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of course ascribed by Mr Janson to republican liberty and equality.'. We need scarcely remark, that such manners arise naturally out of the circumstances peculiar to those provinces, extensive tracts of land, a thin population, and the want of great towns. The only feature in the New Englanders' character which cannot altogether be deduced from those circumstances, is the impertinent curiosity, of which so many pleasing instances have been recorded. But this, like the other peculiarities, has as little connexion with republicanism as with monarchy.
* An English farmer, in the north especially, when asked the price of his grain, will answer with modeft diffidence ; nay, will often be abashed at the attempt to undervalue the article. In America, the meanett planter must go through his routine of interrogatories, and perhaps mount his political hobby-horse, before you receive an answer to your question. Should you happen to observe that you can purchase for less than he demands, he will give you the lie, accompanied with a grin and an oath, and tell you to go where you can obtain it cheaper.
. With the other fex, whose curiosity is generally admitted in other countries to be by no means inferior to that of the men, you may naturally expect to fare po better. This I likewise found by manifold ex. perience. One instance, which occurred during the excursion described in this chapter, shall here suffice. Seeing a pleasant little cottage on the river Connecticut, and understanding that it was to be let, I knocked at the door, which was opened by a woman, of whom I inquired the rent of the house. And where are you from?'--was the reply.---- Pray madam,' I again asked,is this house to be let? ' Be you from New York or Boston ?' said the inquisitive dame. The place was situated about half-way between those two towns. Impatient at this mode of reply
- I'll thank you, Madam,' I repeated, to acquaint me with the price demanded for this little place? ' Pray what may you be?' rejoined she, as if fully determined not to satisfy my inquiry till I had gratis fied her curiosity. I was not less resolute than herself, and turned my back in disgust.
• Among the females, a stranger may soon discover the pertness of republican principles. Divested, from that cause, of the blushing modefty of the country girls of Europe, they will answer a familiar queftion from the other sex with the confidence of a French mademoiselle. I would not, however, be understood to question their chastity, of which they have as large a portion as Europeans ; my object is merely to show the force of habit, and the result of education.
• The arrogance of domestics in this land of republican liberty and equality, is particularly calculated to excite the aftonishment of strangers. To call persons of this description servants, or to speak of their master or mistress, is a grievous affront. Having called one day at the house of a gentleman of my acquaintance, on knocking at the door, it was opened by a servant-maid, whom I had never before seen, as she had not been long in his family. The following is the dialogue, word for word, which took place on this occasion :--. Is your master at home?' - I have no master. '- Don't you live here. '- I stay here.'- And who are you then?'- Why, I am Mr — 's help. I'd have you to know, man, that I am no farvant ; none but negers are farvants."
• I have frequently heard of an amusement in New England, and para ticularly in the state of Connecticut, called bundling. It is described as being resorted to by lovers. The young couple retire to bed, with their clothes on, and there the lover tells his soft tale. One author says, that “ bundling has not its origin in New England, as supposed. It has been pra&tised time immemorial in Wales, and is also a general practice in the Ine of Portland. I was informed that servant-girls in Connecticut demand liberty to do so on hiring-they receive their gallants in the night in bed, with their petticoats tied to their ancles. In Holland, too, this is pra&ised amongst the peasants, who call it queefling.”
. : The XI. Chapter contains some' curious, but perfectly wellknown particulars of the degree in which toleration exists in the United States, and some anecdotes relating to certain fects which are less known, but not worth attending to. We extract the following instance of toleration with peculiar pleasure.
• In all the other states, Maryland excepted, the principal merchants and men of property are chiefly of the church of England. The Ro. man Catholics are the moft moderate and orderly of the other fects. They have handsome churches in New York and Philadelphia. Ac Baltimore, a metropolitan cathedral is building, on an extensive scale, under the patronage and protection of Bishop Clegget, a man of good sense and erudition, who governs the Catholic church throughout the United States with much propriety. To provide funds, he prevailed upon the government to grant a lottery, in which the Bishop drew the highest prize, and magnanimously appropriated it to the use of the church ; affording a brilliant example to the other dignified clergy to “ go and do likewife.”, p. 102.
