A Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts: pt. I. Mechanics. pt. II. Hydrodynamics. pt. III. Physics

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Taylor and Walton, 1845 - 608 من الصفحات
 

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المحتويات

Equilibrium of mechanical powers Centre of gravity Stability of equilibrium
47
Oblique ropes 53 Inclined plane Wedges 54 Props or shores Screws
56
energy Preservation of energy or of ascending force 60 Effect of a blow
62
effect of machines Experiments 67 Cautions with regard to the construction
70
geometry Statics Passive strength Friction Drawing Outline 71 Pen
81
LECTURE XI
87
Mezzotinto Etching 92 Aqua tinta Musical characters Printing Copying
94
of a labouring man 101 Temporary exertions Horses 102 Wind Water
103
Fracture Strength Resilience 110 Effect of velocity Limit of strength
116
Architecture Form of a column 121 Eddystone lighthouse Wall
122
cathedral Pantheon Orders of architecture Gothic architecture 127 Carpen
131
Kinds of wheels 136 Eccentric wheela Sun and planet wheels
138
Paper
144
On Raising and Removing Weights
156
Screws Cranes Walking wheels 161 Whites crane Weighing cranes Lewis
163
LECTURE XIX
169
Glaziers vice Wire drawing Pottery Glassblowing Percussion Forges
175
Democritus Invention of the arch Archytas and Eudoxus
182
of Syracuse 184 185 Athensus Ctesibius 185 Vitruvius Middle ages
190
On Hydrostatics
195
on the bank of a river Pressure on a concave surface 200 Pressure of different
203
Compressibility of liquids
209
Effect of a short pipe Diverging pipe Experiments of Bernoulli Venturi
220
Changes and flexures of rivers Lateral friction Venturis experiments 225 Ball
227
On Hydraulic Pressure
228
LECTURE XXVI
235
LECTURE XXVII
241
Pitots tube Hydrometric fly Captain Hamiltons hydraulic register Motions
249
Forcing pump Mixed pump Pistons Bramahs press Sucking pump
255
engine Watts improvements 266 Power of Boulton and Watts machines
271
powder Galileo Torricelli Castelli 277 Mariotte Guglielmini Guericke
286
Correction on account of heat 290 Transmission in gases of different kinds
294
On the Nature of Light and Colours
359
tion Dispersion 363 Colours of thin plates Alternate union and extinction
368
LECTURE XL
374
EuSiH0Wlpgi f the nciet9 Erodes Aristotle 374 Archimedes Euclid Ptolemy Alhazen Vitellio R Bacon Janson 375 Galileo
385
LECTURE XLI
387
Ditances of the stars 390 Clusters or nebulae Arrangement of the stars
394
Planets Ecliptics 400 Change of position of the ecliptic Nodes Keplerian
406
ERRATA
409
force of gravity 410 Suns change of place Orbits of the planets Keplerian
412
LECTURE XLIV
425
Longitudes Lunar observations Distance of the sun 431 Transits Densities
433
Sea and land Continents 437 Rivers Elevations Mountains 438 Dif
440
Particular modifications 445 Tides of the channels and of rivers Inferior
450
Arabians Persians Copernicus 45S Tycbo Brahe Kepler
457
logical table
463
On the Essential Properties of Matter
464
repulsion Inertia 470 Gravitation Cause of gravitation Mathematical con
473
by heat 474 Liquidity Superficial cohesion 475 Bubbles Form of the surface
482
Effect of velocity Pictets experiments Heat from combustion 486 Com
494
Vibrations Mechanical effects of vibrations 502 Chemical effects Comparison
506
tric fluid Its attractions and repulsions 508 Conductors and nonconductors
513
Perforation of a jar Direction of the motion Opinions respecting
520
Theory of the pile Efficacy of decomposable substances Electrical machines
528
Magnetical substances 532 Aurora borealis North and South poles Attrac
535
Variation of the declination Line of no declination Dip 530 Artificial mag
542
On Climates and Winds
544
On Aqueous and Igneous Meteors
551
Precipitation Moisture Mediterranean 552 Currents
561
of animals and vegetables 566 Description of a vegetable Germination
567
LECTURE LIX
573
Amphibia Fishes Insects 575 Vermes 576 Senses Nutrition 577 Ner
579
face p 194
594

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الصفحة 283 - I intend in many cases to employ the expansive force of steam to press on the pistons, or whatever may be used instead of them, in the same manner as the pressure of the atmosphere is now employed in common fire-engines.
الصفحة 283 - ... it in a case of wood, or any other materials that transmit heat slowly; secondly, by surrounding it with steam, or other heated bodies; and, thirdly, by suffering neither water nor any other substance colder than the steam to enter or touch it during that time.
الصفحة 279 - ... so that they are strengthened by the force within them, and the one to fill after the other, I have seen the water run, like a constant fountain-stream, forty feet high.
الصفحة 283 - Sixthly, — I intend, in some cases, to apply a degree of cold not capable of reducing the steam to water, but of contracting it considerably, so that the engines shall be worked by the alternate expansion and contraction of the steam. Lastly, — instead of using water to render the piston or other parts of the engines air and steam tight, I employ oils, wax, resinous bodies, fat of animals, quicksilver, and other metals, in their fluid state.
الصفحة 279 - I have seen the water run like a constant fountain stream forty foot high; one vessel of water rarefied by fire driveth up forty of cold water. And a man that tends the work is but to turn two cocks, that, one vessel of water being consumed, another begins to force and re-fill with cold water, and so successively, the fire being tended and kept constant, which the self-same person may likewise abundantly perform in the interim, between the necessity of turning the said cocks.
الصفحة 198 - ... imaginary, in contact with it, is equal to the weight of a column of the fluid, whose base is equal to that particle, and whose height is equal to its depth below the upper surface of the fluid.
الصفحة 282 - ... in common fire-engines, and which I call the steam-vessel, must, during the whole time the engine is at work, be kept as hot as the steam that enters it — first, by enclosing it in a case of wood or any other materials that transmit heat slowly ; secondly, by surrounding it with steam or other heated bodies...
الصفحة 468 - Besides this porosity, there is still room for the supposition, that even the ultimate particles of matter may be permeable to the causes of attractions of various kinds, especially if those causes are immaterial : nor is there anything in the unprejudiced study of physical philosophy that can induce us to...
الصفحة 283 - ... are placed weights, so fitted to them as entirely to fill up a part or portion of their channels, yet rendered capable of moving freely in them by the means hereinafter mentioned or specified. When the steam is admitted in these engines between these weights and the valves, it acts equally...
الصفحة 252 - The air communicates the pressure of the column of water to the preceding portion, and in this manner the effect of nearly all the water in the wheel is united, and becomes capable of supporting the column of water, or of water mixed with air, in the ascending pipe. The air nearest the joint is compressed into a space much smaller than that which it occupied at its entrance, so that...

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