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ter, the barren and waste tracts which occur in fertile and cul. tivated districts? If this exposition be correct, we shall be at a loss under what head to place the rich pastures which occupy so great a proportion of the whole superficies. An incidental expression in a subsequent passage, would induce us to conclude that these must find a place amongst the waste lands Cows are usually fed near home, on reserved pastures, or on the waste lands of the village. But, without adverting to the injudicious choice of the term selected to indicate lands from which the pea. sant derives so capital a part of his subsistence and profit, our astonishment is extreme, to find them rated at only a sixth of the whole area, whilst the land in tillage is estimated at a third. We should certainly have been disposed to reverse these proportions, in the part of Bengal with which we are familiar: and we find that Mr Grant estimates the pasture land at two fifths, whilst he allots only one fifth for the portion in cultivation,
To the writings of that meritorious servant of the Company, Mr Colebrooke appears to have devoted little attention. We find him once quoted, in a note, and that inaccurately, which we think it right to rectify, in oțder to preclude important miscon, ceptions.
* The standard,? says our author, · for the regulation of rates bas been loft. We learn from Mr James Grant, in his observations on the revenues of Bengal, that the assessment was limited not to exceed, in the whole, a fourth part of the actual gross produce of the soil. The antient method of estimating the resources from the produce is explain. cd in the Ayin Acberi.?
Mr Colebrooke has inadvertently mistated the fact asserted by Mr Grant. That gentleman states one half of the crop to be the general contribution from corn, when paid in kind; but one fourth of the estimated value when paid in specie, which was optional with the cultivator. But as our author thinks the origi, nal standard is now lost, he, of course, conceives that this fact rests on the single authority of Mr Grant. " Yet, in the Ayin Acberi itself, the proportion of a fourth is distinctly stated. In the Muntukheb al Bab, the following passages authenticate the original standard on which the Asul Tumar Jumma was constructed by Rajah Tudor Mull. :
• A new mode of collecting the revenues was also adopted, and nam. ed Buttas; the aggregate quantity of grain produced, in the autumnal and vernal harvests, by the fole influence of the periodical rains, anderwent an equal divifion ; one half rewarding the labour of the husband. man, and the remainder being appropriated by government.?.
'I'he dues of government might also be collected in money, if judg. ed preferable, in the proportion of the fourth of the estimated produce of each Biga.'.
· The same fact is attested by Shah Nuaz Khan, in his biogra. phy of Rajah Tudor Mull.
He exacted the fourth of the produce in money; and in kind di. vided the crop, which was called Buttar.'.
Considerable perplexity will be found also to occur in Mr Colebrooke's manner of considering the subject of Zemindari rights.
• In one point of view, the Zemindars, as descendants of antient independent Rajabs, or as the successors of their descendants, seemed to have been tributary princes. In another light, they appeared to be only officers of government. Perhaps their real character partook of both.' . We know, in point of fact, that none of the considerable Zen mindars of Bengal are descended from independent sovereigns, and that their possessions are comparatively of very recent date. The observation, then, only tends to embarrass the question, by the introduction of an irrelevant supposition. .
It only remains to consider the hints suggested by the enlightened benevolence of Mr Colebrooke, for the amelioration of our Indian dominions. They consist of two propositions : Ist, That the capital employed in agriculture is too small, and injudiciously applied.
* If Bengal had a capital in the hands of enterprizing and intelligent proprietors, who employed it in agriculture, manufactures, and internal commerce, these arts would be improved ; and with more and better productions from the same labour, the situation of the labourers would be less precarious, and more affluent.'
. Let us examine this proposition. A more intelligent cultivation would indisputably raise a greater quantity of produce : But · is it the penury of its produce of which Bengal has to com
plain? In a country where corn does not pay the expense of cultivation, would the production of a still greater quantity augment its value? The produce is now exuberant, and the defects of the agricultural system cannot be demonstrated by the scantiness of the produce, as stated by our author himself. We apprehend, from Mr Colebrooke's statements, corroborated by our own observation, that it is not the produce, but the constant demand, which should be augmented, to alleviate the situation of the husbandmen. But who are the intelligent and enterprizing proprietors, to whose assistance he would have recourse? Would he recommend the rescission of the act of Parliament, which precludes Englishmen from purchasing or farming lands? To rescind an act of the Legislature, which places the character of the British nation ,
• Above all Greek, above all Roman fame?! An act of justice and enlightened policy, without which, we will
venture to affirm, one half of the lands of Bengal would, ere this, have become the property of Englishmen, and the natives, would have been strangers on their own soil. * But perhaps we mistake Mr Colebrooke's idea, and will not pursue this topic further. Should that prove the case, the permanent settlement, by the sale of lands to supply deficiency of revenue, seems to provide for the introduction of more enterprizing, and more affluent proprietors, into the landed system. The purchasers usually, consist of wealthy natives, who have acquired their fortune's by commerce : their habits of industry, their enterprize and their capital, under the encouragement held forth by a permanent asa. sessment, may, it is hoped, be advantageously employed in rural concerns.
The second proposition is the encouragement of agriculture, in facilitating exportation, by lowering the rates of freight, and the duties on Bengal sugar in England. The length to which we have carried our analysis of this important and valuable publicảa'; tion, prevents us from entering on a subject' so much perplexed by jarring interests ; and obliges us to conclude by repeating our warm general approbation of the contents of this work.
