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atically pervert all the Affections to means of Epicurean enjoyment, and quietly make, as far as they can, all things terminate in their own “pleasure,” or bodily appetites. This is just as much Sensuality as is that of the openly and lawlessly gluttonous or licentious man.
Well, is it not lawful to enjoy oneself? Certainly it is; but not to make it the main end of life; not to make it the Supreme Good. It is lawful to keep the home comfortable, but not to make comfort the sole end and object of life. For as I have said about Selfishness, so Sensuality, however tempered and modified, is still Sensuality, and both are immoral in any shape.
According to Paley, Selfishness so tempered and guided is the right and only spring of action. According to the principles of Locke, in reference to Pleasure and Pain, Sensuality is so too. But not according to what I conceive both natural and Christian morality to be; the Sensual and the Selfish are as plainly condemned by Nature and in the Scriptures as may be; and therefore I must conclude that no modification of either quality can be moral.
What then is the true course of action here and the true remedy ? --the same that we spoke of in the case of Selfishness do we give in the case “Sensuality.” Make not your home a mere place for the pleasures of Sense, that you there receive, or soon will you cease to love it at all, you will soon become and be Sensual: but love your home and your family for themselves, and permit not Selfishness or Sensuality to come in and to spoil the holiest of all Affections, that of the Family. Let the Home be in your mind for them, for their comforts, for their pleasure, and not for your own; and so will you find in them and in their love a degree of actual pleasure that you never could have found in Self or Sense.
But the completion and perfection of this is to be attained only in the Christian Home,--this alone can completely and entirely put an end in the Family to these two evils. The Family is the natural School to unteach* man these two faults of the Affections ; and only as sanctified and perfected by Christianity, is its function to this effect complete.
Having thus discussed the faults of the Affections that come upon man's heart naturally because of his fallen state, we shall in the next chapter consider the “Body.”
* Dedocet uti.--Horace.
The Body-it is not evil-but it is affected, first, by Self will, Selfishness and
Sensuality. Second, by death and disease entering the frame, and by the loss of the Sacrament of Life. Third, by weakness of those mental powers that remain, and by total loss of others.--False imaginations about a future state recounted and reproved, and true ideas in their stead.-Our “body” is not that of brutes, and thereby contemptible, but is to be reverenced; and of this the reason is, that the Word assumed Flesh, was born, lived and died as man -And is now as Man upon the throne of heaven.
It will have been seen in the last chapter that two of the main faults of the Affections arise directly from the “Animal Mind' the one, and from the “body” the other, these feelings taking the place of the Affections, and being substituted for them; and hence Selfishness and Sensuality both come from the animal part of our nature.
The question, then, may arise, “Is not this material organization, therefore, that we call the Body the cause in itself of our Evil ?" We answer, that to make the Body rule and be the main object of our Good, this is to be Carnal or Sensual, and is, as we have shown, the source of multitudinous evil; but the Body in itself, no more than the Spiritual part, is evil. The Body, ruled and governed, is in its proper place, and the Spirit, as ruling and governing, but one is no more evil by its nature than the other.
The inordinacy that comes from Original Sins, and inability to be obedient to the Law of God, run through all parts of man's nature,—“the whole head is sick and the whole heart is faint" and the Body is wounded as the Spiritual part is. But the one is not in its nature wholly or essentially evił any more than the other. The Body with its powers is in nature good, but fallen, just as the whole man is; nay, there is not a function, or a desire, or appetite, or instinct of the Body that is not in itself good, when it is guided and governed by the Law of God. This is the decision of the Ancient Church against the Manichæans, a decision worthy to be brought up again and again, and impressed and urged upon all men as one of the primal truths of a real Christian Science.
And this being laid down, the question then will arise, “What, then, is the Body in quality, and what is its condition and nature ?" The answer to this is, good still, but fallen,—this its condition. How it is good we shall afterwards determine-but how it is fallen is answered in two ways; first, as concerning its desires, which are “Uncontrolled,” “Selfish,” “Sensual,”-which may be seen also to be the resolution of that true Ethical Philosopher, St. James, when he declares that “this wisdom,"* that of the Flesh, is “earthly," "sensual," "devilish”--three epithets that most distinctly are identical with Uncontrolled (devilish,--rebellious, that is against the Law of God,) Selfish, that is, “Earthly” and Sensual. Hereby, then, do we count that the mere “ Animal Nature" is perverted itself, and perverts and destroys the Heart, and through it the whole man.
This we count to be upon the Animal Nature of man one great injury wrought by “ Original Sin," and the three elements of that onet injury are called in the Scriptures by the name of the Will, or Lust of the Flesh; and are, in the estimate of the Scriptures and of the Ancient Church, the chief bringer in and leader into sin. And indeed, this embracing these three, shall be what St. Augustine calls the “fuel of Sin." I
This, as we have said, is the first way in which the body is injured by “Original Sin."
