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1st. To prevent too frequent a recurrence of pauses; as,

Her lover sinks—she sheds no ill-timed tear;

Her chief is slain—she fills his fatal post;
Her fellows flee—she checks their base career;

The foe retires—she heads the rallying host. 2d. T) produce a slighter disjunction than would be made by a pause; and thus at once to separate and unite; as,

Would you kill your friend and benefactor? Would you practice hypocrisy and smile in his face, while your conspiracy is ripening?

3d. To break up the current of sound into small portions, which can be easily managed by the speaker, without the abruptness which would result from pausing wherever this relief was needed; and to give ease in speaking; as,

That lame man, by the field tent, is untainted with the crime of blood, and free from any stain of treason.

RULE.

Whenever a preposition is followed by as many as three or four words which depend upon it, the word preceding the preposition will either have suspensive quantity, or else a pause; as,

He is the pride of the whole country.

Most of the rules given above, and especially those respecting the emphatic nominative and contrasted words, are illustrated by the following

EXERCISE.

1. It matters very little what immediate spot y may have been the birth-place of such a man as Washington. No people can claim

no country y can appropriate him. Tbe

EXERCISE ON PAUSES.

43,

boon Cot Providence to the human race his fame is eternity and his dwelling-place creation.

2. Though it was the defeat y of our arms 7 and the disgrace y of our policy 4 I almost bless the convulsion y in which he had his origin. If the heavens thundered and the earth rocked yet, y when the storm passed, how pure was the climate y that it cleared yo how bright y in the brow of the firmament was the planet which it revealed to us!

3. In the production of Washington, it does really appear y as if nature - was endeavoring to improve upon herself y, and that all the virtues of the āncient world y were but so many studies y preparatory to the patriot of the new. Individual instances y no doubt there were splendid exemplifications y of some single qualification. Cæsar was merciful Scipio was continent - Hannibal was patient. But

it was reserved for Washington - to blend them all in one y, and like the lovely master-piece of the Grecian artist to exhibit in one glow of associated beauty the pride of every model and the perfection of every master.

. 4. As a general y he marshaled the peasant y into a reteran 44 and supplied by discipline the absence of experience. As a statesman , he enlarged the policy of the cabinet into the most comprehensive system of general advantage. And such a was the wisdom of his views and the philosophy 01 his counsels y that to the soldier m and the statesman y he almost added y the character of the sage. 5. A conqueror y he was untainted with the crime of blood a revolutionist he was free from

any

stain of treason for aggression commenced the contesty and his country called him to the field. Liberty , unsheathed his sword sity stained 74 victory y returned it.

6. If he had paused herė ~ history might have doubted what station to assign him whether at the head of her citizens, or her soldiers 7 her heroes y jr her pātriots. But the last glorious act y crowns his career and banishes all

neces

nesitation. Who like Washington after having emanci-
pated a hemisphere y resigned its crown 47 and preferred
the retirement of domestic life y to the adoration of a land
he might almost be said to have created ?
7. How shall we rank thee y upon glory's page,

Thou more than soldier 7 and just less than sage !
All thou hast been y reflects less praise yon tbee,
Far less than all thou hast forborne to be.

OBSERVATION TO TEACHERS. In order to form finished readers, it will be necessary, after pupils have thoroughly mastered Part First, for them frequently to review the more important elements of elocution. In Part Second, they should be required to study each reading lesson, and learn the definitions and pronunciation of the words given at the bottom of the pages, before attempting to read. The judgment and taste of the pupils should constantly be called into exercise, by requiring them to determine what principle, or principles, of elocution, each reading lesson is best adapted to illustrato.

KEY

TO THE SOUNDS OF MARKED LETTERS.

åge or āge, åt or åt, årt, åll, båre, åsk; wè or wē, end er ěnd, her; ice or īce, în or în; old or õld, ồn or ón, dở i mùte or mūte, ůp or ůp, füll; this; azure; reä?; agèd.

THE

NATIONAL FOURTH READER.

PART II.

EXERCISES IN READING.

1. SPRING.

TIE

HE old chroniclers' made the year begin in the season of

frosts; and they have launched us upon the cũrient of the months, from the snowy banks of Jănuary. I love better to count time from spring to spring; it seems to me far more cheerful, to reckon the year by blossoms, than by blight.

2. Bernardin de St. Pierre, in his sweet story of Virginia, makes the bloom of the cocoa-tree, or the growth of the banana, a yearly and a loved monitors of the passage of her life. How cold and checrless in the comparison, would be the icy chronology of the North ; So

many years

have I seen the lakes locked, and the foliage die !

3. The budding and blooming of spring, seem to belong prop erly to the opening of the months. It is the season of the quickest expansion of the warmest blood, of the readiest growth; it is the boy-age of the year. The birds sing in chorus in the spring—just as children prattle; the brooks run full—like the overflow of young hearts; the showers drop easily—as young tears flow; and the whole sky is as capricious' as the mind o. a boy.

* Chrón'i clers, historians.- Cửr' rent, a regular flow, or onward movement; progress.-- James H. Bernardin de St. Pierre, the celebrated author of “Paul and Virginia,” lived between 1737 and 1813.-- Banå' na, a tall West India plant, and its fruit, which is valued for food.--• Món' i tor, an adviser.—Chro nol' o gy, the method of computing time, and ascertaining the dates of events.—' Ex pån' sion, spreading cut, like the opening of the leaves of a flower.

4. Between tears and smiles, the year, like the child, struggles into the warmth of life. The old year,--say what the chronologists will lingers upon the věry lap of spring; and is only fairly gone, when the blossoms of April have strewn' their pall3 of glory upon his tomb, and the blue-birds have chanted his requiem.

5. It always seems to me as if an accèss of lifo came with the melting of the winter's snows; and as if every rootlet of grass that lifted its first green blade from the matted debris of the old year's decay, bore my spirit upon it, nearer to the largess? of Heaven.

6. I love to trace the break of spring, step by step : I love even those lõng rain-storms that sap the icy fortresses of the lingering winter,—that melt the snows upon the hills, and swell the mountain-brooks ;—that make the pools heave up their glassy cērements of ice, and húrry down the crashing fragments into the wastes of ocean. I love the gentle thaws that you can trace, day by day, by the stained snow-banks, shrinking from the grass ; and by the gentle drip of the cottage-eaves.

7. I love to search out the sunny slopes by a southern wall, where the reflected sun does double duty to the earth, and where the frail aněm'one, or the faint blush of the ar'bute,lo in the midst of the bleak March atmosphere, will touch your heart, like a hope of Heaven, in a field of graves! Later come those sõft, smoky days, when the patches of winter grain show green under the shelter of leafless woods, and the last snow-drifts, reduced to shrunken skeletons' of ice, lie upon the slope of northern hills, leaking away their life.

8. Then, the grass at your door grows into the color of the

Capricious (ka prish' us), apt to change one's mind often and suddenly ; changeable.— Strewn (strồn), scattered.— * Påll, a covering.--* Requiem (re' kwe em), a song for the dead. -_ Ac cess', increase. Debris (då bré'), ruins; fragments; pieces worn off. —’Lår' gess, bounty; free gift.-_8 Cére' ments, cloths dipped in wax, in which dead bodies were buried; coverings. -- A ném' o ne, the wind-flower.—10 Ar' båte, the strawberry-tree, not the common strawberry.- "Skėl' e tons, frames, or parts of a thing that support the rest; bones without flesh.

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