ART. III. The Stranger in Ireland; or, à Tour in the Southern
and Western Parts of that Country in the rear 1805. By John Carr, Esq. of the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple ; Author of a Nosthern Summer, or Travels round the Baltic ;
the Stranger in France, &c. &c. W e were gļad to see a tour through Ireland by Mr Carr ; for
though a hasty traveller, and an incorrect writer, we judged, from his former publications, that he had talents for observation, and for lively description. We expected that he would throw new lights upon the state of Ireland; that country, for which, as Lord Chesterfield said, "God has done so much and man sa little.' The union has certainly created a demand for a statistical, economical, moral and political view of Ireland, with a clear explanation of the causes which have, for nearly. three centuries, impeded its progress in civilization; and a statement of such remedies as sound policy and practical humanity suggest for its improvement.'
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S penser, * It is difficult to describe the astonishment with which foreigners learn this act of magnanimity in the British Legislature. Several perfons of distinction in France could not conceal the impression produced by mentioning it
Spenser, who was secretary to one of the lord lieutenants in the , reign of Elizabeth, and Sir John Davies, who was attorney-general and speaker of the House of Commons in Ireland in the reign. of James the I., have left full and able accounts of the state of that country in their times. The Irish were then a nation of wander- i ing fhiepherds, and feudal freebooters. "The English pale extended but to a few counties immediately, round Dublin, all without were excluded from the benefit of the English laws and protection. On the confines of the pale, and in the English marches, a continual warfare was carried on between the natives and the settlers; but in these petty contests there was little of that chivalrous spirit which distinguished our Scottish borderers. Neither in prose or verse could the history of these marauders be toid with grace or dignity: Spenserhowever, gives an entertaining account of their fepts and clans, their Brehon laws, their Boolies, their Cofbeerings, their Ştucas, their long mantles, and their saffron-coloured linen.'
The methods which he proposed for the civilization of the Irith, were the abrogation of the Brehon, and the adoption of the English laws; the dispersing English soldiers and settlers over the country to overawe the rebellious, and to induce the well-disposed to imitate examples of better modes of life : He recommended also the establishing of garrisons and magazines for corn, and the building of villages, and country schools near every parish church for the instruction of the common people.
Sir John Davies, who wrote but a few years after Spenser died, gives a similar account of the country, but adds, in his · Progress through the Wafies and wildeft Parts of the Kingdom,' and in his Hiltory of the settlement in Ulster, an interesting view of the efforts made to accelerate the progress of civilization, and the success with which these judicious attempts were attended. The right claimed by the soldiers, to take at will, from the peasantry, man's meat, and horse's, meat, and even money; the damnable custom (as: Sir John justly styles it) of coin and livery, a custom 'which, established in hell, as it was in Ireland, would have overturned the kingdom of Beelzebub,' was abolished. The pernicious customs of tanistry and gavel-kind, by which the descent of property was rendered uncertain, and its subdivision an encouragement to idleness, were now broken through. The lands were set, and their descent established according to the actual English law. The Brehon laws were altogether abrogated, and something like a rational and equal administration of justice commenced. The number of judges of assize were increased, and they went regular circuits through the kingdom ; ' whereas the circuits, in former times, went but round about the pale, like the circle of the cynosura. about the pole.? Trials by jury were instituted ; but Sir John
obferves, that many of the poor people were very unwilling to be fworn of the juries, left, if they condemned any man, his friends, in revenge, should rob, or burn, or kill them for it; the like mis. chief having happened to divers jurors since the last session holden there.'.
Sir John Davies, who thews himself a true friend to Ireland, made efforts, in this Progress, to inquire into the state of the church lands and benefices; ' but my lords the bishops were not well pleased that laymen should intermeddle with these things, and did ever answer, Let us alone with that business. Take you no care of that.' The churches were miferably out of repair : such as were got up for presentation only thatched ; and, says Sir John, “.the poor vicars that came to our camp were most ragged, ignorant creatures, not worthy the meanest of their livings, though those were many of them but of 40s. per annum.' The non-resi. dence of the protestant bishops was much complained of; and a proverb is quoted, which was frequently in the mouth of one of the greatest of thefe prelates, That an Irish priest is no better than a milch cow.'
Davies, as well as the great Bacon, had sagacity enough to predict, that unless measures of liberal policy were adopted for the government of the country, Ireland civil would become more dangerous than Ireland favage.' What Davies could, he did; and what he could not effect, he suggested. He obtained amnesties for the offences of the rebels who returned to their allegiance'; remiffion of old debts and quit-rents due to the crown : he obliterated, as far as possible, the remembrance of antient feuds and party distinctions; restrained the excesses of the soldiery; and, belides establishing a regular administration of justice, did his utmost to obtain fome education for the poor of the country.
Of the progress of civilization in Ireland after his time, and of the steps by which it was retarded or advanced, we have no distinct view. There have, indeed, appeared voluminous pamphlets, profeffing to treat of the state of that country; but these relate chiefly to party questions. Arthur Young's Tour has been much and deservedly applauded as a faithful and lively picture of that kingdom when he saw it; but that was nearly thirty years ago. Much remains to be learned; and we therefore opened with eagerness a new tour through Ireland, which we hoped would represent to us Ireland as it was, and as it is. But, alas ! we were miserably disappointed. We found Mr Carr's quarto, a book of ftale jefts, and fulsome compliments. All the old stories of bulls and blunders, which, as we are informed, have for years past been regularly brought forward for the recreation of every new lord-lieutenant and his secretary, are here collected for the edification of