This chapter on Religious Sects is followed by a great deal of bad biography; but there is something pleasant in the frankness of the confession which our author makes of his motive for introducing it. " The avidity,' he says, 'with which the particulars of the lives of conspicuous characters are in general perused by the public, has induced me to devote a portion of my work to the subject of American biography.' This portion, however, contains nothing either new or interesting; and we almost imagine it may proye too much for the avidity above alluded to, insatiable as that is.
During his stay at New York, Mr Janson collected a number of notes on that city ; but, on comparing them with those which he afterwards collected at Philadelphia, he was induced to suppress much of them; because the preference of the latter city in beauty, regularity, architecture and improvement, is so decided;' also, because the former is more visited by the English.' Accordingly he gives us a description, and, what is much better, a neat plan of Philadelphia. It is better, were there no other difference, from the necessary omission of Mr Janson's wit, which his description is tinctured with. We must really let our readers taste a little of this; for it is not fair that they should have none of the bitters, with as many of the sweets as we can gather in the wilderness of weeds now lying spread before us. Mr Janson is angry at the Philadelphians for departing in a slight degree from the founder's original, plan. He says, not only so, but they have even deviated from ihe original names of the streets. They now call Mulberry, Arch. Street. There being no bridge near, I fee nothing waggish in the alteration, if intended for a stroke of wit.'
We must give our readers a little more of Mr Janson, and that for the purpose of shewing, more strikingly than any general defcription can do, what sort of a writer he is; what sort of remarks he makes on men and manners, and how far he is entitled to descant at length, on every occasion, upon the vulgarity of the North Americans, Mr Parkinson and Mr Janson arethe authors who indulge the most in this abuse. We meet with yery little of it in the - Marquis de Chastilleux and the Duc de la Rochefoucault-Liancourt.: We need not say.who those. French travellers were. Mr Parkinson we formerly introduced to our readers. Now for Mr Janson.
In November, in each year, there are horse-races in the capital of America. I happened to arrive just at this time on horseback at George Town, which is about two miles from the race-ground. After an early dinner, served up sooner on the occafion; a great buftle was created by the preparations for the sport. It had been my intention to pass the remainder of the day at the far-famed city, but, stimulated by curiosity, I determined to mingle with the sporting group. Having paid for my dinner, and the refreshment for my horse, I proceeded to the stable. I had delivered my beast to a yellow fellow, M.Laughlin, the landlord's head oftler. This name reminds me of an anecdote of Macklin, the English theatrical Neftor. It is said that his proper name was M‘Laugh., lin, but diffatisfied with the harsh pronunciation, he sunk the uncouth letters, and called himself Macklin. Be that as it may, I went for my horse, to attend the race, and repeatedly urged my dingy oftler to bring him out. I waited long with great patience at the stable-door, and, saw him lead out a number without discovering mine. I again remon. ftrated, and soon 'heard a message delivered to him to saddle the horses, of Mr A. Mr B. Mr C. and so on. He now appeared with the horses according to the recent order, leading them by their bridles. Previous to this, I had saddled my own horse, seeing the hurry of the time; yet I thought it a compliment due to me that the servant should lead him to me. I now spoke in a more angry tone, conceiving myself insulted by neglect. The Indian sourly replied, " I must wait upon the gentlemen,
(that is, the sporting sharpers). “Then,' quoth I, ' a gentleman neglected in his proper turn, I find, mult wait upon you.' I was provoked to knock the varler to the ground. The horses which he led, startled at the sudden iinpulle, ran off, and before the oftler recovered, from the effects of the blow, or the horses were caught, I led oilf my, nag, and leisurely proceeded to the turf.
