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every thing were omitted which is common, both in all foreign countries, and even in our own. He describes the houses and furniture,--the domestic arrangements of all sorts, the economy of the table, &c. exactly as if he were making us acquainted with some newly discovered island in the South Seas. Thus, if the company be very numerous, there is a table on each side the hall, and one at the upper end, leaving the middle open, the whole forming the two long sides, and one short one of an oblong square.' (205.) Every dinner as well as supper begins with soup. While this is taken, the joint which is to succeed (consisting almost uniformly of boiled beef) is removed to the side-table, to be carved by the steward or attendants. The sidetable, in these large halls, is situated in a very considerable recess, at the end opposite the door. When the soup-plates are removed, the beef, thus cut into pieces of no very delicate proportions indeed, is handed round. This is dressed to rags, the more savoury parts having been extracted in the soup.' (206.) After dinner the company rise,' by a sort of tacit consent,' and retire to another room, where they are dispersed about in small knots or parties. Thus circumstanced," he adds, each is served with a cup of coffee, which is taken, on this occasion, with sugar only, without either milk or cream.' (225.) - During summer, the redingote is worn by most persons not of the first rank. This word is evidently borrowed from the English riding-coat.' (243.) Mr Burnett surely cannot mean that redingote is a Polish word, though his notions about the word joli (p. 332.) half incline us to think that such is his opinion.
Where a family lives in public, as it were, and constantly 0. pen to the inspection of a hundred or more dependants and guests, the members of it have, perhaps, little right to complain of seeing themselves in print. Yet we rather think Mr Burnett has transgressed somewhat upon this publicity of his Polish friends. He lived with the Count Zamoyski, we presume in his employment, and secms to have been on familiar and friendly terms with that powerful nobleman and his family. It is therefore a certain violation of propriety, (though, considering the above mentioned circumstance, we admit it is a slight one), to fill part of his book with minute descriptions and characters of the count and his relatives, female as well as male. Every thing, indeed, is well meant and perfectly laudatory ; but were we the Countess Zamoyska, for example, we should not like to be talked of in this manner. “When her soul is up--when her feelings are awake, and in search of objects to keep them in play, she will often go to her instrument; and the obedient strings, responsive to the electric kiss, will proudly rise in full and warbled harmo
пу. niy, or gently sink in dying sounds, which melt and pierce the soul.' And this is only a small part of about five pages to the same effect, devoted to the service of that lady. A long discussion of the question, whether Count Zamoyski should or should not build a new house near the village of Zamoyst, is no doubt extremely interesting in that neighbourhood; but does not, in the same degree, touch the rest of Europe. We much fear that the anecdote (p. 258.) must be put down in the list of those not quite favourable to the persons of whom they are related; though it is clear that our author is by no means aware of this himself. Princess Czartoryska, it seems, 'has amassed a considerable col... lection of curiosities; ' and, among these, the chair of Shakea spere. '- This relic of our revered bard,' says Mr Burnett,
she bought in England for three hundred pounds; ' and she has likewise the chair of Rousseau.
We confess, we are rather provoked at Mr Burnett for filling so much of his book with the details now shortly alluded to, and excluding a variety of recollections which are of general and pera, manent interest. His opportunities were, in some respects, much. more favourable than he seems to think. Though he saw few towns, he lived on a footing of close intimacy with various natives of the highest rank and greatest accomplishments in the country, and might have obtained from them almost as much information as is to be procured, respecting the present state and the late history of Poland. His own observation, too, might have supplied many important blanks in the knowledge which we possess of the condition of the lower orders in that country. We cannot help complaining a little, that his sensés should have been so acute, and his memory so faithful, for all the trifling incidents of halls and rooms and doors,and chairs and tables,-and roast meat and boiled meat,—when subjects of real importance might well have been illustrated by him. However, he has contributed some information, and, such as it is, we thank him for it. Without attempting, what would be quite useless where there are so few materials, to digest this into a regular form, we shall notice those elucidations of the state of the country which chiefly struck us. Mr Burnett landed at Dantzic, and proceeded up the country through Warsaw, he does not exactly say whither ; but we infer. from several circumstances, that he went into the Austrian part of Poland, and that his remarks apply to this and the Prussian, part. He never was in the Russian division, and heard scarcely any thing about it. Respecting Dantzic and Lemburg, he communicates little or no information.
The face of the country over which our author passed, is uninteresting, from its flatness and uniformity. The Vistula, VOL. X. NO. 20. Ff
eight over dec. parcely do the midh e wenty piece
though a fine river, runs so much through bogs and heaths, that it seldom affords any fine views. The following description of the country beyond the plain of Dantzic, he says, is nearly applicable to the whole scenery of Poland. - the traveller sometimes finds himself in an expanse of surface, almost without a house, a tree, or any single object large enough to ate, tract his notice. Soon, however, are descried the skirts of fome vaft forest-fringing the distant horizon ; and on entering it we proceed, for eight or ten miles (more or less) winding with the road through lofty pines, &c. &c. precluded from the fight of all objects but trees and shrubs. Sometimes, in the midst of a forest we meet with a small spot of ground (for example, of ten or twenty acres) cleared and cultivated ; its fides prettily fenced by the green surrounding woods. Sometimes a small lake is found thus situated, its borders ornamented in a similar manner : and these, generally speaking, are the prettiest scenes which Poland furnishes. These forests, in fome places, are fifteen, and even twenty miles, in all directions ; an affertion which will appear the more credible, when I observe, that of an eftate belonging to a certain noble. man, nearly one half is computed to be foreft. Indeed, if we exclude morasses, and the level pasture lands, I should not scruple to affirm, that not more than one half of the country, speaking generally, is clear: ed. After paffing the Viftula, at the place juft mentioned, the surface is considerably open, for a diftance at leaft of thirty or forty miles. But woods no sooner begin to appear, than it is rare the traveller entirely loses fight of them. The view is bounded, in one direction or another, by forest lands. I have proceeded in a fouth-easterly direction through a distance of four or five hundred miles, and this description, with insignificant variations, appears to me ftri&ly applicable.' p. 29–31..
