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First in value for the study of the acts of the United States government is the official record of the proceedings of Congress in The Congressional Globe, containing the Debates and Proceedings (108 vols., 1834-1873). In Thomas H. Benton, Abridgment of the Debates of Congress, from 1789 to 1856 [actually 1850] (16 vols., 1857-1861), is a selection of matter from the record of congressional proceedings, in which the abridging process is not by condensation or summary, but by excerpt, in unchanged form, of what the abridger regarded as most important, especially his own speeches; the latter part of vol. XIV. and the whole of vols. XV. and XVI. belong to the field of this work. The Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States (18 vols., 1828-1887) contains material of importance not to be found elsewhere.

There is a great mass of detail in House Executive Documents, Senate Executive Documents, House Reports, Senate Reports, and other documents of the official series, relating to boundaries, annexations, the Mexican War, etc., which is often very important, and through which the patient reader can find his way with the help of the "Table and Index" named under Bibliographical Aids above. Texts of the various treaties are printed in Treaties and Conventions Concluded between the United States and Other Powers since July 5, 2770" (1889), printed as Senate Executive Documents, 48 Cong., 2 Sess., 47. James H. Richardson, A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1780-1897 (10 vols., 1896-1899), is a convenient collection of the materials indicated by its title. Among unofficial collections the most useful are William MacDonald, Select Documents Illustrative of the History of the United States, 1776-1861 (1898), and Albert Bushnell Hart, American History Told by Contemporaries (4 vols., 1897—1901), of which vols. III. and IV. cover the period of westward extension.


Useful among these are Lyon G. Tyler, Letters and Times of the Tylers (3 vols., 1884-1896); and the manuscript collection in the Texas State Library entitled Diplomatic, Consular, and Domestic Correspondence of the Republic of Texas. There is a general description of the correspondence between the United States and Texas on file at Washington, in Andrew C. McLaughlin, Report on the Diplomatic Archives of the Department of State, 1776-1840 (1904). Here should be mentioned also John C. Calhoun, Works (edited by Richard K. Cralle, 6 vols., 1853-1855); Daniel Webster, Works (6 vols., 1851); Henry Clay, Works, comprising his Life, Correspondence, and Speeches (edited by Calvin Colton, 6 vols., 1857, reprinted with additional matter, 7 vols., 1897); Rufus Choate, Works (with a memoir of his life by S. G. Brown, 2 vols., 1862); Josiah Morrow, Life and Speeches of Thomas Corwin (1896); John Adams Dix, Speeches and Occasional Addresses (2 vols., 1865); Levi Woodbury, Writings, Political, Judicial> and Literary (1852); Diary and Correspondence of Salmon P. Chase (edited by Edward G, Bourne and Frederick W. Moore), in American Historical Association, Annual Report (1902, II.); Mrs. Chapman Coleman, The Life of John J. Crittenden, with Selections from his Correspondence and Speeches (2 vols., 1871); The Correspondence of John C. Calhoun (edited by J. Franklin Jameson), in American Historical Association, Annual Report (1899, II.); Anson Jones, Memoranda and Official Correspondence relating to the Republic of Texas, its History and Annexation (1859); Wendell P. and Francis J. Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805— 1879; the Story of his Life Told by his Children (4 vols., 1885-1889; new ed., 4 vols., 1894), of which vol. III. covers the years 1841-1860; George W. Julian, Life of Joshua R. Giddings (1892).


Among the most valuable of such materials belonging either wholly or in part to the period of this book is the diary of James K. Polk, extending from August 27, 1845, to April 29, 1849. The voluminous original (not yet published) is in possession of the Chicago Historical Society, and a copy made for George Bancroft is in the Lenox Library. Three additional typewritten copies have recently been made, one of which has been used in the preparation of this volume. Other records of contemporaneous experience, and opinion will be found in John Quincy Adams, Memoirs, comprising Portions of his Diary from 1795 to 1848 (edited by Charles Francis Adams, 12 vols., 1874-1877), of which the latter part of vol. X. and the whole of vols. XI. and XII. fall within the field of this book; Thomas H. Benton, Thirty Years' View; or, a History of the Working of the American Government for Thirty Years, from 1820 to 18'50 (2 vols., 1854-1857); Nathan Sargent, Public Men and Events from the Commencement of Mr. Monroe's Administration, in 1817, to the Close of Mr. Fillmore's Administration, in 1853 (2 vols., 1875), of which vol. II. begins with Van Buren's administration; Henry A. Wise, Seven Decades of the Union (1881); Henry Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (3 vols., 1872-1877), which reaches the Tyler administration near the close of vol. I., and the compromise of 1850 about the middle of vol. II. Concerning all these works it should be said that they are of great importance for the period; but, while there is no room, to question the honesty of the writers, allowance must always be made for their point of view.