Here I witneiled a scene perfectly novel. I have been at the races of Newmarket, Eplom, Yorks, in short I have seen, for aught I know to the contrary, one hundred thousand pounds won and lost in a single day, in England. On coming up to an enclosed ground, a' quarter of a dollar was demanded for my admission. Rather than turn back, though no sportsman, I fubmitted. Four-wheeled carriages paid a dol. lar, and half that sum was exacted for the moit miserable fagle: horse chaise. Though the day was raw, cold, and threatening to rain or snow, there were abundance of ladies, decorated as if for a ball. In this year (1803) Congress was summoned very early by Prelident Jefferson, upon the contemplated purchase of Louisiana, and to pass a bill in order to facilitate his election again, as prelident. Many scores of American legislators, who are all allowed fix dollars a day, besides their travelling expenses, went on foot from the capital, above four English miles, ta attend the sport. Nay, it is an indifputable fact, that the houles of Congress adjourned at a very early hour to indulge the members for this purpose. It raived during the course, and thus the law-makers of the country were driven into the booths, and thereby compelled to eat and pay for what was there called a dinner ; while their contemplated meal remained untouched at their respective boarding houses. Economy is the order of the day, in the Jeffersonian adminiftration of that country, and the members pretend to avail themselves of it, even in their personal expenses.' p. 205-210. .
It is Mr Janson's constant failing, to dwell at the greatest Tength upon topics neither peculiar to America, nor illustrated with any remarkable degree of happiness by what is to be found there. He devotes' a long chapter to the history of various theatrical companies, and the adventures of second-rate English performers, who repaired to America in the way of their profesa sion, besides many scattered notices of the same kind in other parts of his book. In like manner, almost all his drawings are of the least interesting kind ; they are chiefly views of public buildings, as if those could be any thing but bad imitations of second-rate structures in the Old World. Such as the prints are, we certainly do not admire them the more for their confused «quatinta execiition.
The' nefarious practices of the land-jobbers, occupy much of his attention, and call downl’all his indignation. There can be no doubt that such impositions as he describes are frequently practised upon the credulity of sanguine persons in England.
But But we do not conceive either that the extent of those frauds is so great, or their criminality so deep as he assumes. Where the staple article of commerce in a country is the uncleared land, extensive speculation in that article will naturally lead to unfair
Specunionem hat are we mahunan arts ; and the eagerness of some persons to buy, will encourage the sellers to take undue advantage of it, and to spread it among others. The chance of such impositions must be greatly augmented, if the purchasers live at a distance from the commodity; and really, if men are so blindly fond of speculating in land, as to buy it without inspection, and, consequently, more or less upon the word of the seller, they have themselves to blame should they now and then be deceived by him. ..
The art of cooking up' land for the market, is described by Mr Janson as being generally practised ; and his statements, we think, prove rather too much'; for he tells us, that a traveller seeing some persons planting a few trees on a rocky soil, and inquiring the purpose of so strange an operation, was immediately informed, that it was in order to cook up the land a little' for the English market. Was the English purchaser to pay half a guinea an acre (the price demanded in this instance) without seeing the land himself, or sending an agent, or employing at least an American friend to look at it? Then he had no reason to complain ; and indeed the trees were so much into the bargain ; for he would have paid the same price though they had not been planted. But, in all probability, he was to send some one who might inspect the ground,--otherwise, indeed, the cookery could serve no purpose ; and then, how comes it to pass that the American land-cook is cunning enough to carry on his trick, and foolish enough all the time to tell the wayfaring people what he is about? Our author's story of the fraud practised by the new administration of the state of Georgia upon the purchasers of its lands, comes to us under circumstances that require us to pause and suspect. He is one of the sufferers by the transaction; and the best of men will often, without knowing it, give the most erroneous statement of his own case. Upon the whole, we have not met with any proof materially detrimental to the general character of the Americans, from the practices of land-jobbers. The tricks of certain traders, even in England, where the extent of commercial dealings has naturally checked such incorrect proceedings, might just as fairly be quoted against our mercantile character. From what has hitherto been substantiated respecting the land-jobbers, and the share taken by some of the governments in their speculations, we are disposed to guess, that the lottery department of our revenue, brings fully as much blame upon our rulers, and is