• There are some lakes far more extensive than those just mentioned. The Viftula itself, from the great increase of it: waters in the spring, is expanded, in certain places, into a sort of lake. There are also oc. cation' bogs and impassable moraffes. At very diftant intervals are found plains of some extent, affording rich pasturage. The richest I bave had an opportunity of seeing, are those contiguous to the Viftula, fome of which are periodically overflowed by that river. Such are thofe in the neighbourhood of Warsaw, and which fupply that town *with good butcher's meat. These pasture-lands, in general so thinly fcattered, are said to be more frequent in Lithuania, and particularly in Podolia.' 'p. 32. 33.
The villages are the most wretched that can be imagined. They are thinly scattered, rather along the skirts than in the midst of the forests, and sometimes in the middle of vast bare heaths, where no other object is to be seen as far as the eye can reach. They consist of from ten to fifty miserable huts, rudely constructed of wood, and covered over with straw and turf; and afford so imperfect a shelter, that the inhabitants are glad to stop up the vents during winter, and to be half smothered with
smoke, rather than die of cold. Bad as these villages are, you may travel ten miles, even in the clear part of the country, without seeing one-or, indeed, beholding any human habitation. The small towns are considerably more comfortable ; they consist almost uniformly of a square, with the town-house in the centre. The houses are built of wood, and seldom have more than one story; there is frequently a sort of piazza along the sides of the square, where small wares are exposed to sale. These towris seldom contain 2000 inhabitants, and some of them have only 200 or 300. The larger towns consist of brick houses, for the most part stuccõed or rough-cast, and are generally situated in the neighbourhood of a morass; both for the sake of defence; and the facility of procuring bricks. Nothing, our author says, can be conceived more dismal than the position of such a town, frequently in the midst of an immense plain, without a tree or any other object in sight. Stone quarries are so rare, that it is only in the chief cities we find any houses built of stone. Warsaw is irregularly laid out and constructed; there is no square, no regular streets and scarcely any open spaces. The streets are wretchedly paved ; some of the palaces are large and well built, but they are now almost all deserted, and exhibit an half ruinous appearance, with high grass growing in the courts. The nobles have either sold or deserted them, and live entirely on their estates in the country, or resort in the winter season to the capitals of the powers within whose division their properties lie. Since the partition, the population of Warsaw is supposed to have decreased one half; its inhabitants are now reckoned at 50,000. The suburb of Praga consists chiefly of huts like those already described, with a few houses of a better description.
The common inns are still more wretched, in proportion, than the hovels of the natives. They consist, indeed, chiefly of the stable, where, during the summer, the inhabitants and travellers sleep, almost promiscuously with the cattle. The house genefally enters from one end of the stable, and is described as more filthy than any thing which an inhabitant of this country can picture to himself: The better sort of inniş havë one or two rooms, generally without any other furniture than a chair and a table, with a small couch, on which the traveller may spread his bedo ding. They are almost all kept by Jews; and Mr Burnett-complains of their impositions, and of the general expense of travelling,having paid twenty guineas from Dantzic to Warsaw, about two hundred English miles, for a carriage with three horses, and all other expenses on the road. When the nobles travel,, they endeavour to stop at each other's country-houses, and when obliged to use the inns, they carry almost every accommodation with them. Ff2
osts threere only a pennyover several kors that he
The provisions most easily to be met with are, poultry, eggs, milk and whisky. Prices are said to have been raised more than double since the partition ; and Mr Burnett is certainly right in stating, that the quantity of money in circulation must have greatly augmented during this period. The best butcher's meat costs threepence a pound ;-- formerly, that is sixteen years ago, it used to cost only a penny, or, at most, three halfpence. Count Zamoyski having taken over several English mechanics to settle with him, one of these told our author that he found, after six months trial, he could live for one half the expense which nearly the same style of living cost him in England ; and Mr Burnett asserts, that he might have done it for still less. It is obvious, that, in many essential circumstances, Poland resembles the United States of America. They are both great agricultural countries, abounding in cheap and fertile land, with a population but thinly scattered over woods only begun to be cleared. In both countries we may expect to find rude produce, or articles in the first stages of manufacture sufficiently cheap; but articles of more finished manufacture are only to be procured by importation, and bear a high price accordingly. In both countries, though with very different degrees of rapidity, the population is increasing, the foreign trade augmenting, and the cultivation of the land following the rise of price which all sorts of produce, in consequence of the increased trade and population, undergo, and tending in its turn to check that rise of price. In both countries, the wealthy poprietors residing on, and superintending the management of their estates, and possessing a great superfluity of the necessaries of life, addict themselves to an inelegant and profuse hospitality; with this difference, however, that the very unequal division of property, and the prevalence of political distinctions, fills the palace of the Polish noble with a great crowd of dependants, while the same kind of hospitality is more generally diffused, and exchanged on more equal terms among the American landholders. The most interesting part of the notices contained in Mr Burnett's work refer to the general topics which we have just now run over.
Almost every article of manufacture is imported, and the greater part, are either really, or nominally, English. Our author having occasion to buy a hat at Lemburg, found the name and ticket of a well known London hatter on it, though he perceived plainly that it was of foreign manufacture. The prices of all such articles are, of course, exceedingly high, about one half higher than in London. The names of many even of the most ordinary articles, are evidently foreign, a hat is kapelusz, (pronounced capelloosh), ink atrounent, an ink-stand kalamarz, a can