For a long list of foreign travels in this period, see Albert Bushnell Hart, Slavery and Abolition {American Nation, XVI.), chap. xxii.


Of greatest value for the period among the materials of this class is Niles' National Register (76 vols., 1811-1849),


which reflects in greater or less degree almost every aspect of the national life of the time. There are two volumes for each year, and vol. LX. begins with the issue for March 6, 1841. The files of the National Intelligencer (Washington, 1800-1870), The Enquirer (Richmond, 18041906), the Evening Post (New York, 1746, 1794 —1795, 1801-1906), the New York Tribune (1841-1906), the Courier-Journal (Louisville, 1831-1906), are also very useful. Highly important for the study of industrial, educational, and social conditions, especially in the South, are De Bow's Commercial Review (34 vols., 1846-1864; 8 vols., 18661870) and the Southern Literary Messenger (36 vols., 18341864; revived and three numbers issued in 1890).


Some of the most serviceable of these are George Ticknor Curtis, Life of Daniel Webster (2 vols., 1870); George Ticknor Curtis, Life of James Buchanan (2 vols., 1883); Ivory Chamberlain, Biography of Millard Fillmore (1856); and the following volumes of the American Statesman series: Carl Schurz, Henry Clay (2 vols., 1892); Henry Cabot Lodge, Daniel Webster (1883); Hermann von Hoist, John C. Calhoun (1882); Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, Lewis Cass (1891); Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Hart Benton (1887); Edward M. Shepard, Martin Van Buren (1888); John Torrey Morse, John Quincy Adams (1882); Albert Bushnell Hart, Salmon Portland Chase (1899).


Most important here are The Seventh Census of the United States (supt., J. D. B. De Bow); and Bureau of the U. S. Census (director, S. N. D. North), Bulletin No. 8 (1904), entitled Negroes in the United States; Turner, New West {American Nation, XV.), chaps, v-viii. Especially useful also are the following works by H. H. Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas (2 vols., 1886-1889, II.; History of California (7 vols., 1886-1890), IV.-VL; History of the Northwest Coast (2 vols., 1886), II.; History of Oregon (2 vols., 1886-1888). A good check on Bancroft's work is Theodore H. Hittell, History of California (4 vols., 1886-1897). The most valuable feature of Bancroft's writings is the bibliography: he worked largeley through paid assistants, whose results he appropriated without credit. His methods are described with a considerable degree of frankness in his Literary Industries (Works, XXXIX.), in which he names, with brief appreciations, a number of his helpers and tells of his relations with them. As to the actual authorship of the different volumes of the series, see William Alfred Morris, "The Origin and Authorship of the Bancroft Pacific States Publications," etc., in the Oregon Historical Society, Quarterly, IV., 287-364. Whatever advantages there may have been in the method, the natural outcome of its application to a field so large and so little worked was the production of a mass of historical fact which, while exceedingly valuable in its details, is too often ill digested and ill organized and fails to reflect adequately the deep human significance and scientific importance of the collective life it seeks to describe. Nevertheless, Bancroft was a genuine path-breaker, and his works are indispensable to the investigator. The enormous and rich collection of materials, manuscript and printed, for southwestern history made by him, which contains much that is of special value for the period of this volume, has lately been acquired by the University of California.

The most complete collection of published material for the study of the Anglo-American colonization of Texas is in A Comprehensive History of Texas (edited by Dudley G. Wooten; 2 vols., 1898), pt. ii., chaps, i.-ix., which consist of a series of studies relative to Austin's colony by Guy M. Bryan, made up largely of documents from the papers of Stephen F. Austin, now in the possession of the University of Texas. A good account of another etnpresario settlement is Ethel Zivley Rather, "De Witt's

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