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into a dish, and between the layers, two or three salted pilchards, which have been soaked for some hours the day before. Cover the whole with a good plain crust. When the pie is taken out of the oven, lift up the side crust with a knife, and empty out all the liquor; then pour in half a pint of scalded cream.

Beef Steak Pie.—Prepare the steaks as in page 44, and when seasoned and rolled with fat in each, put them in a dish with puff paste round the edges; put a little water in the dish, and cover it with a good crust.

Veal Pie.—Take some of the middle, or scrag, of a small neck; season it; and either put to it, or not, a few slices of lean bacon or ham. If it is wanted of a high relish, add mace, Cayenne, and nutmeg, to the salt and pepper; and also forcemeat and eggs: and if you choose, add truffles, morels, mushrooms, sweetbreads cut into small bits, and cock's-combs blanched, if liked. Have a rich gravy ready to pour in after baking. It will be very good without any of the latter additions.

A Rich Veal Pie.—Cut steaks from a neck or breast of veal; season them with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a very little clove in powder. Slice two sweetbreads, and season them in the same manner. Lay a puff paste on the ledge of the dish; then put the meat, yolks of hard eggs, the sweetbreads, and some oysters, up to the top of the dish. Lay over the whole some very thin slices of ham, and fill the dish with water; cover, and when it is taken out of the oven, pour in at the top, through a funnel, a few spoonfuls of good veal gravy, and some cream to fill up; but first boil it up with a tea-spoonful of flour. Truffles, &c. if approved.

Veal (or Chicken) and Parsley Pie.—Cut some slices from the leg or neck of veal; if the leg, from about the knuckle. Season them with salt: scald some parsley that is picked from the stems, and squeeze it dry; cut it a little, and lay it at the bottom of the dish; then put the meat, and so on, in layers. Fill the dish with new milk, but not so high as to touch the crust. Cover it, and when baked, pour out a little of the milk, and put in a pint of good scalded cream. Chicken may be cut up skinned, and made in the same way.

Veal Olive Pie.—Make the olives as directed in page 53; put them round and round in the dish, making the middle highest. Fill it up almost with water, and cover it. Add gravy, cream, and flour.

Calf's Head Pie.— Stew a knuckle of veal till fit for eating with two onions, a few isinglass shavings, a bunch of herbs, a blade of mace, and a few peppercorns, in three pints of water. Keep the broth for the pie. Take off a bit of the meat for the balls, and let the other be eaten, but simmer the bones in the broth till it is very good. Half boil the head, and cut it in square s ; put a layer of ham at the bottom; then some head, first fat then lean, with balls and hard eggs cut in half, and so on till the dish be full; but be particularly careful not to place the pieces close, or the pie will be too solid, and there will be no space for the jelly. The meat must be first pretty well seasoned with


pepper and salt, and a scrape or two of nutmeg. Put a little water and a little gravy into the dish, and cover it with a tolerable thick crust; bake it in a slow oven, and when done, pour into it as much gravy as it can possibly hold, and do not cut it till perfectly cold; in doing which, observe to use a very sharp knife, and first cut out a large bit, going down to the bottom of the dish; and when done thus, thinner slices can be cut: the different colours, and the clear jelly, have a beautiful marbled appearance.

A small pie may be made to eat hot, which with high seasoning, oysters, mushrooms, truffles, morels, &c, has a very good appearance.

The cold pie will keep many days. Slices make a pretty sidedish.

Instead of isinglass, use a calf's foot, or a cow-heel, if the jelly is not likely to be stiff enough.

The pickled tongues of former calves' heads may be put in to vary the colour, instead of, or besides ham.

Excellent Pork Pies, to eat Cold.—Kaise common boiled crust into either a round or oval form, as you choose: have ready the trimming and small bits of pork cut off when the hog is killed; and if these are not enough, take the meat off a sweet bone. Beat it well with a rolling-pin; season with pepper and salt, and keep the fat and lean separate. Put in layers quite close up to the top: lay on the lid: cut the edge smooth round, and pinch it; bake in a slow soaking oven, as the meat is very solid. Directions for raising the crust will be given hereafter. The pork may be put into a common dish, with a very plain crust, and be quite as good. Observe to put no bone or water into pork pie; the outside of the pieces will be hard, unless they are cut small and pressed close.