Again : manifestly man was originally an immortal being. God made him not imperfect, but perfect in all his parts. And existing as he did in Time and Space, and the particles of his frame being in a perpetual flow, it must necessarily be that this immortality of his should be an immortality of supply, a power in his frame of supply commensurate with decay, of restorative power, both internally and externally, equal to repair all possible deterioration of particles.
And accordingly we find that even now, in the very nature and being of man, there are what the physicians call the “Forces Medicatrices de la Nature," the “Medicinal powers of Nature
* I take it that this “wisdom" or "philosophy" is an Epicurean worldly wisdom, that makes interest and self-gratification its Highest Good. · † “ Self-love,” “Selfishness,'
” “ Sensuality,” together, are the constituent parts of what St. Augustine calls “Concupiscence,” or “Evil Desire.”
" Concupiscentia est fomes peccati.” “Concupiscence is the fuel of Sin." --St. Augustine.
Herself;" by which self-restorative power, in fact, all diseases are cured, the effect of what we call “medicine” being only to remove obstacles in their way, while these cure. So that the human frame is a self-repairing machine, a self-healing animal organization. And this consideration led one of the greatest minds* of this century at once to pronounce the fact of the original immortality of man; for a self-repairing machine, if its repairs are or can be equal to its decays, is or can be an always lasting machine.
And again ; by the Holy Scriptures we find that there was to man externally the means of a perpetual supply in the “Tree of Life” in the centre of the garden, the fruit of which seems to have been, as it were, the Sacrament of Life, a perpetual means whereby from without him a constant and adequate supply was given to the lamp of immortality that burned in his undying Body, the food of life, and appropriate nutriment to the immortal organization. So that as to the Spiritual part there was that Supernatural Gift that we have specified; in like manner, also, unto the immortal frame there was the corresponding external supernatural supply of immortality. Andt the true difference between man es he was originally in reference to life, and the post-Resurrection man is this--that the first man was able not to die, and man as raised shall be not able to die.
Upon the “Body," then, another effect of Original Sin is this : “Sin entered into the world, and Death by Sin," and “Death has passed upon all, inasmuch as all have sinned."
But over and above this, or perhaps in consequence of this, it seems that the “ Animal Mind,” or, as others call it, the “Understanding,” – the “Mental Power," that is, which deals with the things of Sense, the objects of the Visible World has been injured.
And this, we can see, has taken place in a two-fold way: the first by a superinduced imperfection in the action of its faculties ; and the second, by an actual diminution of them in number. These two mental injuries we shall now proceed to examine.
When we look at the possession of mental powers, we feel in ourselves the sense of imperfection, both in the comparison of some men's powers, with others naturally, and also as to the effect of cultivation. There seems, as regards mental power, to be about as much difference between a rude European peasant and an American citizen, with an ordinary education, almost as between a beast and a man.
* Napoleon Bonaparte.
† This distinction is St. Augustine's.
The effect manifestly this is of Education entirely and completely. For the whole of the Institutions of Society in this country, and the whole of its influences, are Educational; so that in fact to him who truly contemplates the Republic in this point of view, it is fully manifest that that saying of the ancient Greek philosopher* is, in effect, entirely correct; “that a True Republic is truly a School.” And the more perfect the Republic becomes in spirit and action, the more perfectly all its institutions must have an Educational effect.
Again; over and above this difference between one man and another, as to mental culture, each one who lives has the internal feeling of weakness and effort in all his mental exertions. It seems as if there was a feeling that inability, weakness, deficiency, were inherent in the mental powers of every man.
There is no one that I have ever met that has not, in a measure, acknowledged this; has not had before his mind constantly an ideal, or mental image, or model of his own powers of mind, to which, if he could reach, his mind would be perfect; and after or towards which it is his constant struggle to labor.
And this internal feeling is met and nourished externally by two facts: the first, the fact of Instinct, that animals do, without effort, almost unconsciously, and with unerring precision, things that we do laboriously, strugglingly, and feebly. This seems to cherish in us the feeling that, if perfect, then without labor, or struggle, perfect, complete, and almost unconscious, though still voluntary, would be the action of our mental powers.
The second fact that responds to and cherishes that sensation of mental imperfection and weakness in all men is, that now and then some powers reach, in individual men, almost, if not altogether, to that degree of effortless and perfect action that we attribute to them naturally. Mozart had the sense and power of music so strong, that, as an infant, he beat time to the carillons or chimes from a neighboring church. Zisca, the chieftain of the Hussites, had such a perfect sense of locality, that the whole country of Bohemia was so mapped out in his brain, that when he