they come from the market, zed every one of you in the name of except they wash, they eat not. And Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, many other things there be which and ye shall receive the gift of the they have received to hold, as the Holy Ghost. Ver. 39. For the prowashing of cups and pots, brazen ves- mise is unto you, and to your children, sels, and of tables. .
and to all that are afar off, even as IV. I Mark xvi. 15. And he said many as the Lord our God shall call. unto them, Go ye into all the world, And Rom. iv. 11. And he received the and preach the gospel to every crea- sign of circumcision, a seal of the righture. Ver. 16. He that believeth and teousness of the faith which he had yet is baptized shall be saved; but he that being uncircumcised; that he might be believeth not shall be damned. Acts the father of all them that believe, viii. 37. And Philip said, If thou be- though they be not circumcised ; that lievest with all thine heart, thou may- righteousness might be imputed unto est. And he answered and said, I be. them also : Ver. 12. 'And the father lieve that Jesus Christ is the Son of of circumcision to them who are not God. Ver. 38. And he commanded of the circumcision only, but who also the chariot to stand still : and they walk in the steps of that faith of our went down both into the water, both 'father Abraham, which he had, being Philip and the eunuch; and he bap- yet uncircumcised. 1 Cor. vii. 14. For tized him.
the unbelieving husband is sanctified m Gen. xvii. 7. And I will esta- by the wife, and the unbelieving wife blish my covenant between me and is sanctified by the husbaud ; else were thee, and thy seed after thee, in their your children unclean, but now are generations, for an everlasting cove. they holy. Matt. xxviii. 19. Go ye nant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy therefore, and teach all nations, bap. seed after thee. Ver. 9. And God tizing them in the name of the Father, said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. my covenant therefore, thou, and thy Mark x. 13. And :hey brought young seed after thee, in their generations. children to him, that he should touch
V. Although it be a great sin to contemn or neglect this ordinance ", yet grace and salvation are not so inseparably annexed unto it, as that no person can be regenerated or saved without it', or that all that are baptized are undoubtedly regenerated P.
VI. The efficacy of baptism is not tied to that moment of time wherein it is administered 9; yet, notwithstanding, by the right use of this ordinance, the grace promised is not only offered, but really exhibited and conferred by the Holy Ghost, to such (whether of age or infants) as that grace belongeth unto, according to the counsel of God's own will, in his appointed time" • VII. The sacrament of baptism is but once to be administered to any person'. them; and his disciples rebuked those signs which were done. Ver. 23. For I that brought them. Ver. 14. But when perceive that thou art in the gall of bitJesus saw it, he was much displeased, terness, and in the bond of iniquity. and said unto them, Suffer the little VI. 9 John iii. 5. Jesus answered, children to come unto me, and forbid Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except them not: for of such is the kingdom a man be born of water, and of the of God. Ver. 15. Verily, I say unto Spirit, he cannot enter into the king. you, Whosoever shall not receive the dom of God. Ver. 8. The wind blowkingdom of God as a little child, he eth where it listeth, and thou hearest shall not enter therein. Ver. 16. And the sound thereof, but canst not tell he took them up in his arms, put his whence it cometh, and whither it gohands upon them, and blessed them. eth : so is every one that is born of Luke xviii. 15. And they brought unto the Spirit. him also infants, that he would touch Gal. ii. 27. For as many of you as them: but when his disciples saw it, have been baptized into Christ, have they rebuked them.
pue on Christ. Tit. iii. 5. Not by works V. n Luke vii. 30. But the Phari. of righteousness which we have done, sees and lawyers rejected the counsel but according to his mercy he saved of God against themselves, being not us, by the washing of regeneration, baptized of him. With Exod. iv. 24. and renewing of the Holy Ghost. And it came to pass by the way in Eph. v. 25. Hushands, love your the inn, that the Lord met him, and wives, even as Christ also loved the sought to kill him. Ver. 25. Tben church, and gave himself for it ; Ver. Zipporah took a sharp stone, and cut 26. That he might sanctify and cleanse off ihe foreskin of her son, and cast it it with the washing of water by the at his feet, and said, Surely a bloody word. Acts ii. 38. Then Peter said husband art thou to me. Ver. 26. So unto them, Repent, and be baptized he let him go: then she said, A bloody every one of you in the name of Jehusband thou art, because of the cir- sus Christ, for the remission of sins, cumcision.
and ye shall receive the gift of the o Rom. iv. 11. [Sep in letter m.] Holy Ghost. Ver. 41. Then they that Acts x. 2, 4, 22, 31, 45, 47.
gladly received his word were baptip Acts viii. 13. Then Simon him- zed; and the same day there were self believed also: and when he was added unto them about three thou. baptized, he continued with Philip, and sand souls. wondered, beholding the miracles and VII, s Tit. iii. 5. [See in letter r.]