Mutton Pie.—Cut steaks from a loin or neck of mutton that has hung; beat them, and remove some of the fat. Season with salt, pepper, and a little onion; put a little water at the bottom of the dish, and a little paste at the edge; then cover with a moderately thick paste. Or raise small pies, and breaking each bone in two to shorten it, season, and cover it over, pinching the edge. When they come out, pour into each a spoonful of gravy made of a bit of mutton.

Squab Pie.—Cut apples as for other pies, and lay them in rows with mutton chops: shred onion, and sprinkle it among them, and also some sugar.

Lamb Pie.—Make it of the loin, neck, or breast; the breast of house lamb is one of the most delicate things that can be eaten. It should be very lightly seasoned with pepper and salt; the bone taken out, but not the gristles; and a small quantity of jelly gravy be put in hot; but the pie should not be cut till cold. Put two spoonfuls of water before baking.

Grass lamb makes an excellent pie, and may either be boned or not, but not to bone, it is perhaps the best. Season with only 106 CHICKEN PIE—GREEN GOOSE PIE—DUCK PIE.

pepper and salt; put two spoonfuls of water before baking, and as much gravy when it comes from the oven.

Note.—Meat pies being fat, it is best to let out the gravy on one side, and put in again by a funnel, at the centre, and a little may be added.

Chicken Pie.—Cut up two young fowls; season with white pepper, salt, a little mace, and nutmeg, all in the finest powder; likewise a little Cayenne. Put the chicken, slices of ham, or fresh gammon of bacon, forcemeat balls, and hard eggs, by turns in layers. If it is to be baked in a dish, put a little water; but none if in a raised cnl9t. By the time it returns from the oven, have ready a gravy of knuckle of veal, or a bit of the scrag with some shank-bones of mutton, seasoned with herbs, onion, mace, and white pepper. If it is to be eaten hot, you may add truffles, morels, mushrooms, &c., but not if to be eaten cold. If it is made in a dish, put as much gravy as will fill it; but, in a raised crust, the gravy must be nicely strained, and then put in cold as jelly. To make the jelly clear, you may give it a boi l with the whites of two eggs, after taking away the meat, and then run it through a fine lawn sieve.

Babbits, if young and in flesh, do as well: their legs should be cut short, and the Dreast bones must not go in, but will help to make the gravy.

Green Goose Pie.—Bone two young green geese, of a good size; but first take away every plug, and singe them nicety. Wash them clean ; and season them high with salt, pepper, mace, and allspice. Put one inside the other; and press them as close as you can, drawing the legs inwards. Put a good deal of butter over them, and bake them either with or without crust; if the latter, a cover to the dish must fit close to keep in the steam. It will keep long.

Duck Pie.—Bone a full-grown young duck and a fowl; wash them and season with pepper and salt, and a small proportion of mace and allspice, in the finest powder. Put the fowl within the duck, and in the former a calf's tongue pickled red, boiled very tender and peeled. Press the whole close; the skins of the legs should be drawn inwards, that the body of the fowls may bo quite smooth. If approved, the space between the sides of the crust may be filled with a fine forcemeat made according to the second receipt given for making forcemeat in page 100. Bake it in a slow oven, either in a raised crust, or pie-dish with a thick crust, ornamented.

The large pies in Staffordshire are made as above: but with a goose outwards, then a turkey, a duck next, then a fowl; and either tongue, small birds, or forcemeat in the middle.

Giblet Pie.—After very nicely cleaning goose or duck giblets, stew them with a small quantity of water, onion, black pepper, and a bunch of sweet herbs, till nearly done. Lot them grow cold; and if not enough to fill the dish, lay a beef, veal, or two or three mutton steaks, at bottom. Put the liquor of the stew to bake with the above; and when the pie is baked pour into it a large toacupful of cream. Sliced potatoes added to it eat extremely well,


Pigeon Pie.—Rub the pigeons with pepper and salt, inside and out; in the latter put a little butter, and, if approved, some parsley chopped with the livers, and a little of the same seasoning. Lay a beef steak at the bottom of the dish, and the birds on it; between every two, a hard egg. Put a cup of water in the dish ; and if you have any ham in the house, lay a bit on each pigeon; it is a great improvement to the flavour.

Observe, when ham is cut for gravy or pies, to take the under part rather than the prime.

Season the gizzards, and two joints of the wings, and put them in the centre of the pie; and over them, in a hole made in the crust, three feel nicely cleaned, to show what pie it is.

