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Though wit and art conspire to move your mind;
But dulness with obscenity must prove
As shameful sure as impotence in love.
In the fat age of pleasure, wealth, and ease
Sprung the rank weed, and thriv'd with large in-

crease :
When love was all an easy monarch's care,
Seldom at council, never in a war;
Jilts ruld the state, and statesmen farces writ;
Nay wits had pensions, and young lords had wit;
The fair sat panting at a courtier's play,
And not a mask went unimprov'd away;
The modest fan was lifted up no more,
And virgins smild at what they blush'd before.
The following license of a foreign reign
Did all the dregs of bold Socinus drain ;
Then unbelieving priests reform’d the nation,
And taught more pleasant methods of salvation ;
Where Heaven's free subjects might their rights

dispute,
Lest God himself should seem too absolute:
Pulpits their sacred satire learn'd to spare,
And vice admir'd to find a flatterer there!
Encourag'd thus, wit's Titans brav'd the skies,
And the press groan’d with licens’d blasphemies.
These monsters, critics ! with

your
darts

engage,
Here point your thunder, and exhaust your rage !
Yet shun their fault, who, scandalously nice,
Will needs mistake an author into vice:
All seems infected that th' infected spy,
As all looks yellow to the jaundic'd eye.

AN ESSAY ON CRITICISM.

PART III.

Rules for the conduct and manners in a critic. Candour.

Modesty. Good breeding. Sincerity and freedom of advice. When one's counsel is to be restrained. Character of an incorrigible poet. And of an impertinent critic. Character of a good critic. The history of criticism, and characters of the best critics; Aristotle, Horace. Diony sius. Petronius. Quintilian. Longinus. Of the decay of Criticism, and its revival. Erasmus. Vida. Boileau. Lord Roscommon, &c. Conclusion.

LEARN then what morals critics ought to show,
For ’tis but half a judge's task to know.
'Tis not enough taste, judgment, learning join;
In all you speak let truth and candour shine;
That not alone what to your sense is due
All may allow, but seek your friendship too.

Be silent always when you doubt your sense,
And speak, though sure, with seeming diffidence;
Some positive persisting fops we know,
Who if once wrong will needs be always so;
But
you

with pleasure own your errors past, And make each day a critique on the last.

'Tis not enough your counsel still be true; Blunt truths more mischief than nice falsehoods do; Men 'must be taught as if you taught them not, And things unknown propos'd as things forgot. Without good-breeding truth is disapprov'd; That only makes superior sense belov'd.

Be niggards of advice on no pretence, For the worst avarice is that of sense. With mean complacence ne'er betray your trust, Nor be so civil as to prove unjust. Fear not the anger of the wise to raise ; Those best can bear reproof who merit praise.

'Twere well might critics still this freedom take, But Appius reddens at each word you speak, And stares tremendous, with a threatening eye, Like some fierce tyrant in old tapestry. Fear most to tax an honourable fool, Whose right it is, uncensur'd, to be dull: Such, without wit, are poets when they please, As without learning they can take degrees. Leave dangerous truths to unsuccessful satires, And flattery to fulsome dedicators ; Whom,when they praise, the world believes no more Than when they promise to give scribbling o'er. 'Tis best sometimes your censure to restrain, And charitably let the dull be vain ; Your silence there is better than your spite, For who can rail so long as they can write? Still humming on their drowsy course they keep, And lash'd so long, like tops, are lash'd asleep.

1 John Dennis: he wrote a play called Appius and Virginia

False steps but help them to renew the race,
As,after stumbling, jades will mend their pace.
What crowds of these, impenitently bold,
In sounds and jingling syllables grown old,
Still run on poets, in a raging vein,
E'en to the dregs and squeezings of the brain,
Strain out the last dull droppings of their sense,
And rhyme with all the rage of impotence!

Such shameless bards we have; and yet 'tis true,
There are as mad abandon'd critics too.
The bookful blockhead ignorantly read,
With loads of learned lumber in his head,
With his own tongue still edifies his ears,
And always listening to himself appears.
All books he reads, and all he reads assails,
From Dryden's Fables down to Durfey's Tales.
With him most authors steal their works, or buy;
Garth did not write his own Dispensary.
Name a new play, and he's the poet's friend;
Nay, show'd his faults—but when would poets

mend? No place so sacred from such fops is barr'd, Nor is Paul's church more safe than Paul's church

yard: Nay, fly to altars ; there they'll talk you dead; For fools rush in where angels fear to tread. Distrustful sense with modest caution speaks, It still looks home, and short excursions makes; But rattling nonsense in full volleys breaks, And never shock’d, and never turn'd aside, Bursts out, resistless, with a thundering tide.

knew.

But where's the man who counsel can bestow, Still pleas’d to teach, and yet not proud to know? Unbiass'd or by favour or by spite; Not dully prepossess'd nor blindly right; Though learn'd, well bred, and though well bred,

sincere; Modestly bold, and humanly severe; Who to a friend his faults can freely show, And gladly praise the merit of a foe; Bless'd with a taste exact, yet unconfind, A knowledge both of books and human kind; Generous converse; a soul exempt from pride; And love to praise, with reason on his side?

Such once were critics ; such the happy few Athens and Rome in better

ages The mighty Stagyrite first left the shore, Spread all his sails, and durst the deeps explore ; He steer'd securely, and discover'd far, Led by the light of the Mæonian star. Poets, a race long unconfin'd and free, Still fond and proud of savage liberty, Receiv'd his laws, and stood convinc'd 'twas fit Who conquer'd nature should preside o'er wit.

Horace still charms with graceful negligence, And without method talks us into sense; Will, like a friend, familiarly convey The truest notions in the easiest way. He who, supreme in judgment as in wit, Might boldly censure as he boldly writ, Yet judg'd with coolness, though he sung with fire; His precepts teach but what his works inspire.

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