Partridge Pie in a Dish.—Pick and singe four partridges; cut off the legs at the knee; season with pepper, salt, chopped parsley, thyme, and mushrooms. Lay a veal steak, and a slice of ham at the bottom of the dish; put the partridges in, and half a pint of good broth. Put puff paste on the ledge of the dish, and cover with the same; brush it over with egg, and bake an hour.

Hare Pie, to Eat Cold.—Season the hare after it is cut up; and bake it, with eggs and forcemeat, in a raised crust or dish. When it is to be served, cut off the lid, and cover it with jellygravy, as in page 93.

A French Pie.—Lay a puff paste round on the ledge of the dish, and put in either veal in slices, rabbits, or chickens jointed, with forcemeat balls, sweetbreads cut in pieces, artichoke bottoms, and a few truffles.

Vegetable Pie.—Scald and blanch some broad beans; cut carrots, turnips, artichoke bottoms, mushrooms, peas, onions, lettuce, parsley, celery, or any of them you have; make the whole into a nice stew, with some good veal gravy. Bake a crust over a dish, with a little lining'round the edge, and a cup turned up to keep it from sinking. When baked, open the lid and pour in the stew.

Parsley Pie.—Lay a fowl, or a few bones of the scrag of veal, seasoned, into a dish; scald a colander-full of picked parsley in milk; season it; and add it to the fowl or meat, with a tea-cupful of any sort of good broth, or weak gravy. When it is baked, pour into it a quarter of a pint of cream scalded, with the size of a walnut of butter and a bit of flour. Shake it round, to mix with the gravy already in.

Lettuces, white mustard leaves, or spinach, may be added to the parsley, and scalded before put in.

Turnip Pie.—Season mutton chops with salt and pepper, reserving the end of the neck bones to lay over the turnips, which must be cut into small dice, and put on the steaks.

Put two or three good spoonfuls of milk in. You may add sliced onions. Cover with a crust.

Potatoe Pie.—Skin some potatoes, and cut them into slices; season them; and also some mutton, beef, pork, or veal. Put layers of them and of the meat.

An Herb Pie,—Pick two haudfuls of parsley from the stems,


half the quantity ofSpinach, two lettuces, some mustard and cress, a few leaves of bonds, and white beet leaves ; wash, and boil them a little; then drain, and press out the water; cut them small: mix, and lay them in a dish, sprinkled with some salt. Mix a batter of flour, two eggs well beaten, a pint of cream, and half a pint of milk, and pour it on the herbs; cover with a good crust and bake.

Raised Crust for Meat Pies or Fowls, &C.— Boil water with a little fine lard, an equal quantity of fresh dripping, or of butter, but not much of either. While hot, mix this with as much flour as you will want, making the paste as stiff as you can to be smooth, which you will make it by good kneading and beating it with the rolling-pin. When quite smooth, put a lump into a cloth, or under a pan, to soak till near cold.

Those who have not a good hand at raising crust may do thus: Roll the paste of a proper thickness, and cut out the top and bottom of the pie, then a long piece for the sides. Cement the bottom to the sides with egg, bringing the former rather farther out, and pinching both together; put egg between the edges of the paste, to make it adhere at the sides. Pill your pie, and put on the cover, and pinch it and the side crust together. The same mode of uniting the paste is to be observed if the sides are pressed into a tiny form, in which the paste must be baked, after it shall be filled and covered; but in the latter case the tin should be buttered, and carefully taken off when done enough; and as the form usually makes the sides of a lighter colour than is proper, the paste should be put into the oven again for a quarter of an hour. With a feather, put egg over at first.

PUDDINGS, &c—Observations on making Puddings and Pancakes.—The outside of a boiled pudding often tastes disagreeably, which arises from the sloth not being nicely washed, and kept in a dry place. It should be dipped in boiling water, squeezed dry, and floured when to be used.

If bread, it should be tied loose; if batter, tight over.

The water should boil quick when the pudding is put in; and it should be moved about for a minute, lest the ingredients should not mix.

Batter pudding should be strained through a coarse sieve, when all is mixed. In others the eggs separately.

The pans and basins must be always buttered.

A pan of cold water should be ready and the pudding dipt in as soon as it comes out of the pot, and then it will not adhere to the cloth.

Very good puddings may be made without eggs; but they must have as little milk as will mix, and must boil three or four hours. A few spoonfuls of fresh small beer, or one of yeast, will answer instead of eggs.

Or snow is an excellent substitute for eggs, either in puddings or pancakes. Two large spoonfuls will supply the place of one egg, and the article it is used in will be equally good. This is a master piece of information, especially as snow often falls at the

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